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1.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1052-1064, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588743

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus disease 19 pandemic has likely changed the world in ways not seen in the past. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays play an important role in the management of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. Using these tools, we can assess the presence and duration of antibody-mediated protection in naturally infected individuals, screen convalescent plasma preparations for donation, test the efficacy of immunotherapy, and analyze NAb titers and persistence after vaccination to predict vaccine-induced protective effects. This review briefly summarizes the various methods used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 NAbs and compares their advantages and disadvantages to facilitate their development and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 771242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559103

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious threat to global public health and social and economic development. Various vaccine platforms have been developed rapidly and unprecedentedly, and at least 16 vaccines receive emergency use authorization (EUA). However, the causative pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has continued to evolve and mutate, emerging lots of viral variants. Several variants have successfully become the predominant strains and spread all over the world because of their ability to evade the pre-existing immunity obtained after previous infections with prototype strain or immunizations. Here, we summarized the prevalence and biological structure of these variants and the efficacy of currently used vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 variants to provide guidance on how to design vaccines more rationally against the variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(6): 1481-1492.e2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the complexities of immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is key to gain insights into the durability of protective immunity against reinfection. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent patients with longer follow-up time. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses were assessed in convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 1 year postinfection. RESULTS: A total of 78 convalescent patients with COVID-19 (26 moderate, 43 severe, and 9 critical) were recruited after 1 year of recovery. The positive rates of both anti-receptor-binding domain and antinucleocapsid antibodies were 100%, whereas we did not observe a statistical difference in antibody levels among different severity groups. Accordingly, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) reached 93.59% in convalescent patients. Although nAb titers displayed an increasing trend in convalescent patients with increased severity, the difference failed to achieve statistical significance. Notably, there was a significant correlation between nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells could be robustly maintained in convalescent patients, and their number was positively correlated with both nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Amplified SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells mainly produced a single cytokine, accompanying with increased expression of exhaustion markers including PD-1, Tim-3, TIGIT, CTLA-4, and CD39, while the proportion of multifunctional cells was low. CONCLUSIONS: Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses are maintained in convalescent patients with COVID-19 at 1 year postinfection. However, the dysfunction of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells supports the notion that vaccination is needed in convalescent patients for preventing reinfection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
J Adv Res ; 36: 133-145, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536633

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 global pandemic is far from ending. There is an urgent need to identify applicable biomarkers for early predicting the outcome of COVID-19. Growing evidences have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies evolved with disease progression and severity in COIVD-19 patients. Objectives: We assumed that antibodies may serve as biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission. Methods: By taking advantage of a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray, we surveyed IgG responses against 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in 1034 hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission and followed till 66 days. The microarray results were further correlated with clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore the association between SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies and COVID-19 mortality. Results: Nonsurvivors (n = 955) induced higher levels of IgG responses against most of non-structural proteins than survivors (n = 79) on admission. In particular, the magnitude of IgG antibodies against 8 non-structural proteins (NSP1, NSP4, NSP7, NSP8, NSP9, NSP10, RdRp, and NSP14) and 2 accessory proteins (ORF3b and ORF9b) possessed significant predictive power for patient death, even after further adjustments for demographics, comorbidities, and common laboratory biomarkers for disease severity (all with p trend < 0.05). Additionally, IgG responses to all of these 10 non-structural/accessory proteins were also associated with the severity of disease, and differential kinetics and serum positive rate of these IgG responses were confirmed in COVID-19 patients of varying severities within 20 days after symptoms onset. The area under curves (AUCs) for these IgG responses, determined by computational cross-validations, were between 0.62 and 0.71. Conclusions: Our findings might have important implications for improving clinical management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1081-1086, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic warrants accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. To explore the influencing factors on vaccine-induced effects, antibody responses to an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy individuals who were not previously infected by COVID-19 were assessed. METHODS: All subjects aged 18-60 years who did not have SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of screening from June 19, 2021, to July 02, 2021, were approached for inclusion. All participants received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies were detected using a commercial kit after the second dose of vaccination. A positive result was defined as 10 AU/mL or more and a negative result as less than 10 AU/mL. This retrospective study included 97 infection-naïve individuals (mean age 35.6 years; 37.1% male, 62.9% female). RESULTS: The seropositive rates of IgM and IgG antibody responses elicited after the second dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were 3.1% and 74.2%, respectively. IgG antibody levels were significantly higher than IgM levels (P<0.0001). Sex had no effect on IgM and IgG antibody response after the second dose. The mean anti-IgG level in older persons (⩾42 years) was significantly lower than that of younger recipients. There was a significantly lower antibody level at > 42 days compared to that at 0-20 days (P<0.05) and 21-31 days (P<0.05) after the second dose. CONCLUSION: IgG antibody response could be induced by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy individuals (>18 years), which can be influenced by age and detection time after the second dose of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499887

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2, varies with regard to symptoms and mortality rates among populations. Humoral immunity plays critical roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovery from COVID-19. However, differences in immune responses and clinical features among COVID-19 patients remain largely unknown. Here, we report a database for COVID-19-specific IgG/IgM immune responses and clinical parameters (named COVID-ONE-hi). COVID-ONE-hi is based on the data that contain the IgG/IgM responses to 24 full-length/truncated proteins corresponding to 20 of 28 known SARS-CoV-2 proteins and 199 spike protein peptides against 2360 serum samples collected from 783 COVID-19 patients. In addition, 96 clinical parameters for the 2360 serum samples and basic information for the 783 patients are integrated into the database. Furthermore, COVID-ONE-hi provides a dashboard for defining samples and a one-click analysis pipeline for a single group or paired groups. A set of samples of interest is easily defined by adjusting the scale bars of a variety of parameters. After the "START" button is clicked, one can readily obtain a comprehensive analysis report for further interpretation. COVID-ONE-hi is freely available at www.COVID-ONE.cn.

7.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9822706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibody (nAb) response is generated following infection or immunization and plays an important role in the protection against a broad of viral infections. The role of nAb during clinical progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains little known. METHODS: 123 COVID-19 patients during hospitalization in Tongji Hospital were involved in this retrospective study. The patients were grouped based on the severity and outcome. The nAb responses of 194 serum samples were collected from these patients within an investigation period of 60 days after the onset of symptoms and detected by a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay. The detail data about onset time, disease severity and laboratory biomarkers, treatment, and clinical outcome of these participants were obtained from electronic medical records. The relationship of longitudinal nAb changes with each clinical data was further assessed. RESULTS: The nAb response in COVID-19 patients evidently experienced three consecutive stages, namely, rising, stationary, and declining periods. Patients with different severity and outcome showed differential dynamics of the nAb response over the course of disease. During the stationary phase (from 20 to 40 days after symptoms onset), all patients evolved nAb responses. In particular, high levels of nAb were elicited in severe and critical patients and older patients (≥60 years old). More importantly, critical but deceased COVID-19 patients showed high levels of several proinflammation cytokines, such as IL-2R, IL-8, and IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, which resulted in lymphopenia, multiple organ failure, and the rapidly decreased nAb response. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that nAb plays a crucial role in preventing the progression and deterioration of COVID-19, which has important implications for improving clinical management and developing effective interventions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(6): 1481-1492.e2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the complexities of immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is key to gain insights into the durability of protective immunity against reinfection. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent patients with longer follow-up time. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses were assessed in convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 1 year postinfection. RESULTS: A total of 78 convalescent patients with COVID-19 (26 moderate, 43 severe, and 9 critical) were recruited after 1 year of recovery. The positive rates of both anti-receptor-binding domain and antinucleocapsid antibodies were 100%, whereas we did not observe a statistical difference in antibody levels among different severity groups. Accordingly, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) reached 93.59% in convalescent patients. Although nAb titers displayed an increasing trend in convalescent patients with increased severity, the difference failed to achieve statistical significance. Notably, there was a significant correlation between nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells could be robustly maintained in convalescent patients, and their number was positively correlated with both nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Amplified SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells mainly produced a single cytokine, accompanying with increased expression of exhaustion markers including PD-1, Tim-3, TIGIT, CTLA-4, and CD39, while the proportion of multifunctional cells was low. CONCLUSIONS: Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses are maintained in convalescent patients with COVID-19 at 1 year postinfection. However, the dysfunction of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells supports the notion that vaccination is needed in convalescent patients for preventing reinfection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109391, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303454

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome is largely unknown, especially for non-structural proteins and accessory proteins. In this study, we collect 2,360 COVID-19 sera and 601 control sera. We analyze these sera on a protein microarray with 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2, building an antibody response landscape for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. Non-structural proteins and accessory proteins NSP1, NSP7, NSP8, RdRp, ORF3b, and ORF9b elicit prevalent IgG responses. The IgG patterns and dynamics of non-structural/accessory proteins are different from those of the S and N proteins. The IgG responses against these six proteins are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome, and they decline sharply about 20 days after symptom onset. In non-survivors, a sharp decrease of IgG antibodies against S1 and N proteins before death is observed. The global antibody responses to non-structural/accessory proteins revealed here may facilitate a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 immunology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Array Analysis
10.
Allergy ; 76(2): 551-561, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The missing asymptomatic COVID-19 infections have been overlooked because of the imperfect sensitivity of the nucleic acid testing (NAT). Globally understanding the humoral immunity in asymptomatic carriers will provide scientific knowledge for developing serological tests, improving early identification, and implementing more rational control strategies against the pandemic. MEASURE: Utilizing both NAT and commercial kits for serum IgM and IgG antibodies, we extensively screened 11 766 epidemiologically suspected individuals on enrollment and 63 asymptomatic individuals were detected and recruited. Sixty-three healthy individuals and 51 mild patients without any preexisting conditions were set as controls. Serum IgM and IgG profiles were further probed using a SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray, and neutralizing antibody was detected by a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay system. The dynamics of antibodies were analyzed with exposure time or symptoms onset. RESULTS: A combination test of NAT and serological testing for IgM antibody discovered 55.5% of the total of 63 asymptomatic infections, which significantly raises the detection sensitivity when compared with the NAT alone (19%). Serum proteome microarray analysis demonstrated that asymptomatics mainly produced IgM and IgG antibodies against S1 and N proteins out of 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Different from strong and persistent N-specific antibodies, S1-specific IgM responses, which evolved in asymptomatic individuals as early as the seventh day after exposure, peaked on days from 17 days to 25 days, and then disappeared in two months, might be used as an early diagnostic biomarker. 11.8% (6/51) mild patients and 38.1% (24/63) asymptomatic individuals did not produce neutralizing antibody. In particular, neutralizing antibody in asymptomatics gradually vanished in two months. CONCLUSION: Our findings might have important implications for the definition of asymptomatic COVID-19 infections, diagnosis, serological survey, public health, and immunization strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Cell Rep ; 34(13): 108915, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128919

ABSTRACT

To fully decipher the immunogenicity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein, it is essential to assess which part is highly immunogenic in a systematic way. We generate a linear epitope landscape of the Spike protein by analyzing the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) response of 1,051 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a peptide microarray. We reveal two regions rich in linear epitopes, i.e., C-terminal domain (CTD) and a region close to the S2' cleavage site and fusion peptide. Unexpectedly, we find that the receptor binding domain (RBD) lacks linear epitope. We reveal that the number of responsive peptides is highly variable among patients and correlates with disease severity. Some peptides are moderately associated with severity and clinical outcome. By immunizing mice, we obtain linear-epitope-specific antibodies; however, no significant neutralizing activity against the authentic virus is observed for these antibodies. This landscape will facilitate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral responses and might be useful for vaccine refinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , China/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitope Mapping/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(3): 621-631, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042916

ABSTRACT

Serological tests play an essential role in monitoring and combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Recombinant spike protein (S protein), especially the S1 protein, is one of the major reagents used for serological tests. However, the high cost of S protein production and possible cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses pose unavoidable challenges. By taking advantage of a peptide microarray with full spike protein coverage, we analyzed 2,434 sera from 858 COVID-19 patients, 63 asymptomatic patients and 610 controls collected from multiple clinical centers. Based on the results, we identified several S protein-derived 12-mer peptides that have high diagnostic performance. In particular, for monitoring the IgG response, one peptide (aa 1148-1159 or S2-78) exhibited a sensitivity (95.5%, 95% CI 93.7-96.9%) and specificity (96.7%, 95% CI 94.8-98.0%) comparable to those of the S1 protein for the detection of both symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, the diagnostic performance of the S2-78 (aa 1148-1159) IgG was successfully validated by ELISA in an independent sample cohort. A panel of four peptides, S1-93 (aa 553-564), S1-97 (aa 577-588), S1-101 (aa 601-612) and S1-105 (aa 625-636), that likely will avoid potential cross-reactivity with sera from patients infected by other coronaviruses was constructed. The peptides identified in this study may be applied independently or in combination with the S1 protein for accurate, affordable, and accessible COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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