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1.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 100, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is highly prevalent among migraineurs during public health emergencies. The coronavirus disease 2019 (nCOV-2019) has created mass panic in China due to its highly contagious by contact and aerosols and lack of effective treatment. However, the emotion status of migraineurs stayed unclear during the nCOV-2019 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: To understand psychological distress of migraineurs by comparing with common population and identify potential high-risk factors of severe psychological distress among migraine patients. METHOD: We enrolled the migraineurs treated at the department of Neurology of West China Hospital and healthy controls with age- and sex-matched to migraineurs. Data on clinicodemographics and psychological distress in the month of February 2020 (during in the nCOV-2019 outbreak in China) were collected. We used the Kessler 6-item (K-6) scale to assess psychological distress. Potential risk factors of severe psychological distress were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The 144 migraineurs and 150 controls were included in the study. Migraineurs showed significantly higher K-6 scores than controls (P < 0.001). Migraine attack frequency in previous 30 days and time spent paying attention to outbreak showed significant in multivariate logistic regression with respective odds ratios of 2.225 (95%CI 1.361-3.628, P = 0.001) and 1.589 (95% 1.117-2.26, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: During public health outbreaks, healthcare professionals should focus not only on controlling and reducing migraine attack but also on mental health of migraineurs, especially those with high frequency migraine attack.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Migraine Disorders , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors
2.
Chin. J. Microbiol. Immunol. ; 7(40): 505-510, 20200731.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-701955

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has infected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. As there is no specific medicines or effective vaccines against 2019-nCoV at present, it is an alternative strategy to repurpose existing drugs for new diseases. Cyclosporin A inhibits the replication of coronaviruses by binding to cellular cyclophilins. Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine can block virus-receptor binding through interfering with terminal glycosylation of the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Trastuzumab prevents the binding of IL-6 to both sIL-6R and mIL-6R and thereby inhibits the cytokine storm syndrome induced by COVID-19. This paper discussed the potential anti-2019-nCoV effects of some common immunosuppressant including cyclosporine, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, and tocilizumab.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 167: 112494, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694826

ABSTRACT

G-quadruplex is a non-canonical nucleic acid structure formed by the folding of guanine rich DNA or RNA. The conformation and function of G-quadruplex are determined by a number of factors, including the number and polarity of nucleotide strands, the type of cations and the binding targets. Recent studies led to the discovery of additional advantageous attributes of G-quadruplex with the potential to be used in novel biosensors, such as improved ligand binding and unique folding properties. G-quadruplex based biosensor can detect various substances, such as metal ions, organic macromolecules, proteins and nucleic acids with improved affinity and specificity compared to standard biosensors. The recently developed G-quadruplex based biosensors include electrochemical and optical biosensors. A novel G-quadruplex based biosensors also show better performance and broader applications in the detection of a wide spectrum of pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 disease. This review highlights the latest developments in the field of G-quadruplex based biosensors, with particular focus on the G-quadruplex sequences and recent applications and the potential of G-quadruplex based biosensors in SARS-CoV-2 detection.

4.
J Proteome Res ; 19(4): 1351-1360, 2020 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688546

ABSTRACT

As the infection of 2019-nCoV coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, the careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. In this Communication, we first analyzed two recent studies that concluded that snakes are the intermediate hosts of 2019-nCoV and that the 2019-nCoV spike protein insertions share a unique similarity to HIV-1. However, the reimplementation of the analyses, built on larger scale data sets using state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods and databases, presents clear evidence that rebuts these conclusions. Next, using metagenomic samples from Manis javanica, we assembled a draft genome of the 2019-nCoV-like coronavirus, which shows 73% coverage and 91% sequence identity to the 2019-nCoV genome. In particular, the alignments of the spike surface glycoprotein receptor binding domain revealed four times more variations in the bat coronavirus RaTG13 than in the Manis coronavirus compared with 2019-nCoV, suggesting the pangolin as a missing link in the transmission of 2019-nCoV from bats to human.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Eutheria/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Metagenome , Pandemics , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Snakes/virology
5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(8): 1443-1454, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647644

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia have different clinical characteristics and prognoses than those without significantly abnormal glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 166 COVID-19 patients at Tongji Hospital (Wuhan) from 8 February to 21 March 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes (as of 4 April 2020) were compared among control (group 1), secondary hyperglycaemia (group 2: no diabetes history, fasting plasma glucose levels of ≥7.0 mmol/L once and HbA1c values <6.5%) and patients with diabetes (group 3). RESULTS: Compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 had higher rates of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia and levels of hypersensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin and d-dimer (P < .05 for all). Group 2 patients had higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, prevalence of liver dysfunction and increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) than those in group 1, and a higher prevalence of increased IL-8 was found in group 2 than in group 3 (P < .05 for all). The proportions of critical patients in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher compared with group 1 (38.1%, 32.8% vs. 9.5%, P < .05 for both). Groups 2 and 3 had significantly longer hospital stays than group 1, which was nearly 1 week longer. The composite outcomes risks were 5.47 (1.56-19.82) and 2.61 (0.86-7.88) times greater in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycaemia in both diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia patients with COVID-19 may indicate poor prognoses. There were differences between patients with secondary hyperglycaemia and those with diabetes. We recommend that clinicians pay more attention to the blood glucose status of COVID-19 patients, even those not diagnosed with diabetes before admission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
6.
Front. Pharmacol. ; (11)20200624.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-647087

ABSTRACT

Given the extreme importance of the current pandemic caused by COVID-19 and due to the fact that scientists agree that there is no identified treatment, this paper analyzes in detail the treatment of a severe COVID-19 patient with convalescent plasma and drugs based on current guidelines for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment. This can provide a reference for other medical institutions on rational drug use and pharmaceutical care for severe COVID-19 patients.

7.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108524, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639598

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia, a disease called COVID-19, has caused a pandemic worldwide. To investigate the immune responses after infection of SARS-CoV-2 in non-critical patients may help to better understand the disease progression. We collected 334 confirmed COVID-19 cases including 212 still in hospital with nucleic acid test positive on halfway for SARS-CoV-2 and 122 discharged from hospital, compared specific antibodies, immune cells, and cytokine changes between the hospitalized and discharged patients. The hospitalized patients had a longer illness time compared with discharged patients. Analysis of viral loads explained long-term or persistent infection of SARS-CoV-2, which existed with the median time of 18.5 days of the positive nucleic acid test. Serum analysis showed that the specific anti-N IgG antibody was positive in all detected patients after infection of two weeks. Neutrophils, Monocytes, NK cells, and CD4+ T cells significantly increased, while total lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells decreased from non-critical hospitalized patients after longer-term infection. Further analysis of the cytokines showed that IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 from the hospitalized patients were significantly higher, indicating a potential of the increased CD4+ T cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lung Diseases/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/virology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/virology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Time Factors , Viral Load/immunology
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11263-11276, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601536

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has now become a global pandemic that has severely impacted lives and economic stability. There is, however, no effective antiviral drug that can be used to treat COVID-19 to date. Built on the fact that SARS-CoV-2 initiates its entry into human cells by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of its spike protein binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), we extended a recently developed approach, EvoDesign, to design multiple peptide sequences that can competitively bind to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD to inhibit the virus from entering human cells. The protocol starts with the construction of a hybrid peptidic scaffold by linking two fragments grafted from the interface of the hACE2 protein (a.a. 22-44 and 351-357) with a linker glycine, which is followed by the redesign and refinement simulations of the peptide sequence to optimize its binding affinity to the interface of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD. The binding experiment analyses showed that the designed peptides exhibited a significantly stronger binding potency to hACE2 than the wild-type hACE2 receptor (with -53.35 vs. -46.46 EvoEF2 energy unit scores for the top designed and wild-type peptides, respectively). This study demonstrates a new avenue to utilize computationally designed peptide motifs to treat the COVID-19 disease by blocking the critical spike-RBD and hACE2 interactions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents , Binding Sites , Drug Design , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459209

ABSTRACT

The outbreak caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a global health emergency. G-quadruplex structures in genomes have long been considered essential for regulating a number of biological processes in a plethora of organisms. We have analyzed and identified 25 four contiguous GG runs (G2NxG2NyG2NzG2) in the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome, suggesting putative G-quadruplex-forming sequences (PQSs). Detailed analysis of SARS-CoV-2 PQSs revealed their locations in the open reading frames of ORF1 ab, spike (S), ORF3a, membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) genes. Identical PQSs were also found in the other members of the Coronaviridae family. The top-ranked PQSs at positions 13385 and 24268 were confirmed to form RNA G-quadruplex structures in vitro by multiple spectroscopic assays. Furthermore, their direct interactions with viral helicase (nsp13) were determined by microscale thermophoresis. Molecular docking model suggests that nsp13 distorts the G-quadruplex structure by allowing the guanine bases to be flipped away from the guanine quartet planes. Targeting viral helicase and G-quadruplex structure represents an attractive approach for potentially inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

11.
Sleep Med ; 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been ongoing in China since January 2020. The threat of infection affects the work and life of most of the population and may also damage sleep. This study aims to examine the subjective sleep status and mental health of the population during the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHOD: The data were collected through an online questionnaire with a sample of 5461 individuals in China from February 5, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Participants were divided into four groups based on their degree of threat from COVID-19: Group 1 was most closely associated with COVID-19, including inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19, first-line hospital workers and first-line management staff; Group 2 included outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients who developed a fever and visited the hospital; Group 3 included people related to Group 1 or 2, such as their colleagues, relatives, friends and rescuers; and Group 4 was the farthest removed from contact with COVID-19, covering the general public affected by COVID-19 prevention strategies. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) were used. RESULTS: Threat degree of COVID-19 (groups) had significant correlations with insomnia, depression, anxiety, and stress (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Age, gender, and area (Hubei province or other provinces) had significant correlations with insomnia (p < 0.01). A total of 1380 (24.46%) participants were suspected of having major depression based on the PHQ-9. Additionally, 1042 (18.47%) participants were suspected of having generalized anxiety disorder based on the GAD-7. A total of 892 (15.8%) of the participants had Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) according to the ASDS. The prevalence of clinical insomnia during the outbreak was 20.05% (1131) according to the ISI. The factors of satisfaction with the current sleep pattern and how perceptible the symptoms of the current sleep pattern are to other people (p < 0.05) and the middle (difficulty staying asleep) and terminal (waking up too early) (p < 0.01) factors of the ISI were significantly different across groups. A total of 1129 (20.01%) participants spent more than one hour awake in bed. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that insomnia is more severe in people who are female, young, living in the epicenter and experiencing a high degree of threat from COVID-19. As prevention and treatment efforts continue with regard to COVID-19, the general public has developed poor sleep hygiene habits, which deserve attention.

12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-337046

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, occurred in China and has currently led to a global pandemic In addition to respiratory involvement, COVID-19 was also associated with significant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) Cardiovascular impairment has been observed and is now drawing growing attention Cardiovascular protective strategies are urgent and of great significance to the overall prognosis of COVID-19 patients Direct viral infection, cytokine storm, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases were recognized as possible mechanisms of cardiovascular impairment in COVID-19 Hyperactivated inflammation plays an important role in all three mechanisms and is considered to be fundamental in the development of cardiovascular impairment and MODS in COVID-19 Therefore, in addition to conventional cardiovascular treatment, anti-inflammatory therapy is a reasonable strategy for severe cases to further enhance cardiovascular protection and potentially mitigate MODS We reviewed the inflammatory features and current promising treatments of COVID-19 as well as cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies that have been verified in previous clinical trials with positive outcomes We believe that targeting the central pathway (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6), balancing the Th1 and Th2 response, and administering long-term anti-inflammatory therapy might be promising prospects to reduce cardiovascular impairment and even MODS during the acute and recovery phases of COVID-19 The cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies might be of great application value to the management of COVID-19 patients and we further propose an algorithm for the selection of anti-inflammatory therapy for COVID-19 patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular impairment We recommend to take the experiences in cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapy as references in the management of COVID-19 and conduct related clinical trials, while the clinical translation of novel treatments from preclinical studies or in vitro drug screening should proceed with caution due to unguaranteed efficacy and safety profiles

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144087
15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 160(2): 593-594, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45786
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