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1.
J Virol Methods ; 307: 114564, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878302

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections has led to excess deaths worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against viral spike protein acquired from natural infections or vaccinations contribute to protection against new- and re-infections. Besides neutralization, antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADCP) are also important for viral clearance. However, due to the lack of convenient methods, the ADCC and ADCP responses elicited by viral infections or vaccinations remain to be explored. Here, we developed cell-based assays using target cells stably expressing SARS-CoV-2 spikes and Jurkat-NFAT-CD16a/CD32a effector cells for ADCC/ADCP measurements of monoclonal antibodies and human convalescent COVID-19 plasmas (HCPs). In control samples (n = 190), the specificity was 99.5% (95%CI: 98.4-100%) and 97.4% (95%CI: 95.1-99.6%) for the ADCC and ADCP assays, respectively. Among 87 COVID-19 HCPs, 83 (sensitivity: 95.4%, 95%CI: 91.0-99.8%) and 81 (sensitivity: 93.1%, 95%CI: 87.8-98.4%) showed detectable ADCC (titer range: 7.4-1721.6) and ADCP activities (titer range: 4-523.2). Notably, both ADCC and ADCP antibody titers positively correlated with the nAb titers in HCPs. In summary, we developed new tools for quantitative ADCC and ADCP analysis against SARS-CoV-2, which may facilitate further evaluations of Fc-mediated effector functions in preventing and treating against SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Cell Rep ; 39(8): 110862, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821171

ABSTRACT

The rapidly spreading Omicron variant is highly resistant to vaccines, convalescent sera, and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), highlighting the urgent need for potent therapeutic nAbs. Here, a panel of human nAbs from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) convalescent patients show diverse neutralization against Omicron, of which XMA01 and XMA04 maintain nanomolar affinities and excellent neutralization (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]: ∼20 ng/mL). nAb XMA09 shows weak but unattenuated neutralization against all variants of concern (VOCs) as well as SARS-CoV. Structural analysis reveals that the above three antibodies could synergistically bind to the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of both wild-type and Omicron spikes and defines the critical determinants for nAb-mediated broad neutralizations. Three nAbs confer synergistic neutralization against Omicron, resulting from the inter-antibody interaction between XMA04 and XMA01(or XMA09). Furthermore, the XMA01/XMA04 cocktail provides synergistic protection against Beta and Omicron variant infections in hamsters. In summary, our results provide insights for the rational design of antibody cocktail therapeutics or universal vaccines against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cell Rep ; 38(12): 110558, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797096

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) may alter viral host tropism and affect the activities of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we investigated 153 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) (including Omicron) for their antigenic changes and cross-species tropism in cells expressing 18 ACE2 orthologs. Several RBD mutations strengthened viral infectivity in cells expressing ACE2 orthologs of non-human animals, particularly those less susceptible to the ancestral strain. The mutations surrounding amino acids (aas) 439-448 and aa 484 are more likely to cause neutralization resistance. Strikingly, enhanced cross-species infection potential in the mouse and ferret, instead of the neutralization-escape scores of the mutations, account for the positive correlation with the cumulative prevalence of mutations in humans. These findings present insights for potential drivers of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and provide informative parameters for tracking and forecasting spreading mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Ferrets , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tropism , Viral Envelope Proteins
5.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330043

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection represents limitations due to its high false-negative rate and technical complexity in the COVID-19 pandemic. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody tests are widely spread all over the world presently. However, there is no report on the effectiveness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing methods in China. Here, we gathered 10776 serum samples from close contacts of the SARS-CoV-2 infections in Fujian of China and used two chemiluminescence immunoassays (Wantai bio., Xiamen, China, and Yahuilong bio., Shenzhen, China) and two lateral flow immunoassays (Lizhu bio., Zhuhai, China and Dongfang bio., Zhejiang, China) to perform the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests in China. The results show that the four antibody tests have great diagnostic value for infected or uninfected, especially in the neutralizing antibodies tests, the AUC can reach 0.939 (Wantai bio.) and 0.916 (Yahuilong bio.). Furthermore, we used pseudoviruses and euvirus neutralization assay to validate the effectiveness of these antibody test, the results of pseudoviruses neutralization assay or euvirus neutralization assay shows a considerable correlation with the 4 antibody detection respectively, particularly in euvirus neutralization assay, neutralizing antibodies detected by Wantai bio. or Yahuilong bio., the correlation can get the level of 0.93 or 0.82. The findings of this study demonstrate that the detections of antibodies have profound value in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

6.
Cell reports ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728589

ABSTRACT

Zhang et al. show in vitro cross-species infectivity and neutralization-escape characteristics of 153 SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating VOC/VOI variants. They reveal an association between enhanced cross-species infection potential and the current cumulative prevalence of mutations, which can inform surveillance and forecasting of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315306

ABSTRACT

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the still ravaging COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses’ receptor binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Significantly, both antibodies confer good mutation resistance to the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics, and can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327136

ABSTRACT

The widespread SARS-CoV-2 in humans results in the continuous emergence of new variants. Recently emerged Omicron variant with multiple spike mutations sharply increases the risk of breakthrough infection or reinfection, highlighting the urgent need for new vaccines with broad-spectrum antigenic coverage. Using inter-lineage chimera and mutation patch strategies, we engineered a recombinant monomeric spike variant (STFK1628x), which showed high immunogenicity and mutually complementary antigenicity to its prototypic form (STFK). In hamsters, a bivalent vaccine comprised of STFK and STFK1628x elicited high titers of broad-spectrum antibodies to neutralize all 14 circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron;and fully protected vaccinees from intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenges of either the ancestral strain or immune-evasive Beta variant. Strikingly, the vaccination of hamsters with the bivalent vaccine completely blocked the within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated sentinels, for either the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or Beta variant. Thus, our study provides new insights and antigen candidates for developing next-generation COVID-19 vaccines.

9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e212, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447272

ABSTRACT

Hebei Province was affected by two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak waves during the period 22 January 2020 through 27 February 2020 (wave 1) and 2 January 2021 through 14 February 2021 (wave 2). To evaluate and compare the epidemiological characteristics, containment delay, cluster events and social activity, as well as non-pharmaceutical interventions of the two COVID-19 outbreak waves, we examined real-time update information on all COVID-19-confirmed cases from a publicly available database. Wave 1 was closely linked with the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, whereas wave 2 was triggered, to a certain extent, by the increasing social activities such as weddings, multi-household gatherings and church events during the slack agricultural period. In wave 2, the epidemic spread undetected in the rural areas, and people living in the rural areas had a higher incidence rate than those living in the urban areas (5.3 vs. 22.0 per 1 000 000). Furthermore, Rt was greater than 1 in the early stage of the two outbreak waves, and decreased substantially after massive non-pharmaceutical interventions were implemented. In China's 'new-normal' situation, development of targeted and effective intervention remains key for COVID-19 control in consideration of the potential threat of new coronavirus strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Chi-Square Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Demography , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Travel , Urban Population , Young Adult
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5652, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440473

ABSTRACT

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses' receptor-binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Both antibodies confer good resistance to mutations in the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics. They can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/isolation & purification , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , CHO Cells , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sf9 Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 696664, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365587

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) began to spread in late 2019, laboratories around the world have widely used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to continuously monitor the changes in the viral genes and discovered multiple subtypes or branches evolved from SARS-CoV-2. Recently, several novel SARS-CoV-2 variants have been found to be more transmissible. They may affect the immune response caused by vaccines and natural infections and reduce the sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We analyze the distribution characteristics of prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variants and the frequency of mutant sites based on the data available from GISAID and PANGO by R 4.0.2 and ArcGIS 10.2. Our analysis suggests that B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 are more easily spreading than other variants, and the key mutations of S protein, including N501Y, E484K, and K417N/T, have high mutant frequencies, which may have become the main genotypes for the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(606)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319371

ABSTRACT

Multiple safe and effective vaccines that elicit immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are necessary to respond to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we developed a protein subunit vaccine composed of spike ectodomain protein (StriFK) plus a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH002C). StriFK-FH002C generated substantially higher neutralizing antibody titers in mice, hamsters, and cynomolgus monkeys than those observed in plasma isolated from COVID-19 convalescent individuals. StriFK-FH002C also induced both TH1- and TH2-polarized helper T cell responses in mice. In hamsters, StriFK-FH002C immunization protected animals against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, as shown by the absence of virus-induced weight loss, fewer symptoms of disease, and reduced lung pathology. Vaccination of hamsters with StriFK-FH002C also reduced within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated, cohoused hamsters. In summary, StriFK-FH002C represents an effective, protein subunit-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Theranostics ; 11(13): 6607-6615, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231569

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, can cause life-threatening pneumonia, respiratory failure and even death. Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in primary human target cells and tissues is crucial for developing vaccines and therapeutics. However, given the limited access to clinical samples from COVID-19 patients, there is a pressing need for in vitro/in vivo models to investigate authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human lung cells or tissues with mature structures. The present study was designed to evaluate a humanized mouse model carrying human lung xenografts for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Methods: Human fetal lung tissue surgically grafted under the dorsal skin of SCID mice were assessed for growth and development after 8 weeks. Following SARS-CoV-2 inoculation into the differentiated lung xenografts, viral replication, cell-type tropism and histopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and local cytokine/chemokine expression were determined over a 6-day period. The effect of IFN-α treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection was tested in the lung xenografts. Results: Human lung xenografts expanded and developed mature structures closely resembling normal human lung. SARS-CoV-2 replicated and spread efficiently in the lung xenografts with the epithelial cells as the main target, caused severe lung damage, and induced a robust pro-inflammatory response. IFN-α treatment effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lung xenografts. Conclusions: These data support the human lung xenograft mouse model as a useful and biological relevant tool that should facilitate studies on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 lung infection and the evaluation of potential antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aborted Fetus , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heterografts , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Mice , Mice, SCID , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 136, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164823

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies of the COVID-19 patients have suggested the male bias in outcomes of lung illness. To experimentally demonstrate the epidemiological results, we performed animal studies to infect male and female Syrian hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. Remarkably, high viral titer in nasal washings was detectable in male hamsters who presented symptoms of weight loss, weakness, piloerection, hunched back and abdominal respiration, as well as severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, consolidation, and fibrosis. In contrast with the males, the female hamsters showed much lower shedding viral titers, moderate symptoms, and relatively mild lung pathogenesis. The obvious differences in the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and severity of lung pathogenesis between male and female hamsters provided experimental evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19 are associated with gender.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Male , Mesocricetus
17.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(3):289-291, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1139085

ABSTRACT

The article listed some epidemiology key concepts involved in the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 I COVID-19 11 as well as some examples of epidemiological terminology understanding deviation in reports, news conferences and interviews from the authorities and social media in the period from 21' January 2020 to 14" February. The errors were corrected in the examples and the concept of terminologies were illustrated. The basic epidemiological concepts and the importance of public health should be introduced to the public by the health authorities.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Small Methods ; 5(2): 2001031, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986422

ABSTRACT

The ongoing corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2, which is mediated by the viral spike protein and ACE2 receptor, is an essential target for the development of vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and drugs. Using a mammalian cell expression system, a genetically engineered sensor of fluorescent protein (Gamillus)-fused SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer (STG) to probe the viral entry process is developed. In ACE2-expressing cells, it is found that the STG probe has excellent performance in the live-cell visualization of receptor binding, cellular uptake, and intracellular trafficking of SARS-CoV-2 under virus-free conditions. The new system allows quantitative analyses of the inhibition potentials and detailed influence of COVID-19-convalescent human plasmas, neutralizing antibodies and compounds, providing a versatile tool for high-throughput screening and phenotypic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors. This approach may also be adapted to develop a viral entry visualization system for other viruses.

20.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(1): 100071, 2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978457

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has already become a global pandemic and containing this rapid worldwide transmission is of great challenge. The impacts of temperature and humidity on the COVID-19 transmission rate are still under discussion. Here, we elucidated these relationships by utilizing two unique scenarios, repeated measurement and natural experiment, using the COVID-19 cases reported from January 23 - February 21, 2020, in China. The modeling results revealed that higher temperature was most strongly associated with decreased COVID-19 transmission at a lag time of 8 days. Relative humidity (RH) appeared to have only a slight effect. These findings were verified by assessing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity under the relevant conditions of temperature (4°C-37°C) and RH (> 40%). We concluded that temperature increase made an important, but not determined, contribution to restrain the COVID-19 outbreak in China. It suggests that the emphasis of other effective controlling polices should be strictly implemented to restrain COVID-19 transmission in cold seasons.

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