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1.
EMBO Rep ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-662381

ABSTRACT

The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is essential for the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their function in immune homeostasis Previous studies have shown that in natural Tregs (nTregs), FOXP3 can be regulated by polyubiquitination and deubiquitination However, the molecular players active in this pathway, especially those modulating FOXP3 by deubiquitination in the distinct induced Treg (iTreg) lineage, remain unclear Here, we identify the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 44 (USP44) as a novel deubiquitinase for FOXP3 USP44 interacts with and stabilizes FOXP3 by removing K48-linked ubiquitin modifications Notably, TGF-ß induces USP44 expression during iTreg differentiation USP44 co-operates with USP7 to stabilize and deubiquitinate FOXP3 Tregs genetically lacking USP44 are less effective than their wild-type counterparts, both in vitro and in multiple in vivo models of inflammatory disease and cancer These findings suggest that USP44 plays an important role in the post-translational regulation of Treg function and is thus a potential therapeutic target for tolerance-breaking anti-cancer immunotherapy

2.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; 401:123292-123292, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-662308

ABSTRACT

Herein, a high-performance porous biochar described as PBCKOH was successfully synthesized by two-step pyrolysis of corn straw with chemical activation of KOH, and was employed for the elimination of Cr(VI) and naphthalene (NAP) from water Benefiting from KOH activation, the PBCKOH was found to possess huge specific surface area of 2183 80 m2/g and many well-developed micropores with average particle size of 2 75 nm and main pore diameters distribution from 1 to 2 nm The PBCKOH presented an excellent adsorption performance with a theoretical monolayer uptake of 116 97 mg/g for Cr(VI) and a heterogeneous adsorption capacity of 450 43 mg/g for NAP The uptake equilibrium was attained within about 120 min for Cr(VI), while about 180 min for NAP following avrami fractional-order model, revealing the existence of multiple kinetics during the adsorption The thermodynamic results showed that the uptake of both Cr(VI) and NAP occurred spontaneously (-ΔG°), while in an endothermic nature for Cr(VI) (+ΔH°) and an exothermic characteristic for NAP (-ΔH°) with different randomness Furthermore, the PBCKOH was believed to enhance the Cr(VI) adsorption mainly through the combination of electrostatic attraction, complexation, ion exchange and reduction action, while achieving the high NAP uptake by pore filling and π-πstacking interactions

3.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756580

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in patients with severe/critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective study, data were collected from 662 patients with severe/critical COVID-19 who were admitted to a designated hospital to treat patients with severe COVID-19 in Wuhan before March 20, 2020. All patients were divided into an exposed group (CHM users) and a control group (non-users). After propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio, 156 CHM users were matched by propensity score to 156 non-users. No significant differences in seven baseline clinical variables were found between the two groups of patients. All-cause mortality was reported in 13 CHM users who died and 36 non-users who died. After multivariate adjustment, the mortality risk of CHM users was reduced by 82.2% (odds ratio 0.178, 95% CI 0.076-0.418; P < 0.001) compared with the non-users. Secondly, age (odds ratio 1.053, 95% CI 1.023-1.084; P < 0.001) and the proportion of severe/critical patients (odds ratio 0.063, 95% CI 0.028-0.143; P < 0.001) were the risk factors of mortality. These results show that the use of CHM may reduce the mortality of patients with severe/critical COVID-19.

4.
International Journal of Mental Health Promotion ; 22(3):149-157, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-740644

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the mental status and psychological needs of police officers during the COVID-19 outbreak in China The Anti-Pandemic Public Mental Status Scale and self-administered Psychological Needs Scale were administered online to police officers in Y city, a significant sub-central city of Hubei Province, where was affected by the pandemic the most seriously A total of 5,467 valid questionnaires were collected, of which female police accounted for 17 7% Compared with the national public and Y city public data previously measured using the Anti-Pandemic Public Mental Status Scale, this study found that 24 6% of the Y city police suffered maladaptive problems The mental status of the national public was the best, followed by the Y city police The mental status of the Y city public was the worst Moreover, there was a significant interaction between gender and unit type of Y city police (p = 0 02) The mental status of female police working in prisons was worse than their male counterparts (p = 0 01) Furthermore, psychological needs survey results showed that the police most wanted to learn the topics of self-adjustment and family relations The most desired psychological assistances were relaxation and stress reduction, while the percentage of willingness to choose psychological counseling was low During the pandemic, some police officers showed obvious psychological symptoms and the mental health services could be provided according to their psychological needs

5.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730242

ABSTRACT

Many drugs are being developed and clinically tested for treating COVID-19. The knowledge of the targets and the properties of these drugs are highly useful for facilitating the drug repurposing, clinical evaluation, and drug & target discovery efforts. A variety of databases have provided the dedicated information sources and access facilities to support these efforts. The main features of these databases are described.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105127, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723374

ABSTRACT

We formulated a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, Hanshiyi Formula (HSYF), which was approved and promoted by the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission for treating mild and moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the effect of HSYF on the progression to severe disease in mild and moderate COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 in a quarantine station in Wuchang District, Wuhan. Using the real-time Internet information collection application and Centers for Disease Control for the Wuchang District, patient data were collected through patient self-reports and follow-ups. HSYF intervention was defined as the exposure. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who progressed to a severe disease status, and a stratification analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify influencing factors that may affect the outcome. Further, we used propensity score matching (PSM) to assess the effect of HSYF intervention on the conversion of mild and moderate to a severe disease status. Totally, 721 mild and moderate COVID-19 patients were enrolled, including 430 HSYF users (exposed group) and 291 non-users (control group). No cases in the exposed group and 19 (6.5 %, P < 0.001) cases in the control group progressed to severe disease, and the difference between the two groups (exposed group-control group) was -6.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): (-8.87 %, -4.13 %)]. Univariate regression analysis revealed sex (male), age, fever, cough, and fatigue as risk factors for progression to severe disease. After PSM, none of the HSYF users and 7 (4.7 %, P = 0.022) non-users transitioned to severe disease, and the difference between the two groups (exposed group-control group) was -4.7 % [95 % CI: (-8.2 %, -1.2 %)]. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that sex (male) [OR: 3.145; 95 % CI: 1.036-9.545; P = 0.043] and age (> 48 years) [odds ratio (OR): 1.044; 95 % CI: 1.001-1.088; P = 0.044] were independent risk factors for conversion to severe disease. Therefore, HSYF can significantly reduce the progression to severe disease in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19, which may effectively prevent and treat the disease. However, further larger clinical studies are required to verify our results.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 866-869, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719216

ABSTRACT

As the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally, determining how to prevent the spread is of paramount importance. We reported the effectiveness of different responses of 4 affected cities in preventing the COVID-19 spread. We expect the Wenzhou anti-COVID-19 measures may provide information for cities around the world that are experiencing this epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Young Adult
9.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104576, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unsatisfactory accuracy and capacity of real time RT-PCR depends on several unavoidable reasons, which cannot meet the demands for COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: 206 serum samples were collected from patients who were treated in the General Hospital of the Central Theater Command of the PLA between January 18 and April 4, 2020. 270 serum samples from healthy blood donors were used as control. IgM and total antibodies (Ab) against SARS-CoV-2 were detected by Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA). RESULTS: Among the 206 patients, the positive rate of IgM and Ab were 149/206 (72.3 %) and 187/206 (90.8 %), respectively. And the specificity of IgM and Ab detection were 99.3 % and 98.9 %, respectively. The sensitivity of CMIA for Ab detection was significantly higher than that of IgM. An increase of the positive rate and S/CO value for detecting IgM and Ab accompanied with the increasing of days post-disease onset (d.p.o.) were observed. The positive rate of Ab detected by CMIA increased rapidly after 7 d.p.o., while that of IgM was obviously increased after 14 d.p.o.. In addition, the age and gender of these patients did not affect the seroconversion and titer of antibodies during the whole course. The disease-severity of patients had no effect on the seroconversion of antibodies. However, the critical patients possessed a much higher antibody titers than the no-critical cases after 14 d.p.o.. CONCLUSIONS: The CMIA can provide important complementation to nucleic acid assay and help to enhance the accuracy and capacity of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

10.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105126, 2020 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), China has made progress in the prevention and control of the epidemic, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a key role in dealing with the disease's effects on the respiratory system. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the clinical efficacy and prognosis of Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 283 patients participated in this clinical trial, and participants were randomly assigned to receive either 1) Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules or 2) Linahua granules, both combined with western medicine, or 3) western medicine alone for 14 days. At the end of the trial, the improvement and resolution rates of clinical symptoms and the rate of patients who progressed to severe disease status were evaluated. RESULTS: After 14 days of treatment, there was no significant difference in the improvement rate of clinical symptoms among the three groups (P > 0.05). Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills combined with Lianhua Qingwen granules has advantages in the treatment of nausea, vomiting and limb soreness. During treatment, all participants were treated with western medicine, and there was a significant difference in the use of macrolides among the three groups (P < 0.05). Specifically, the utilization rate of antibiotics in the western medicine group was significantly greater than that of the other two groups. Among the 182 diagnosed patients who completed this clinical trial, 13 patients progressed to severe disease, including one case in the Huoxiang + Lianhua group (1.6 %), five cases in the Lianhua group (8.6 %), and seven cases in the western medicine group (11.1 %). There was no statistical differences in this rate among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, the proportion of patients who progressed to severe disease in the Huoxiang + Lianhua group was the lowest, suggesting that the combination of TCM with western medicine has a potential advantage in improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The use of Huoxiang Zhengqi dropping pills and Lianhua Qingwen granules combined with western medicine may have clinical advantages for COVID-19 patients in improving clinical symptoms, reducing utilization rate of anti-infective drugs, and improving patient prognosis, which could pave the way for the use of complementary medicine in treating this infection.

11.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2020 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696159
12.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemics pose a great challenge to health care of patients. However, the impact of unprecedented situation of COVID-19 outbreak on healthcare of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in real-world setting has seldom been investigated. METHODS: We performed an observational study in a tertiary referral IBD center in China. The mode of healthcare and medication use was compared before and after COVID-19 outbreak. Electronic questionnaire surveys were performed amongst gastroenterologists and IBD patients to investigate impact of COVID-19 outbreak on their attitudes towards telemedicine. RESULTS: COVID-19 outbreak resulted in substantial decrease of patients participating in standard face-to-face visit during one month post-outbreak (n=51) than pre-outbreak (n=249), whereas the participation in telemedicine was significantly higher than comparable period in 2019 (414 vs 93). During the one month after COVID-19 outbreak, 39 (39/56, 69.6%) patients had their infliximab infusion postponed with the mean delay of 3 weeks. The immunomodulator use was similar between pre- and post-outbreak. Six elective surgeries were postponed for a median of 43 days. In post-outbreak period, 193 (193/297, 64.98%) of the surveyed physicians have used telemedicine with an increase of 18.9% compared to 46.13% (137/292) in the pre-outbreak period (p<0.001). 331(331/505, 65.54%) of the surveyed IBD patients supported that use of telemedicine should be increased in future healthcare. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a great change in health care access among IBD patients including decrease in standard face-to-face visit and delay of biologics use. There was an increased use and need of telemedicine after COVID-19 outbreak.

13.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691288

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates receptor binding and cell entry and is the dominant target of the immune system. It exhibits substantial conformational flexibility. It transitions from closed to open conformations to expose its receptor-binding site and, subsequently, from prefusion to postfusion conformations to mediate fusion of viral and cellular membranes. S-protein derivatives are components of vaccine candidates and diagnostic assays, as well as tools for research into the biology and immunology of SARS-CoV-2. Here we have designed mutations in S that allow the production of thermostable, disulfide-bonded S-protein trimers that are trapped in the closed, prefusion state. Structures of the disulfide-stabilized and non-disulfide-stabilized proteins reveal distinct closed and locked conformations of the S trimer. We demonstrate that the designed, thermostable, closed S trimer can be used in serological assays. This protein has potential applications as a reagent for serology, virology and as an immunogen.

14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(1): 87-93, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688925

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to provide scientific basis for rapid screening and early diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through analysing the clinical characteristics and early imaging/laboratory findings of the inpatients. Methods: Three hundred and three patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from the East Hospital of People's Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) were selected and divided into four groups: youth (20-40 years, n = 64), middle-aged (41-60 years, n = 89), older (61-80 years, n = 118) and elderly (81-100 years, n = 32). The clinical characteristics and imaging/laboratory findings including chest computed tomography (CT), initial blood count, C-reactive protein [CRP]), procalcitonin (PCT) and serum total IgE were captured and analysed. Results: (1) The first symptoms of all age groups were primarily fever (76%), followed by cough (12%) and dyspnoea (5%). Beside fever, the most common initial symptom of elderly patients was fatigue (13%). (2) Fever was the most common clinical manifestation (80%), with moderate fever being the most common (40%), followed by low fever in patients above 40 years old and high fever in those under 40 years (35%). Cough was the second most common clinical manifestation and was most common (80%) in the middle-aged. Diarrhoea was more common in the middle-aged (21%) and the older (19%). Muscle ache was more common in the middle-aged (15%). Chest pain was more common in the youth (13%), and 13% of the youth had no symptoms. (3) The proportion of patients with comorbidities increased with age. (4) Seventy-one per cent of the patients had positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results and 29% had positive chest CT scans before admission to the hospital. (5) Lesions in all lobes of the lung were observed as the main chest CT findings (76%). (6) Decrease in lymphocytes and increase in monocytes were common in the patients over 40 years old but rare in the youth. Eosinophils (50%), red blood cells (39%) and haemoglobin (40%) decreased in all age groups. (7) The proportion of patients with CRP and PCT elevation increased with age. (8) Thirty-nine per cent of the patients had elevated IgE, with the highest proportion in the old (49%). Conclusion: The clinical characteristics and imaging/laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients vary in different age groups. Personalised criteria should be formulated according to different age groups in the early screening and diagnosis stage.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
15.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 12(51): 3201-3210, 20200628.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-684124

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Qingkailing Injection in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The active components and target proteins of Gardeniae Fructus, Isatidis Radix, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and other materials in Qingkailing Injection were obtained by means of literature search and TCMSP. Uniprot database was used to search the target genes corresponding to the active ingredients, and Cytoscape 3.7.2 was used to construct the drug-compound-target network. The enrichment analysis of KEGG pathway was carried out with the help of DAVID database to predict its mechanism. Core active components and potential targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs were verified by molecular docking. Results: The drug-compound- target network consisted of five drugs, 62 compounds and 70 targets. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis included 41 signaling pathways (P < 0.05), which were mainly involved in cell apoptosis, Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, etc. Molecular docking results showed that acacetin and syrigin had strong affinity with potential targets of anti-COVID-19 drugs. Conclusion: In this study, the effect of Qingkailing Injection has the characteristics of multiple components, multiple targets and multiple pathways. The active component, acacetin, can regulate the apoptosis pathway and TNF pathway by acting on CASP3, CASP8, FASLG, and other targets, so as to realize the potential therapeutic effect on COVID-19.

16.
Emerg. Mark. Financ. Trade ; 10(56): 2198-2212, 20200808.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-670539

ABSTRACT

In this article, we use an event study approach to empirically study the market performance and response trends of Chinese industries to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study found that transportation, mining, electricity & heating, and environment industries have been adversely impacted by the pandemic. However, manufacturing, information technology, education and health-care industries have been resilient to the pandemic.

17.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(10): 2651-2658, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634849

ABSTRACT

To investigate the feasibility of lung ultrasound in evaluating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and distinguish the sonographic features between COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a total of 12 COVID-19 patients and 20 CAP patients were selected and underwent lung ultrasound. The modified Buda scoring system for interstitial lung disease was used to evaluate the severity and treatment effect of COVID-19 on ultrasonography. The differences between modified lung ultrasound (MLUS) score and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Warrick score were analyzed to evaluate their correlation. COVID-19 showed the following sonographic features: thickening (12/12), blurred (9/12), discontinuous (6/12) pleural line; rocket sign (4/12), partially diffused B-line (12/12), completely diffused B-line (10/12), waterfall sign (4/12); C-line sign (5/12); pleural effusion (1/12) and pulmonary balloon (Am line, 1/12). The last two features were rarely seen. Differences of ultrasonic features, including lesion range, lung signs and pneumonia-related complications, between COVID-19 and CAP were statistically significant (p˂ 0.05 or 0.001). MLUS scores (p = 0.006) and HRCT Warrick scores (p = 0.015) increased as the severity of COVID-19 increased. The differences between moderate (29.00 [25.75-37.50]) and severe (43.00 [38.75-47.25]) (p = 0.022) or between moderate and critical (47.50 [44.25-50.00]) (p = 0.002) type COVID-19 were statistically significant, compared with those between severe and critical types. Correlation between MLUS scores and HRCT Warrick scores was positive (r = 0.54, p = 0.048). MLUS scores (Z = 2.61, p = 0.009) and HRCT Warrick scores (Z = 2.63, p = 0.009) of five severe or critical COVID-19 patients significantly decreased as their conditions improved after treatment. The differences of sonographic features between COVID-19 and CAP patients were notable. The MLUS scoring system could be used to evaluate the severity and treatment effect of COVID-19.

18.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622536

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. Although it has been reported that some COVID-19 patients showed elevated liver biochemistries, there are few studies regarding clinical features and prognosis of these patients. In this multicenter, retrospective study, we collected data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, who died or were discharged between February 1, 2020, and February 20, 2020. The data on demographics, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations on admission, complications, treatment, and outcome were collected. A total of 482 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 142 (29.5%) patients showed abnormal liver biochemistries on admission, and patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TBIL) accounted for 67.6%, 69.0%, and 16.2%, respectively. Those with abnormal liver biochemistries showed higher percentages of severe cases and comorbidities and were more likely to have dyspnea, chest distress or pain, and increased hemoglobin (Hb) on admission. Higher rates of complications and mortality and worse recovery when discharged were observed in patients with abnormal AST or TBIL. The multivariable regression analysis showed that chest distress or pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.765; P = 0.018), dyspnea (OR, 2.495; P = 0.001), elevated C-reactive protein [CRP] level (OR, 1.007; P = 0.008), elevated white blood count (WBC) (OR, 1.139; P = 0.013), and elevated Hb concentration (OR, 1.024; P = 0.001) were independent factors associated with elevated liver biochemistries in COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Elevated liver biochemistries were common in COVID-19 patients. Patients with hypoxia or severe inflammation are more likely to experience increased liver biochemistries on admission. Those with abnormal AST or TBIL on admission are more likely to suffer from severe complications and death.

19.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607399

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leads to a series of clinical symptoms of respiratory and pulmonary inflammatory reactions via unknown pathologic mechanisms related to the viral infection process in tracheal or bronchial epithelial cells. Investigation of this viral infection in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can enter these cells through interaction between its membrane-localized S protein with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 molecule on the host cell membrane. Further observation indicates distinct viral replication with a dynamic and moderate increase, whereby viral replication does not lead to a specific cytopathic effect but maintains a continuous release of progeny virions from infected cells. Although messenger RNA expression of various innate immune signaling molecules is altered in the cells, transcription of interferons-α (IFN-α), IFN-ß, and IFN-γ is unchanged. Furthermore, expression of some interleukins (IL) related to inflammatory reactions, such as IL-6, IL-2, and IL-8, is maintained at low levels, whereas that of ILs involved in immune regulation is upregulated. Interestingly, IL-22, an IL that functions mainly in tissue repair, shows very high expression. Collectively, these data suggest a distinct infection process for this virus in respiratory epithelial cells, which may be linked to its clinicopathological mechanism.

20.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923985, 2020 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), occurred in Wuhan, China. Patients with COVID-19 were also identified in Chongqing. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of cluster cases and sporadic cases of COVID-19 in 141 patients in the main district of Chongqing during one month, between January and February 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study included 141 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. The diagnosis was confirmed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. The patients were divided into cluster cases (n=90) and sporadic cases (n=51). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between the two study groups and included the presence of comorbidities, the presenting symptoms, chest computed tomography (CT) imaging findings, and laboratory findings. RESULTS The mean age of the 141 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 was 47.3 years, and the most common presenting symptom was a persistent cough (48.9%). The 90 cluster cases (63.8%) were older than the sporadic cases, and cross-infection from family gathering occurred in 82.2%, and cough was more common than fever, and there was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic, mild, and moderate cases. Cluster cases showed fewer typical manifestations of COVID-19 on chest CT. However, the laboratory findings between the cluster and sporadic cases showed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS There were demographic and clinical differences between cluster cases and sporadic cases of COVID-19 in the main district of Chongqing during the month between January to February 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Demography , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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