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1.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(5): 212-220, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834973

ABSTRACT

Objective This study explored the feasibility and effects of a game-based phone application for training health care workers to use personal protective equipment. Method A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. All participants in the experimental group (n = 123) and the control group (n = 125) received 75 minutes of training and were provided with a video and a paper copy of the procedures. Participants in the experimental group used an additional game-based phone application to simulate the procedures. Results Participants in the experimental group practiced a median of 15 times (range, 14-19 times). The learning curve indicated that they needed at least 12 repetitions to master the skill. Score improvements (Z = -2.257, p = .024) in the experimental group were significantly superior to those in the control group, as were the incidences of procedural errors of hand hygiene (χ2 = 4.085, p = .043) and protective clothing (χ2 = 5.394, p = .02). Conclusion The game-based phone application simulation guided participants to practice enough times to master the skill, enhance their skill performance, and reduce the incidence of procedural errors. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(5):212-220.].


Subject(s)
Hand Hygiene , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Single-Blind Method
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335387

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the similar symptoms between COVID-19 and malaria, it’s difficult to identify the differences between them. We firstly report a patient of recurrent COVID-19 and Plasmodium falciparum co-infection. Case presentation She was confirmed with COVID-19 95 days ago. The laboratory tests showed she had high inflammation results. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG was positive, but the IgM was negative. A rapid serum detection for malaria was finished and found with Plasmodium falciparum . The patient received levofloxacin for anti-infection,and Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine was to clear the parasite. A combined of Lopinavir (LPV), Arbidol Hydrochloride Granules (AHG), and Recombinant Human interferon a2b atomization inhalation (IAI) was used to treat COVID-19. Conclusion: Under the pandemic time of COVID-19, it is best to do a combined test for the COVID-19 and other tropical diseases, which could be better for us to early diagnosis and early treatment. To a recurrent COVID-19 patient, we believe that the level of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in convalescent stage is 4 times or more than that in acute stage is a good sign for discharge.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 180, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821577

ABSTRACT

The long-term health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers (HCWs) are largely unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in HCWs in a longitudinal manner. Additionally, we further explored the role of risk perception in the evolution of PTSD over time based on a one-year follow-up study. HCWs were recruited from hospitals in Guangdong, China. Demographic information, the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and the risk perception questionnaire were obtained online at two different time points: May to June 2020 (T1), with 317 eligible responses, and June 2021 (T2), with 403 eligible responses. Seventy-four HCWs participated in the survey at both T1 and T2. The results revealed that (1) the PTSD prevalence rate in the HCWs (cut-off = 33) increased from 10.73% at T1 to 20.84% at T2, and the HCWs reported significantly higher PTSD scores at T2 than at T1 (p < 0.001); (2) risk perception was positively correlated with PTSD (p < 0.001); and (3) PTSD at T1 could significantly positively predict PTSD at T2 (ß = 2.812, p < 0.01), and this longitudinal effect of PTSD at T1 on PTSD at T2 was mediated by risk perception at T2 (coefficient = 0.154, 95% CI = 0.023 to 0.297). Our data provide a snapshot of the worsening of HCWs' PTSD along with the repeated pandemic outbreaks and highlight the important role of risk perception in the development of PTSD symptoms in HCWs over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
4.
Ther Drug Monit ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak has been classified as a pandemic. Since many coronaviruses are heat sensitive, heat inactivation of patient samples at 56 °C prior to testing reduces the risk of transmission. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of heat inactivation of patient blood samples on plasma concentrations of five second-generation antipsychotics and their metabolites. METHODS: Blood samples were collected during routine clinical therapeutic drug monitoring examination between April 3 and 19, 2021. Samples were divided into two groups: group A, non-inactivated raw sample, and group B, inactivated samples. Inactivation was performed by a 30 min incubation at 56 °C. The levels of the five drugs and their metabolites before and after sample heat inactivation were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared. Further, correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were conducted. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the levels of the five drugs and their metabolites (i.e., risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, aripiprazole, dehydroaripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, norquetiapine, clozapine, and norclozapine) in the non-inactivated group A and the inactivated group B (P > 0.05). Each drug's concentration values in inactivated and non-inactivated treatments were correlated (Spearman rs > 0.98; P < 0.001). The results of the non-inactivated treatment methods and samples alone showed good consistency via Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Blood sample heat inactivation had no significant effect on the therapeutic drug monitoring of five second-generation antipsychotics and their metabolites. This inactivated treatment method should be recommended to effectively protect laboratory staff from virus contamination.

5.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805554

ABSTRACT

The key to controlling the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and reducing mortality is highly dependent on the safe and effective use of vaccines for the general population. Current COVID-19 vaccination practices (intramuscular injection of solution-based vaccines) are limited by heavy reliance on medical professionals, poor compliance, and laborious vaccination recording procedures, resulting in a waste of health resources and low vaccination coverage, etc. In this study, we developed a smart mushroom-inspired imprintable and lightly detachable (MILD) microneedle platform for the effective and convenient delivery of multidose COVID-19 vaccines and decentralized vaccine information storage. The mushroom-like structure allows the MILD system to be easily pressed into the skin and detached from the patch base, acting as a "tattoo" to record the vaccine counts in situ without any storage equipment, offering quick accessibility and effortless readout, saving a great deal of valuable time and energy for both patients and health professionals. After loading inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus-based vaccines, MILD system induced a high level of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) in vivo without eliciting systemic toxicity and local damage. Collectively, this smart delivery platform serves as a promising carrier to improve COVID-19 vaccination efficacy through its dual capabilities of vaccine delivery and in situ data storage, thus exhibiting great potential for helping to contain the COVID-19 pandemic or a resurgence.

6.
Clin Immunol ; 239: 109022, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803761

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, when coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was just beginning to spread around the world, we presented the potential benefits and controversies of anti-inflammatory therapy in COVID-19 patients based on the limited experience and proposed some types of anti-inflammatory drugs with potential therapeutic value, while without evidence-based data. In the past one more year, many clinical trials or real-world studies have been performed, either confirm or deny the efficacy of certain anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. In this review we summarize the progress of anti-inflammatory and immune therapy in COVID-19, including glucocorticoids, IL-6 antagonist, IL-1 inhibitor, kinase inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine.

7.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 15(4): 533-540, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798637

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effects of baffle and intraocular pressure (IOP) on the aerosols generated in the noncontact tonometer (NCT) measurement and provide recommendations for the standardized use of the NCT during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This clinical trial included 252 subjects (312 eyes) in The Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University from March 7, 2020, to March 28, 2020. Sixty subjects (120 eyes) with normal IOP were divided into two groups. One group used an NCT without a baffle, another group used an NCT with a baffle. Another 192 subjects (192 eyes) were divided into four groups: Group A1 (without a baffle+normal IOP), Group A2 (without a baffle+high IOP), Group B1 (with a baffle+normal IOP) and Group B2 (with a baffle+high IOP). Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and PM10 generated by all subjects were quantified during the NCT measurement. The IOP values were recorded simultaneously. Effects of baffle and IOP on aerosols generated during the NCT measurement were analyzed. RESULTS: In the normal eye group with a baffle, the aerosol density decreased in a wave-like shape near the NCT with the increase in the number of people measured for IOP, demonstrating no cumulative effect. However, in the normal eye group without a baffle, there was a cumulative effect. PM2.5 and PM10 in Group A2 were higher than Group A1 (both P<0.001). The PM2.5 and PM10 in Group B2 were higher than Group B1 (P<0.01, P<0.001 respectively). The PM10 of Group B1 was lower than Group A1 (P<0.01). PM2.5 in Group B2 were lower than Group A2 (P<0.01). The median of per capita PM2.5 and PM10 in the combined Group A1+A2 were 0.80 and 1.10 µg/m3 respectively, which were higher than 0.20 and 0.60 µg/m3 in the combined Group B1+B2 (both P<0.01). The median of per capita PM2.5 and PM10 in the combined Group A1+B1 were 0.10 and 0.20 µg/m3 respectively, which were lower than 1.30 and 1.70 µg/m3 in the combined Group A2+B2 (both P<0.001). CONCLUSION: More aerosols could be generated in patients with high IOP. After the NCT is equipped with a baffle, per capita aerosol density generated decreased significantly near the NCT; And with the increase in the number of people measured for IOP, the aerosols gradually dissipated near the NCT, demonstrating no cumulative effect. Therefore, it is suggested that the NCT should be equipped with a baffle, especially for patients with high IOP.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; 38(3):601-605, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780132

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the comorbidity of hepatic cystic echinococcosis with HBV/HCV infection, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and to lay a foundation for further research on the influence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis on HBV/HCV infection, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(5): 4911-4932, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776397

ABSTRACT

In this paper, an improved COVID-19 model is given to investigate the influence of treatment and media awareness, and a non-linear saturated treatment function is introduced in the model to lay stress on the limited medical conditions. Equilibrium points and their stability are explored. Basic reproduction number is calculated, and the global stability of the equilibrium point is studied under the given conditions. An object function is introduced to explore the optimal control strategy concerning treatment and media awareness. The existence, characterization and uniqueness of optimal solution are studied. Several numerical simulations are given to verify the analysis results. Finally, discussion on treatment and media awareness is given for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communications Media , Epidemics , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Quarantine
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 754199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775952

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung cancer is the leading source of cancer-caused disability-adjusted life years. Medical cost burden impacts the well-being of patients through reducing income, cutting daily expenses, curtailing leisure activities, and depleting exhausting savings. The COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) was created and validated by De Souza and colleagues. Our study intends to measure the financial burdens of cancer therapy and investigate the link between financial toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in an advanced lung cancer population. Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with confirmed stage III to IV lung cancer were eligible. The COST questionnaire verified by de Souza et al. was used to identify financial toxicity. Multivariable linear regression analysis with log transformation univariate analysis and Pearson correlations were used to perform the analysis. Results: The majority of the patients (90.8%, n = 138/152) had an annual income of $50,000 ($7,775). The cohort's insurance situation was as follows: 64.5% of the cohort had social insurance, 20.4% had commercial insurance, and 22.0% had both. Patients who were younger age (50-59, P < 0.001), employed but on sick leave, and had lower income reported increased levels of financial toxicity (P < 0.05). The risk factors for high financial toxicity: (i) younger age (50-59), (ii) <1 month of savings, and (iii) being employed but on sick leave. Increased financial toxicity is moderately correlated with a decrease in QoL. Conclusion: Poorer psychological status and specific demographics are linked to increased financial toxicity (lower COST). Financial toxicity has a modest relationship with HRQoL and may have a clear link with HRQoL measurements.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Adolescent , China , Cost of Illness , Financial Stress , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Quality of Life
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775856

ABSTRACT

Population aging is a defining demographic reality of our era. It is associated with an increase in the societal burden of delivering care to older adults with chronic conditions or frailty. How to integrate global population aging and technology development to help address the growing demands for care facing many aging societies is both a challenge and an opportunity for innovation. We propose a social technology approach that promotes use of technologies to assist individuals, families, and communities to cope more effectively with the disabilities of older adults who can no longer live independently due to dementia, serious mental illness, and multiple chronic health problems. The main contributions of the social technology approach include: (1) fostering multidisciplinary collaboration among social scientists, engineers, and healthcare experts; (2) including ethical and humanistic standards in creating and evaluating innovations; (3) improving social systems through working with those who deliver, manage, and design older adult care services; (4) promoting social justice through social policy research and innovation, particularly for disadvantaged groups; (5) fostering social integration by creating age-friendly and intergenerational programs; and (6) seeking global benefit by identifying and generalizing best practices. As an emergent, experimental approach, social technology requires systematic evaluation in an iterative process to refine its relevance and uses in different local settings. By linking technological interventions to the social and cultural systems of older people, we aim to help technological advances become an organic part of the complex social world that supports and sustains care delivery to older adults in need.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Frailty , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Quality Improvement
12.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331858

ABSTRACT

Background: Waning of neutralizing titers and decline of protection shorter after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccines was observed, including China-made inactivated vaccines. Efficacy of a heterologous boosting using one dose recombinant SARS-CoV-2 fusion protein vaccine (V-01) in inactivated vaccine-primed population was studied, aimed to restore the immunity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled phase Ⅲ trial was conducted in healthy people aged 18 years or older in Pakistan and Malaysia. Each eligible participant received one dose of V-01 vaccine developed by Livzon Mabpharm Inc . or placebo 3-6 months after the 2-dose primary regimen, and was monitored for safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was protection against confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 10,218 participants were randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were assessed in 419 participants. A dramatical increase (11.3-fold;128.3 to 1452.8) of neutralizing titers was measured in V-01 group at 14 days after the booster. Over the two months surveillance, vaccine efficacy was 47.8% (95%CI: 22.6 to 64.7) according to the intention-to-treat principle. The most common adverse events were transient, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fever, headache, and fatigue. Serious adverse events occurred almost equally in V-01 (0.12%) and placebo (0.16%) groups. Conclusion: The heterologous boosting with V-01 vaccine was safe, efficacious, and could elicit robust humoral immunity under the epidemic of the Omicron variant.

13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 187: 109862, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768028

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To report the national proportions and trends of adult hospitalizations with diabetes in the United States during 2000-2018. METHODS: We used the 2000-2018 National Inpatient Sample to identify hospital discharges with any listed and primary diagnoses for diabetes, based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and ICD-10-CM codes. We calculated proportions and trends of adult hospitalizations with diabetes, overall and by subpopulations. We used the Nationwide Readmissions Database to assess calendar-year and 30-day readmission rates. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of hospitalizations among adults ≥18 years increased from 17.1% to 27.3% (average annual percentage change [AAPC] 2.5%; P < 0.001) for any listed diabetes codes and from 1.5% to 2.1% (AAPC 2.2%; P < 0.001) for primary diagnosis of diabetes. Men, non-Hispanic Black patients, and those from poorer zip codes had higher proportions of hospitalizations with diabetes codes. CONCLUSION: In recent years, approximately one-quarter of adult hospitalizations in the United States had a listed diabetes code, increasing about 2.5% per year from 2000 to 2018. These data are important for benchmarking purposes, especially due to disruptions in health care utilization from the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(8): 1658-1667, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 in 2020 has brought dramatic impacts to the global economy. The resulting health crisis and widespread fear have triggered labor shortage problems such as high job vacancy rate and low labor participation rate. Thus, how to increase the labor supply has become a hotspot among scholars. We aimed to analyze the influences of public medical insurance system on labor health status and supply. METHOD: Using the China Health and Nutrition Survey five-phase panel data, the new rural cooperative medical system was taken as an example to empirically analyze the influences of public medical insurance system on the individual health status and labor supply via the panel Tobit model and panel binary Logit model. The analysis revealed the mediating effect of health status. RESULTS: First, Public medical insurance system could significantly improve individual health status. Second, public medical insurance system will lengthen the labor supply time and elevate the labor supply rate by improving individual health status. Third, the influences of public medical insurance system on labor health status and supply vary with gender and age. CONCLUSION: Public medical insurance system will generate positive influences on labor health status and labor supply. Hence, perfecting the public medical insurance system is able to mitigate the negative impacts of population aging and pandemic on the labor supply.

15.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0262373, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753184

ABSTRACT

Human genetics has been proposed to play an essential role in inter-individual differences in respiratory virus infection occurrence and outcomes. To systematically understand human genetic contributions to respiratory virus infection, we developed the database dbGSRV, a manually curated database that integrated the host genetic susceptibility and severity studies of respiratory viruses scattered over literatures in PubMed. At present, dbGSRV contains 1932 records of genetic association studies relating 1010 unique variants and seven respiratory viruses, manually curated from 168 published articles. Users can access the records by quick searching, batch searching, advanced searching and browsing. Reference information, infection status, population information, mutation information and disease relationship are provided for each record, as well as hyperlinks to public databases in convenient of users accessing more information. In addition, a visual overview of the topological network relationship between respiratory viruses and associated genes is provided. Therefore, dbGSRV offers a convenient resource for researchers to browse and retrieve genetic associations with respiratory viruses, which may inspire future studies and provide new insights in our understanding and treatment of respiratory virus infection. Database URL: http://www.ehbio.com/dbGSRV/front/.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Databases, Factual , Databases, Genetic , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/genetics
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1010-1013, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750052

ABSTRACT

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) was first identified in the USA and has been previously described in several countries. In order to test the presence of ECoV in China, we collected 51 small intestinal samples from donkey foals with diarrhoea from a donkey farm in Shandong Province, China between August 2020 and April 2021. Two samples tested positive for ECoV and full-length genome sequences were successfully obtained using next-generation sequencing, one of which was further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The two strains shared 100% sequence identity at the scale of whole genome. Bioinformatics analyses further showed that the two Chinese strains represent a novel genetic variant of ECoV and shared the highest sequence identity of 97.05% with the first identified ECoV strain - NC99. In addition, it may be a recombinant, with the recombination region around the NS2 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of ECoV in China, highlighting its risk to horse/donkey breeding. In addition, its potential risk to public health also warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Coronavirus Infections , Horse Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Equidae , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horses , Phylogeny
17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(3): 281-6, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" on sequela symptoms, mental state and pulmonary ventilation function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during recovery period. METHODS: Fifty cases of COVID-19 during recovery period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with thumb-tack needles at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taiyuan (LU 9). The patients in the control group were treated with sham thumb-tack needles at identical acupoints as the observation group. The treatment in the two groups was given once a day, 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and totally two courses of treatment were given. The TCM symptom score, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]), the severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and pulmonary imaging changes in the two groups were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the total scores and each item scores of TCM symptom scale, HAMA scores and HAMD scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Except for the symptom scores of dry throat and dry stool, the total score and each item score of TCM symptom scale, HAMA score and HAMD score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FVC, FEV1 and PEF in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction in the two groups was reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and the severity in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the lung shadow area in the two groups was decreased (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was smaller than the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of imaging change in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" could significantly reduce the sequela symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during recovery stage, and improve the pulmonary ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/etiology , Humans , Needles , Respiratory Function Tests , Thumb
18.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 27, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724403

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a more severe form of ALI, are life-threatening clinical syndromes observed in critically ill patients. Treatment methods to alleviate the pathogenesis of ALI have improved to a great extent at present. Although the efficacy of these therapies is limited, their relevance has increased remarkably with the ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe respiratory distress syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated the preventive and therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen in the various diseases. The biological effects of molecular hydrogen mainly involve anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and autophagy and cell death modulation. This review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen on ALI and its underlying mechanisms and aims to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of ALI and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Humans , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714403

ABSTRACT

It has been nearly 2 years since the first case of COVID-19 was reported. Governments worldwide have introduced numerous non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to combat this disease. Many of these NPIs were designed in response to initial outbreaks but are unsustainable in the long term. Governments are exploring how to adjust their current NPIs to resume normal activities while effectively protecting their population. As one of the most controversial NPIs, the implementation of travel restrictions varies across regions. Some governments have abandoned their previous travel restrictions because of the induced costs to society and on the economy. Other areas, including Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of China) and Singapore, continue employing these NPIs as a long-term disease prevention tactic. However, the multidimensional impacts of travel restrictions require careful consideration of how to apply restrictions more appropriately. We have proposed an adapted framework to examine Hong Kong and Singapore's travel restrictions. We aimed to study these two regions' experiences in balancing disease control efforts with easing the burden on lives and livelihoods. Based on the experiences of Hong Kong and Singapore, we have outlined six policy recommendations to serve as the cornerstone for future research and policy practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Travel
20.
Environ Res ; : 112984, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712595

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown policy reduced anthropogenic emissions and impacted the atmospheric chemical characteristics in Chinese urban cities. However, rare studies were done in the high mountain site. In this work, in-situ measurements of light absorption by carbonaceous aerosols and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were conducted at Waliguan (WLG) over the northeastern Tibetan Platea of China from January 3 to March 30, 2020. The data was employed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on atmospheric chemistry in the background-free troposphere. During the sampling period, the light absorption near-infrared (>470 nm) was mainly contributed by BC (>72%), however, BC and brown carbon (BrC) contributed equally to light absorption in the short wavelength (∼350 nm). The average BC concentrations in the pre-, during and post-lockdown were 0.28 ±â€¯0.25, 0.18 ±â€¯0.16, and 0.28 ±â€¯0.20 µg m-3, respectively, with 35% decreases during the lockdown period. Meanwhile, the CO2 also showed slight decreases during the lockdown period. The declined BC was profoundly attributed to the reduced emissions (∼85%), especially for the combustion of fossil fuels. For another, the declined light absorption of BC, primary and secondary BrC decreased the solar energy absorbance by 35, 15, and 14%, respectively. The concentration weighted trajectories (CWT) analysis suggested that the decreased BC and CO2 at WLG were exclusively associated with the emission reduction in the eastern regions. Our results highlighted that the reduced anthropogenic emissions attributed to the lockdown in the urban cities did impact the atmospheric chemistry in the free troposphere of the Tibetan Plateau.

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