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Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232812


The rapid mutation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants recently, especially through the emerging variants Omicron BA5, BF7, XBB and BQ1, necessitate the development of universal vaccines to provide broad spectrum protection against variants. For the SARS-CoV-2 universal recombinant protein vaccines, an effective approach is necessary to design broad-spectrum antigens and combine them with novel adjuvants that can induce high immunogenicity. In this study, we designed a novel targeted retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) receptor 5'triphosphate double strain RNA (5'PPP dsRNA)-based vaccine adjuvant (named AT149) and combined it with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer recombinant protein (D-O RBD) to immunize mice. The results showed that AT149 activated the P65 NF-κB signaling pathway, which subsequently activated the interferon signal pathway by targeting the RIG-I receptor. The D-O RBD + AT149 and D-O RBD + aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Al) + AT149 groups showed elevated levels of neutralizing antibodies against the authentic Delta variant, and Omicron subvariants, BA1, BA5, and BF7, pseudovirus BQ1.1, and XBB compared with D-O RBD + Al and D-O RBD + Al + CpG7909/Poly (I:C) groups at 14 d after the second immunization, respectively. In addition, D-O RBD + AT149 and D-O RBD + Al + AT149 groups presented higher levels of the T-cell-secreted IFN-γ immune response. Overall, we designed a novel targeted RIG-I receptor 5'PPP dsRNA-based vaccine adjuvant to significantly improve the immunogenicity and broad spectrum of the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic , ABO Blood-Group System , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Front Immunol ; 14: 1107639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261428


Neutralizing antibody (NtAb) levels are key indicators in the development and evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Establishing a unified and reliable WHO International Standard (IS) for NtAb is crucial for the calibration and harmonization of NtAb detection assays. National and other WHO secondary standards are key links in the transfer of IS to working standards but are often overlooked. The Chinese National Standard (NS) and WHO IS were developed by China and WHO in September and December 2020, respectively, the application of which prompted and coordinated sero-detection of vaccine and therapy globally. Currently, a second-generation Chinese NS is urgently required owing to the depletion of stocks and need for calibration to the WHO IS. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) developed two candidate NSs (samples 33 and 66-99) traced to the IS according to the WHO manual for the establishment of national secondary standards through a collaborative study of nine experienced labs. Either NS candidate can reduce the systematic error among different laboratories and the difference between the live virus neutralization (Neut) and pseudovirus neutralization (PsN) methods, ensuring the accuracy and comparability of NtAb test results among multiple labs and methods, especially for samples 66-99. At present, samples 66-99 have been approved as the second-generation NS, which is the first NS calibrated tracing to the IS with 580 (460-740) International Units (IU)/mL and 580 (520-640) IU/mL by Neut and PsN, respectively. The use of standards improves the reliability and comparability of NtAb detection, ensuring the continuity of the use of the IS unitage, which effectively promotes the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in China.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Calibration , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , China , World Health Organization
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000978, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044757


The recent outbreak of betacoronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, has created great challenges in viral diagnosis. The existing methods for nucleic acid detection are of high sensitivity and specificity, but the need for complex sample manipulation and expensive machinery slow down the disease detection. Thus, there is an urgent demand to develop a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic test to aid point-of-care viral detection for disease monitoring. In this study, we developed a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) 12a-based diagnostic method that allows the results to be visualized by the naked eye. We also introduced a rapid sample processing method, and when combined with recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), the sample to result can be achieved in 50 minutes with high sensitivity (1-10 copies per reaction). This accurate and portable detection method holds a great potential for COVID-19 control, especially in areas where specialized equipment is not available.

COVID-19 Testing/methods , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity