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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 804945, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847170

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global public health security because of its high pathogenicity and infectivity. To date, the pathogenic mechanism of this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. As one of the most effective strategies to prevent viral infection, vaccines have become a research hotspot. Based on the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2, the research and development of its vaccines cover almost all forms of current vaccine research, including inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. Moreover, with the spread of the new mutant virus, it is necessary to evaluate the protection rate of previous administered vaccines. This article reviews the candidate targets, vaccine types, research and development status, progress of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and the effectiveness of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 mutants (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2, and B.1.1.529) induced by these vaccines, to provide a reference for follow-up research and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
2.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5348, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842934

ABSTRACT

Coal is an important basic energy source, widely distributed throughout the world, but resource abundance is uneven. Despite the need to develop and form new energy sources, coal energy maintains its dominant position. However, due to the uneven distribution and non-renewable nature of coal resources, the relationship between the supply and demand of coal resources is tight. The rational exploitation of coal and reducing resource mining wastes are particularly important at the present stage. The original mining method of the Zhangjiamao coal mine resulted in a large waste of coal resources. After replacing the “110 construction method”, the original advanced end-support was canceled, which saved a lot of process time and engineering costs and greatly improved the mine production efficiency. With an average mining depth of +300 m, the working face is in a safe and stable state, and the 110-mining process has little impact on surface subsidence. Its successful application provides a reference experience for other mines to promote resource-saving and efficient mining.

3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 1067-1082, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808738

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently poses a threat to human health. 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) plays an important role in the viral life cycle. Hence, it is considered an attractive antiviral target protein. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the sequence homology between SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and SARS-CoV 3CLpro is 96.08%, with high similarity in the substrate-binding region. Thus, assessing peptidomimetic inhibitors of SARS-CoV 3CLpro could accelerate the development of peptidomimetic inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Accordingly, we herein discuss progress on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro peptidomimetic inhibitors. Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiological process of COVID-19. Small-molecule compounds targeting 3CLpro with both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects are also briefly discussed in this paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidomimetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332137

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV) is a respiratory virus that can exist in the mouth and saliva of patients and spreads through aerosol dispersion. Therefore, stomatological hospitals and departments have become high-infection-risk environments. Accordingly, the search for oral disinfectants that can effectively inactivate the virus has become a highly active area of research. Hexadecyl pyridinium chloride, povidone-iodine, and other common oral disinfectants are the natural primary choices for stomatological hospitals. Therefore, this study investigated the inhibitory effect of hexadecyl pyridinium chloride on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro . Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 were used to determine disinfection effect;the CCK-8 method was used to determine cytotoxicity;and viral load was determined by real-time PCR. The results showed that hexadecyl pyridinium chloride has no obvious cytotoxic effect on Vero cells in the concentration range 0.0125–0.05 mg/mL. The in vitro experiments showed that hexadecyl pyridinium chloride significantly inhibits the virus at concentrations of 0.1 mg/mL or above at 2 min of action. Thus, the results provide experimental support for the use of hexadecyl pyridinium chloride in stomatological hospitals.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330371

ABSTRACT

Population antibody response is believed to be important in selection of new variant viruses. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 infections elicit a population immune response mediated by a lineage of VH1-69 germline antibodies. The representative antibody R1-32 targets a novel semi-cryptic epitope defining a new class of RBD targeting antibodies. Binding to this non-ACE2 competing epitope leading to spike destruction impairing virus entry. Based on epitope location, neutralization mechanism and analysis of antibody binding to spike variants we propose that recurrent substitutions at 452 and 490 are associated with immune evasion of this population antibody response. These substitutions, including L452R found in the Delta variant, disrupt interaction mediated by the VH1-69 specific hydrophobic HCDR2 to impair antibody-antigen association allowing variants to escape. Lacking 452/490 substitutions, the Omicron variant is sensitive to this class of antibodies. Our results provide new insights into SARS-CoV-2 variant genesis and immune evasion.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308208

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV) is a respiratory virus that can exist in the mouth and saliva of patients and spreads through aerosol dispersion. In the face of such a serious epidemic, the World Health Organization (who) recommends that governments and individuals take necessary infection control measures. The novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus;SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly, causing varying degrees of respiratory disease and, in severe cases. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory disease that can be transmitted through direct transmission, aerosol transmission, or contact. Therefore, stomatological hospitals and departments have become high-infection-risk environments. Accordingly, oral disinfectants that can effectively inactivate the virus have become a highly active area of research. Hexadecyl pyridinium chloride, povidone-iodine, and other common oral disinfectants are the natural primary choices for stomatological hospitals. Therefore, this study investigated the inhibitory effect of hexadecyl pyridinium chloride on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro . Vero cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 were used to determine the disinfection effect;the CCK-8 method was used to determine cytotoxicity, and viral load was determined by real-time PCR. The results showed that hexadecyl pyridinium chloride has no obvious cytotoxic effect on Vero cells in the concentration range 0.0125–0.05 mg/mL. The in vitro experiments showed that hexadecyl pyridinium chloride significantly inhibits the virus at concentrations of 0.1 mg/mL or above at 2 min of action. Thus, the results provide experimental support for the use of hexadecyl pyridinium chloride in stomatological hospitals.

7.
Genome Res ; 32(2): 228-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642462

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still elusive, which impedes disease progression prediction, differential diagnosis, and targeted therapy. Plasma cell-free RNAs (cfRNAs) carry unique information from human tissue and thus could point to resourceful solutions for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of cfRNA profiles between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors using serial plasma. Analyses of the cfRNA landscape, potential gene regulatory mechanisms, dynamic changes in tRNA pools upon infection, and microbial communities were performed. A total of 380 cfRNA molecules were up-regulated in all COVID-19 patients, of which seven could serve as potential biomarkers (AUC > 0.85) with great sensitivity and specificity. Antiviral (NFKB1A, IFITM3, and IFI27) and neutrophil activation (S100A8, CD68, and CD63)-related genes exhibited decreased expression levels during treatment in COVID-19 patients, which is in accordance with the dynamically enhanced inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. Noncoding RNAs, including some microRNAs (let 7 family) and long noncoding RNAs (GJA9-MYCBP) targeting interleukin (IL6/IL6R), were differentially expressed between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, which accounts for the potential core mechanism of cytokine storm syndromes; the tRNA pools change significantly between the COVID-19 and healthy group, leading to the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 biased codons, which facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication. Finally, several pneumonia-related microorganisms were detected in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, raising the possibility of simultaneously monitoring immune response regulation and microbial communities using cfRNA analysis. This study fills the knowledge gap in the plasma cfRNA landscape of COVID-19 patients and offers insight into the potential mechanisms of cfRNAs to explain COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , RNA/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Int Med Res ; 49(12): 3000605211063695, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antiviral activity of the oral disinfectant povidone-iodine (PVP-I) against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) in vitro. METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of PVP-I were determined in Vero and Calu-3 cell lines using that by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Viral load in the cell culture medium above infected cells was quantitated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cytopathic effect (CPE) and viral infective rate were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: PVP-I at a concentration >0.5 mg/ml in contact with SARS-CoV-2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min and 5 min showed up to 99% viral inhibition. For in vitro testing, upon exposure for 1 min, PVP-I showed a virucidal effect. PVP-I had no cytotoxic effects at the range of concentrations tested (0.125-1 mg/ml; CC50 > 2.75 mM) in Vero and Calu-3 cells. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the ideal contact time was 1 min and the optimal concentration was 1 mg/ml, which provides an experimental basis for the use of oral disinfectants in dental hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Line , Humans , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , RNA, Viral
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1215-1224, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343625

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) urgently calls for more sensitive molecular diagnosis to improve sensitivity of current viral nuclear acid detection. We have developed an anchor primer (AP)-based assay to improve viral RNA stability by bioinformatics identification of RNase-binding site of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA and implementing AP dually targeting the N gene of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and RNase 1, 3, 6. The arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) improvement of viral RNA integrity was supported by (a) the AP increased resistance of the targeted gene (N gene) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA to RNase treatment; (b) the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by AP-PCR with lower cycle threshold values (-2.7 cycles) compared to two commercially available assays; (c) improvement of the viral RNA stability of the ORF gene upon targeting of the N gene and RNase. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity by AP-PCR was demonstrated by detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 70-80% of sputum, nasal, pharyngeal swabs and feces and 36% (4/11) of urine of the confirmed cases (n = 252), 7% convalescent cases (n = 54) and none of 300 negative cases. Lastly, AP-PCR analysis of 306 confirmed and convalescent cases revealed prolonged presence of viral loading for >20 days after the first positive diagnosis. Thus, the AP dually targeting SARS-CoV-2 RNA and RNase improves molecular detection by preserving SARS-CoV-2 RNA integrity and reveals the prolonged viral loading associated with older age and male gender in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Ribonucleases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Binding Sites , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259638

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pose a great threat to humanity. Every pandemic involving these coronaviruses has seriously affected human health and economic development. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic drugs against their infections. Therefore, the development of vaccines is particularly important to combat these coronaviruses. In this review, we summarized and analyzed the progress of vaccines against SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, including inactivated vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, subunit vaccines, nucleic acid vaccines, and viral vector vaccines. In addition, we compared the levels of neutralizing antibodies in the serum of patients with these three kinds of coronaviruses at different stages, and their ability and effects against SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV. This review provides useful information for vaccine evaluation and analysis.

14.
Virol J ; 18(1): 89, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relation to infections with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: From February 2017 to December 2019, 3660 respiratory samples submitted to Zhejiang Children Hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were tested for four human coronaviruses RNA by a novel two-tube multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Samples were also screened for the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Coronavirus RNAs were detected in 144 (3.93%) specimens: HCoV-HKU1 in 38 specimens, HCoV-NL63 in 62 specimens, HCoV-OC43 in 38 specimens and HCoV-229E in 8 specimens. Genomes for SARS-CoV-2 were absent in all specimens by RT-PCR analysis during the study period. The majority of HCoV infections occurred during fall months. No significant differences in gender, sample type, year were seen across species. 37.5 to 52.6% of coronaviruses detected were in specimens testing positive for other respiratory viruses. Phylogenic analysis identified that Zhejiang coronaviruses belong to multiple lineages of the coronaviruses circulating in other countries and areas. CONCLUSION: Common HCoVs may have annual peaks of circulation in fall months in the Zhejiang province, China. Genetic relatedness to the coronaviruses in other regions suggests further surveillance on human coronaviruses in clinical samples are clearly needed to understand their patterns of activity and role in the emergence of novel coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 155, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189204

ABSTRACT

Disease progression prediction and therapeutic drug target discovery for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are particularly important, as there is still no effective strategy for severe COVID-19 patient treatment. Herein, we performed multi-platform omics analysis of serial plasma and urine samples collected from patients during the course of COVID-19. Integrative analyses of these omics data revealed several potential therapeutic targets, such as ANXA1 and CLEC3B. Molecular changes in plasma indicated dysregulation of macrophage and suppression of T cell functions in severe patients compared to those in non-severe patients. Further, we chose 25 important molecular signatures as potential biomarkers for the prediction of disease severity. The prediction power was validated using corresponding urine samples and plasma samples from new COVID-19 patient cohort, with AUC reached to 0.904 and 0.988, respectively. In conclusion, our omics data proposed not only potential therapeutic targets, but also biomarkers for understanding the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Lipidomics , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Male
17.
Waste Dispos Sustain Energy ; 3(2): 177-183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125177

ABSTRACT

Incineration experiment of medical waste was carried out in a mobile animal carcass incinerator. Simulated medical waste (69% cotton, 1.5% wood product, 4.5% mask and 25% moisture) was used as raw material. The temperature trend of first and second combustion chamber, the operating conditions and the emission characteristics of gaseous pollutants were studied. The results indicated that the temperature of first combustion chamber can be maintained at 550-650 °C without external heating, while in the final stage a burner was used to realize the burnout of material. The temperature of the second combustion chamber was always lower than that of the first combustion after the burner stopped working. The concentration of CO emission in flue gas was high due to the low disposal efficiency of the mobile incinerator, while NOX and SO2 emission concentrations were far below the standard limit value (GB 18484-2001).

18.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 30, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since early February 2021, the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, has infected over 104 million people with more than 2 million deaths according to official reports. The key to understanding the biology and virus-host interactions of SARS-CoV-2 requires the knowledge of mutation and evolution of this virus at both inter- and intra-host levels. However, despite quite a few polymorphic sites identified among SARS-CoV-2 populations, intra-host variant spectra and their evolutionary dynamics remain mostly unknown. METHODS: Using high-throughput sequencing of metatranscriptomic and hybrid captured libraries, we characterized consensus genomes and intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs) of serial samples collected from eight patients with COVID-19. The distribution of iSNVs along the SARS-CoV-2 genome was analyzed and co-occurring iSNVs among COVID-19 patients were identified. We also compared the evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 population in the respiratory tract (RT) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). RESULTS: The 32 consensus genomes revealed the co-existence of different genotypes within the same patient. We further identified 40 intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs). Most (30/40) iSNVs presented in a single patient, while ten iSNVs were found in at least two patients or identical to consensus variants. Comparing allele frequencies of the iSNVs revealed a clear genetic differentiation between intra-host populations from the respiratory tract (RT) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), mostly driven by bottleneck events during intra-host migrations. Compared to RT populations, the GIT populations showed a better maintenance and rapid development of viral genetic diversity following the suspected intra-host bottlenecks. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings here illustrate the intra-host bottlenecks and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in different anatomic sites and may provide new insights to understand the virus-host interactions of coronaviruses and other RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Genome, Viral/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Haplotypes , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 620023, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069772

ABSTRACT

The mental health problems might have been increased owing to the COVID-19 pandemic with the commencement of the year 2020, therefore, an epidemiological survey appraising the burden of mental health issues among the general population is imperative. This cross-sectional study attempts to reveal the underlying mental health conditions, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS), depression, and insomnia, relating to the pandemic situation, and to further examine the combined effects of gender and age on the COVID-19 related mental health consequences. An online survey was conducted among 2,992 adults in China from February 1st 2020 to February 10th 2020. The study uses binary logistic regression to analyze the potential factors associated with PTSD, depression, and insomnia. The results indicate that the prevalence of PTSS, depression, and insomnia are 19.5, 26.9, and 19.6% respectively during the COVID-19. Men and women show different rates of PTSS and depression, whereas no insomnia is found in both males and females. The females above 50 years of age have a lower level of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.448, 95%CI: 0.220-0.911, Cohen's d = -0.443) as compared with females aged 18-25; while the highest effect sizes for PTSS (OR = 2.846, 95%CI: 1.725-4.695, Cohen's d = 0.537) and the depression (OR = 2.024, 95%CI: 1.317-3.111, Cohen's d = 0.314) are seen in males aged 26 to 30. Besides gender, education, living conditions, direct exposure to COVID-19, the post mental and the physical health condition is related to PTSS, depression, and insomnia. Our study suggests that high-risk groups, especially those having two or more related factors and young men, should be the focus of mental health intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035695

ABSTRACT

Virus-specific T cells play essential roles in protection against multiple virus infections, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. While SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been identified in COVID-19 patients, their role in the protection of SARS-CoV-2-infected mice is not established. Here, using mice sensitized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 by transduction with an adenovirus expressing the human receptor (Ad5-hACE2), we identified SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Virus-specific T cells were polyfunctional and were able to lyse target cells in vivo. Further, type I interferon pathway was proved to be critical for generating optimal antiviral T cell responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. T cell vaccination alone partially protected SARS-CoV-2-infected mice from severe disease. In addition, the results demonstrated cross-reactive T cell responses between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but not MERS-CoV, in mice. Understanding the role of the T cell response will guide immunopathogenesis studies of COVID-19 and vaccine design and validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
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