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1.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(4): e33842, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the emerging information and communication technology, the field of medical informatics has dramatically evolved in health care and medicine. Thus, it is crucial to explore the global scientific research landscape on medical informatics. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to present a visual form to clarify the overall scientific research trends of medical informatics in the past decade. METHODS: A bibliometric analysis of data retrieved and extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database was performed to analyze global scientific research trends on medical informatics, including publication year, journals, authors, institutions, countries/regions, references, and keywords, from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2020. RESULTS: The data set recorded 34,742 articles related to medical informatics from WoSCC between 2011 and 2020. The annual global publications increased by 193.86% from 1987 in 2011 to 5839 in 2020. Journal of Medical Internet Research (3600 publications and 63,932 citations) was the most productive and most highly cited journal in the field of medical informatics. David W Bates (99 publications), Harvard University (1161 publications), and the United States (12,927 publications) were the most productive author, institution, and country, respectively. The co-occurrence cluster analysis of high-frequency author keywords formed 4 clusters: (1) artificial intelligence in health care and medicine; (2) mobile health; (3) implementation and evaluation of electronic health records; (4) medical informatics technology application in public health. COVID-19, which ranked third in 2020, was the emerging theme of medical informatics. CONCLUSIONS: We summarize the recent advances in medical informatics in the past decade and shed light on their publication trends, influential journals, global collaboration patterns, basic knowledge, research hotspots, and theme evolution through bibliometric analysis and visualization maps. These findings will accurately and quickly grasp the research trends and provide valuable guidance for future medical informatics research.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(8): 2457-2467, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic and significant public health issue. The effectiveness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in treating COVID-19 patients has been called into question. AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis on the mortality of COVID-19 patients who require ECMO. METHODS: This analysis adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes 2020 (PRISMA) and has been registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (number CRD42020227414). A quality assessment for all the included articles was performed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Studies with tenor more COVID-19 patients undergoing ECMO were included. The random-effects model was used to obtain the pooled incidence of mortality in COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO. The source of heterogeneity was investigated using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: We identified 18 articles with 1494 COVID-19 patients who were receiving ECMO. The score of the quality assessment ranged from 5 to 8 on the NOS. The majority of patients received veno-venous ECMO (93.7%). Overall mortality was estimated to be 0.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.39; I 2 = 84.8%] based on random-effect pooled estimates. There were significant differences in mortality between location groups (33.0% vs 55.0% vs 37.0% vs 18.0%, P < 0.001), setting groups (28.0% vs 34.0%, P < 0.001), sample size (37.0% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001), and NOS groups (39.0% vs 19.0%, P < 0.001). However, both subgroup analyses based on location, setting, and sample size, and sensitivity analysis failed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The funnel plot indicated no evident asymmetry, and the Egger's (P = 0.95) and Begg's (P = 0.14) tests also revealed no significant publication bias. CONCLUSION: With more resource assessment and risk-benefit analysis, our data reveal that ECMO might be a feasible and effective treatment for COVID-19 patients.

3.
Epidemiol Infect ; : 1-11, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764104
4.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718377

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has globally strained medical resources and caused significant mortality. This study was aimed to develop and validate a prediction model based on clinical features to estimate the risk of patients with COVID-19 at admission progressing to critical patients. Patients admitted to the hospital between January 16, 2020, and March 10, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled, and they were observed for at least 14 days after admission to determine whether they developed into severe pneumonia. According to the clinical symptoms, all patients were divided into four groups: mild, normal, severe, and critical. A total of 390 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were identified, including 212 severe patients and 178 nonsevere patients. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression reduced the variables in the model to 6, which are age, number of comorbidities, computed tomography severity score, lymphocyte count, aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin. The area under curve of the model in the training set is 0.898, and the specificity and sensitivity were 89.7% and 75.5%. The prediction model, nomogram might be useful to access the onset of severe and critical illness among COVID-19 patients at admission, which is instructive for clinical diagnosis.

5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326546

ABSTRACT

This paper examines discrimination based on startup founders' gender, race, and age by early-stage investors using two complementary field experiments with real U.S. venture capitalists. The first experiment invites investors to evaluate multiple randomly generated startup profiles, which they know to be hypothetical, in order to be matched with real, high-quality startups from collaborating incubators. Investors can also donate money to randomly displayed startup teams to show their anonymous support during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second experiment consists of sending hypothetical pitch emails with randomized startups' information to global venture capitalists and comparing their email behaviors by utilizing a new email technology that tracks investors' detailed information acquisition behaviors. These experiments provide the following findings. (i) In the contact stage, investors are biased towards female, Asian, and older founders of relatively low-quality startups, while they are biased against female, Asian, and older founders of relatively high-quality startups. This result provides a potential reconciliation of the contradictory results in the extant literature. (ii) Among multiple coexisting sources of bias identified, statistical discrimination and implicit bias are important reasons for investors' "anti-minority" behaviors. A consistent estimator is developed to measure the polarization of investors' biases and their separate driving forces. And finally, (iii) there was a temporary, stronger bias against Asian founders during the COVID-19 outbreak, which started to fade in April 2020.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325170

ABSTRACT

This paper examines discrimination based on startup founders' gender, race, and age by early-stage investors, using two randomized controlled trials with real venture capitalists. The first experiment invites U.S. investors to evaluate multiple randomly generated startup profiles, which they know to be hypothetical, in order to be matched with real, high-quality startups from collaborating incubators. Investors can also donate money to randomly displayed startup teams to show their anonymous support during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second experiment sends hypothetical pitch emails with randomized startups' information to global venture capitalists and compares their email responses by utilizing a new email technology that tracks investors' detailed information acquisition behaviors. I find three main results: (i) Investors are biased towards female, Asian, and older founders in "lower contact interest" situations;while biased against female, Asian, and older founders in "higher contact interest" situations. (ii) These two experiments identify multiple coexisting sources of bias. Specifically, statistical discrimination is an important reason for "anti-minority" investors' contact and investment decisions, which was proved by a newly developed consistent decision-based heterogeneous effect estimator. (iii) There was a temporary, stronger bias against Asian founders during the COVID-19 outbreak, which started to fade in April 2020.

7.
Nano Today ; 43: 101393, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616674

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to develop new vaccination strategies to elevate the cross-neutralization against different SARS-CoV-2 strains. In this study, we construct the spherical amantadine-assembled nanostimulator (AAS). Amantadine as immunostimulating molecules are displayed on the outermost layer of AAS. Molecular mechanism analysis reveals that AAS can activate RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway to increase the expression of type I interferons in vivo. AAS-mediated activation of RLR signaling pathway further promotes the maturation and proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs) and T helper cells (Ths), finally activating B cells to produce potent antibody responses. In performance evaluation experiments, the mixture of AAS and dimeric RBD significantly enhances RBD-specific humoral responses (4-fold IgG, 3.5-fold IgG2a, 3.3-fold IgG2b, 3.8-fold IgG3 and 1.3-fold IgM), in comparison to aluminum adjuvant-assistant dimeric RBD. Importantly, AAS dramatically elevates dimeric RBD-elicited cross-neutralization against different SARS-CoV-2 strains such as Wuhan-Hu-1 (9-fold), B.1.1.7 (UK variant, 15-fold), B.1.351 (South African variant, 4-fold) and B.1.617.2 (India variant, 7-fold). Our study verifies the mechanism of AAS in activating RLR signaling pathway in host immune system and highlights the power of AAS in improving antigen-elicited cross-neutralization against different SARS-CoV-2 strains.

8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1076, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550352

ABSTRACT

Lysine-selective molecular tweezers are promising drug candidates against proteinopathies, viral infection, and bacterial biofilm. Despite demonstration of their efficacy in multiple cellular and animal models, important questions regarding their mechanism of action, including cell penetrance and intracellular distribution, have not been answered to date. The main impediment to answering these questions has been the low intrinsic fluorescence of the main compound tested to date, called CLR01. Here, we address these questions using new fluorescently labeled molecular tweezers derivatives. We show that these compounds are internalized in neurons and astrocytes, at least partially through dynamin-dependent endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate that the molecular tweezers concentrate rapidly in acidic compartments, primarily lysosomes. Accumulation of molecular tweezers in lysosomes may occur both through the endosomal-lysosomal pathway and via the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Moreover, by visualizing colocalization of molecular tweezers, lysosomes, and tau aggregates we show that lysosomes likely are the main site for the intracellular anti-amyloid activity of molecular tweezers. These findings have important implications for the mechanism of action of molecular tweezers in vivo, explaining how administration of low doses of the compounds achieves high effective concentrations where they are needed, and supporting the development of these compounds as drugs for currently cureless proteinopathies.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/metabolism , Bridged-Ring Compounds/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Organophosphates/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e26480, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need for strategies to encourage user-initiated reporting of results after HIV self-testing (HIVST) persists. Smartphone-based electronic readers (SERs) have been shown capable of reading diagnostics results accurately in point-of-care diagnostics and could bridge the current gaps between HIVST and linkage to care. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the willingness of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Jiangsu province to use an SER for HIVST through a web-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted a convenience web-based survey among Chinese MSM by using a pretested structured questionnaire. Survey items were adapted from previous HIVST feasibility studies and modified as required. Prior to answering reader-related questions, participants watched a video showcasing a prototype SER. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-squared test, and multivariable logistic regression. P values less than .05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 692 participants, 369 (53.3%) were aged 26-40 years, 456 (65.9%) had ever self-tested for HIV, and 493 (71.2%) were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Approximately 98% (483/493) of the willing participants, 85.3% (459/538) of ever self-tested and never self-tested, and 40% (46/115) of unwilling participants reported that SERs would increase their HIVST frequency. Engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with regular partners compared to consistently using condoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04, 95% CI 1.19-7.74) increased the odds of willingness to use an SER for HIVST. Participants who had ever considered HIVST at home with a partner right before sex compared to those who had not (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.13-7.90) were also more willing to use an SER for HIVST. Playing receptive roles during anal intercourse compared to playing insertive roles (AOR 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.14) was associated with decreased odds of being willing to use an SER for HIVST. The majority of the participants (447/608, 73.5%) preferred to purchase readers from local Centers of Disease Control and Prevention offices and 51.2% (311/608) of the participants were willing to pay less than US $4.70 for a reader device. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the Chinese MSM, especially those with high sexual risk behaviors, were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Many MSM were also willing to self-test more frequently for HIV with an SER. Further research is needed to ascertain the diagnostic and real-time data-capturing capacity of prototype SERs during HIVST.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Internet , Male , Smartphone
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323820

ABSTRACT

The rebound of online public opinion is an important driving force in inducing a secondary crisis in the case of public emergencies. Effective risk-information communication is an important means to manage online public opinion regarding emergencies. This paper employs fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to discover which conditions are combined and may result in the rebound of online public opinion. Five conditions were selected: the type of public emergency, messengers, message attributes, audience, and information feedback. The study used a sample of 25 major public emergencies that occurred between 2015 and 2020 in China. The type of public emergency, audience, and information feedback emerged as critical influencing factors. Message attributes promote the rebound of online public opinion regarding public health emergencies, while messengers play a traction role in the rebound of online public opinion on other types of public emergencies. This study extends risk-information communication theory from the perspective of the type of emergency, explores the causes of rebounded online public opinion regarding public emergencies, and provides policies and suggestions for risk-information communication and online public-opinion governance during emergencies.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Public Opinion , China , Communication , Humans , Public Health
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 194, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232064

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence suggests that CD147 serves as a novel receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Blocking CD147 via anti-CD147 antibody could suppress the in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication. Meplazumab is a humanized anti-CD147 IgG2 monoclonal antibody, which may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of meplazumab in healthy subjects, and an open-labeled, concurrent controlled add-on exploratory phase 2 study to determine the efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In phase 1 study, 59 subjects were enrolled and assigned to eight cohorts, and no serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) or TEAE grade ≥3 was observed. The serum and peripheral blood Cmax and area under the curve showed non-linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. No obvious relation between the incidence or titer of positive anti-drug antibody and dosage was observed in each cohort. The biodistribution study indicated that meplazumab reached lung tissue and maintained >14 days stable with the lung tissue/cardiac blood-pool ratio ranging from 0.41 to 0.32. In the exploratory phase 2 study, 17 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and 11 hospitalized patients were involved as concurrent control. The meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (P = 0.005) and case severity (P = 0.021), and reduced the time to virus negative (P = 0.045) in comparison to the control group. These results show a sound safety and tolerance of meplazumab in healthy volunteers and suggest that meplazumab could accelerate the recovery of patients from COVID-19 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/pathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 1881(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1203562

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19), medical staffs have reported cases of hospital infection of COVID-19, which has greatly affected the physical and mental health of medical staff. In order to effectively avoid the immunization situation and prevent the front-line medical staff from collecting information and reporting on the new coronary pneumonia patients, suspected patients, close contacts and other personnel, the possibility of being infected due to various direct and indirect contacts may arise. Information technology, the establishment of a new cloud monitoring platform based on “Internet +” for coronary epidemic outbreaks, and the realization of “zero touch” operation and “paperless” management of the entire process of information collection, confirmation, review and reporting, which greatly reducing the front-line work. The infection risk and labor intensity of personnel have reduced the workload and improved the efficiency of information collection. At the same time, it has also realized automatic statistics, intelligent statistical description and synchronous sharing of the information.

14.
Nano Today ; 38: 101139, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142163

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines are vital to fight against the COVID-19 global pandemic. As a critical component of a subunit vaccine, the adjuvant is responsible for strengthening the antigen-induced immune responses. Here, we present a new nanovaccine that comprising the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of spike protein and the manganese nanoadjuvant (MnARK), which induces humoral and cellular responses. Notably, even at a 5-fold lower antigen dose and with fewer injections, the MnARK vaccine immunized mice showed stronger neutralizing abilities against the infection of the pseudovirus (~270-fold) and live coronavirus (>8-fold) in vitro than that of Alum-adsorbed RBD vaccine (Alu-RBD). Furthermore, we found that the effective co-delivery of RBD antigen and MnARK to lymph nodes (LNs) elicited an increased cellular internalization and the activation of immune cells, including DCs, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Our findings highlight the importance of MnARK adjuvant in the design of novel coronavirus vaccines and provide a rationale strategy to design protective vaccines through promoting cellular internalization and the activation of immune-related pathways.

15.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020510, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As an emergent and fulminant infectious disease, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a worldwide pandemic. The early identification and timely treatment of severe patients are crucial to reducing the mortality of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and early predictors for severe COVID-19, and to establish a prediction model for the identification and triage of severe patients. METHODS: All confirmed patients with COVID-19 admitted by the Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University were enrolled in this retrospective non-interventional study. The patients were divided into a mild group and a severe group, and the clinical data were compared between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the independent early predictors for severe COVID-19, and the prediction model was constructed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of the prediction model and each early predictor. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled in this study, of whom 19 were mild and 21 were severe. The proportions of patients with venerable age (≥60 years old), comorbidities, and hypertension in severe patients were higher than that of the mild (P < 0.05). The duration of fever and respiratory symptoms, and the interval from illness onset to viral clearance were longer in severe patients (P < 0.05). Most patients received at least one form of oxygen treatments, while severe patients required more mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that venerable age, hypertension, lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were the independent high-risk factors for severe COVID-19. ROC curves demonstrated significant predictive value of age, lymphocyte count, albumin and NLR for severe COVID-19. The sensitivity and specificity of the newly constructed prediction model for predicting severe COVID-19 was 90.5% and 84.2%, respectively, and whose positive predictive value, negative predictive value and crude agreement were all over 85%. CONCLUSIONS: The severe COVID-19 risk model might help clinicians quickly identify severe patients at an early stage and timely take optimal therapeutic schedule for them.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2
16.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5137

ABSTRACT

A review. It invades human body mainly through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors mediated by spike protein. ACE2 is closely related to NCP infection, it is not only a key target of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ACE2 expression is an important factor affecting disease severity and mortality of NCP patients as well. Therefore, a number of marketed and in-development drugs targeting ACE2 renin-angiotensin system (RAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), recombinant human ACE2, type II transmembrane serine proteases (TMSPSS2) inhibitors and specific neutralizing antibodies, etc. may be feasible strategies for the treatment of NCP. In addition, based on the available evidence,it is not recommended to withdraw ACEI/ARB in confirmed or suspected cases of mild NCP with hypertension so as to avoid blood pressure fluctuation.

17.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(23): 6016-6025, 2020 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly discovered coronavirus that has generated a worldwide outbreak of infections. Many people with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have developed severe illness, and a significant number have died. However, little is known regarding infection by the novel virus in pregnant women. We herein present a case of COVID-19 confirmed in a woman delivering a neonate who was negative for SARS-CoV-2 and related it to a review of the literature on pregnant women and human coronavirus infections. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was a 36-year-old pregnant woman in her third trimester who had developed progressive clinical symptoms when she was confirmed as infected with SARS-CoV-2. Given the potential risks for both the pregnant woman and the fetus, an emergency cesarean section was performed, and the baby and his mother were separately quarantined and cared for. As a result, the baby currently shows no signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection (his lower respiratory tract samples were negative for the virus), while the mother completely recovered from COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although we presented a single case, the successful result is of great significance for pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and with respect to fully understanding novel coronavirus pneumonia.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(8): 1347-1353, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894380

ABSTRACT

To discover effective drugs for COVID-19 treatment amongst already clinically approved drugs, we developed a high throughput screening assay for SARS-CoV-2 virus entry inhibitors using SARS2-S pseudotyped virus. An approved drug library of 1800 small molecular drugs was screened for SARS2 entry inhibitors and 15 active drugs were identified as specific SARS2-S pseudovirus entry inhibitors. Antiviral tests using native SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells confirmed that 7 of these drugs (clemastine, amiodarone, trimeprazine, bosutinib, toremifene, flupenthixol, and azelastine) significantly inhibited SARS2 replication, reducing supernatant viral RNA load with a promising level of activity. Three of the drugs were classified as histamine receptor antagonists with clemastine showing the strongest anti-SARS2 activity (EC50 = 0.95 ± 0.83 µM). Our work suggests that these 7 drugs could enter into further in vivo studies and clinical investigations for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Cell Line , Drug Approval , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects
19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-618

ABSTRACT

Background: Until now, the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused wide dissemination in China and other 72 countries, affecting more than 90,000 peoples

20.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(9): e23411, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection of serum antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is emerging as a new tool for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. Since many coronaviruses are sensitive to heat, heating inactivation of samples at 56°C prior to testing is considered a possible method to reduce the risk of transmission, but the effect of heating on the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is still unclear. METHODS: By comparing the levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before and after heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 minutes using a quantitative fluorescence immunochromatographic assay RESULTS: We showed that heat inactivation significantly interferes with the levels of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The IgM levels of all the 34 serum samples (100%) from COVID-19 patients decreased by an average level of 53.56%. The IgG levels were decreased in 22 of 34 samples (64.71%) by an average level of 49.54%. Similar changes can also be observed in the non-COVID-19 disease group (n = 9). Of note, 44.12% of the detected IgM levels were dropped below the cutoff value after heating, suggesting heat inactivation can lead to false-negative results of these samples. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 minutes interferes with the immunoanalysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Heat inactivation prior to immunoanalysis is not recommended, and the possibility of false-negative results should be considered if the sample was pre-inactivated by heating.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hot Temperature , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Serum/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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