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1.
Bioanalysis ; 15(10): 581-589, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239009

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study was designed to analyze the requirements for clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing to explore the rationality and scientific rigor of clinical trials. Methods: The guidelines for the listing of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests were compared and the requirements for clinical trials were analyzed to find similarities and differences between China, the USA and Europe. Results: The requirements for clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests in China, the USA and Europe were consistent in terms of methods. However, differences were found in the requirements for protocol design. Conclusion: The differences in clinical trial requirements stem from regulations and the actual conditions across regions, but all clinical trials are designed to obtain valid clinical performance of products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , COVID-19/diagnosis , Europe , Immunologic Tests , United States
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238604

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic enters its fourth year, it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although various vaccines have been approved and the use of homologous or heterologous boost doses is widely promoted, the impact of vaccine antigen basis, forms, dosages, and administration routes on the duration and spectrum of vaccine-induced immunity against variants remains incompletely understood. (2) Methods: In this study, we investigated the effects of combining a full-length spike mRNA vaccine with a recombinant S1 protein vaccine, using intradermal/intramuscular, homologous/heterologous, and high/low dosage immunization strategies. (3) Results: Over a period of seven months, vaccination with a mutant recombinant S1 protein vaccine based on the full-length spike mRNA vaccine maintained a broadly stable humoral immunity against the wild-type strain, a partially attenuated but broader-spectrum immunity against variant strains, and a comparable level of cellular immunity across all tested strains. Furthermore, intradermal vaccination enhanced the heterologous boosting of the protein vaccine based on the mRNA vaccine. (4) Conclusions: This study provides valuable insights into optimizing vaccination strategies to address the ongoing challenges posed by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

3.
Growth Change ; 2022 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237408

ABSTRACT

By examining China's province-level data, this paper uses governmental intervention theory to investigate the extent to which governmental policy interventions alleviate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on local economic growth. Results suggest that stronger government intervention during COVID-19 pandemic boost the economic recovery, and the effectiveness of governmental policy interventions is contingent on pandemic severity and local economic endowment. Specifically, facilitating effect of government intervention on economic growth is effective in all provinces, and the impact of government intervention is more pronounced in the province with more diagnosed cases, a high level of marketization and fiscal income.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1191608, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245304

ABSTRACT

Background: Azvudine (FNC) is a promising treatment candidate for managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, drug interactions with azvudine have been poorly studied, especially with no reported cases of azvudine with anticoagulants such as warfarin and rivaroxaban. Case summary: The patient was diagnosed with lower limb venous thrombosis and took warfarin regularly. The international normalized ratio (INR) was stable (2.0-3.0). However, the INR increased to 7.52 after administering azvudine. The patient had no other factors justifying this change. This increase in INR occurred again with the administration of azvudine in combination with rivaroxaban, and the INR increased to 18.91. After azvudine administration was stopped, the INR did not increase when rivaroxaban was used alone. Conclusion: Azvudine, warfarin, and rivaroxaban might have previously unidentified drug interactions that increased the INR. Therefore, the INR must be closely monitored when they are concomitantly administered in COVID-19 patients.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(21): e33806, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NETosis is a critical innate immune mechanism of neutrophils that contributes to the accelerated progression of autoimmune diseases, thrombosis, cancer, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the relevant literature by bibliometric methods in order to provide a more comprehensive and objective view of the knowledge dynamics in the field. METHODS: The literature on NETosis was downloaded from the Web of Science Core Collection, analyzed with VOSviewer, CiteSpace, and Microsoft for co-authorship, co-occurrence, and co-citation analysis. RESULTS: In the field of NETosis, the United States was the most influential countries. Harvard University was the most active institutions. Mariana J. Kaplan and Brinkmann V were, respectively, the most prolific and most co-cited authors. Frontiers in Immunology, Journal of Immunology, Plos One, Blood, Science, Journal of Cell Biology, and Nature Medicine were the most influential journals. The top 15 keywords are associated with immunological and NETosis formation mechanisms. The keywords with the strongest burst detection were mainly related to COVID-19 (coronavirus, ACE2, SARS coronavirus, cytokine storm, pneumonia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio), and cancer (circulating tumor cell). CONCLUSION: Research on NETosis is currently booming. The mechanism of NETosis and its role in innate immunity, autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and thrombosis are the focus of research in the field of NETosis. A future study will concentrate on the function of NETosis in COVID-19 and recurrent metastasis of cancer.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , Authorship , Bibliometrics
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 892: 164496, 2023 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327808

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has notably impacted the world economy and human activities. However, the strict urban lockdown policies implemented in various countries appear to have positively affected pollution and the thermal environment. In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data were selected, combined with Sentinel-5P images and meteorological elements, to analyze the changes and associations among air pollution, LST, and urban heat islands (UHIs) in three urban agglomerations in mainland China during the COVID-19 lockdown. The results showed that during the COVID-19 lockdown period (February 2020), the levels of the AOD and atmospheric pollutants (fine particles (PM2.5), NO2, and CO) significantly decreased. Among them, PM2.5 and NO2 decreased the most in all urban agglomerations, by >14 %. Notably, the continued improvement in air pollution attributed to China's strict control policies could lead to overestimation of the enhanced air quality during the lockdown. The surface temperature in all three urban agglomerations increased by >1 °C during the lockdown, which was mainly due to climate factors, but we also showed that the lockdown constrained positive LST anomalies. The decrease in the nighttime urban heat island intensity (UHIInight) in the three urban agglomerations was greater than that in the daytime quantity by >25 %. The reduction in surface UHIs at night was mainly due to the reduced human activities and air pollutant emissions. Although strict restrictions on human activities positively affected air pollution and UHIs, these changes were quickly reverted when lockdown policies were relaxed. Moreover, small-scale lockdowns contributed little to environmental improvement. Our results have implications for assessing the environmental benefits of city-scale lockdowns.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Hot Temperature , Temperature , East Asian People , Nitrogen Dioxide , Environmental Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
7.
Aging Dis ; 2023 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311827

ABSTRACT

To study the long-term symptom burden among older COVID-19 survivors 2 years after hospital discharge and identify associated risk factors. The current cohort study included COVID-19 survivors aged 60 years and above, who were discharged between February 12 and April 10, 2020, from two designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. All patients were contacted via telephone and completed a standardized questionnaire assessing self-reported symptoms, the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS)-fatigue subscale, and two subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Of the 1,212 patients surveyed, the median (IQR) age was 68.0 (64.0-72.0), and 586 (48.3%) were male. At the two-year follow-up, 259 patients (21.4%) still reported at least one symptom. The most frequently self-reported symptoms were fatigue, anxiety, and dyspnea. Fatigue or myalgia, which was the most common symptom cluster (11.8%; 143/1212), often co-occurred with anxiety and chest symptoms. A total of 89 patients (7.7%) had CIS-fatigue scores ≥ 27, with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05-1.11, P < 0.001) and oxygen therapy (OR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.06-4.50, P= 0.03) being risk factors. A total of 43 patients (3.8%) had HADS-Anxiety scores ≥ 8, and 130 patients (11.5%) had HADS-Depression scores ≥ 8. For the 59 patients (5.2%) who had HADS total scores ≥ 16, older age, serious illness during hospitalization and coexisting cerebrovascular diseases were risk factors. Cooccurring fatigue, anxiety, and chest symptoms, as well as depression, were mainly responsible for long-term symptom burden among older COVID-19 survivors 2 years after discharge.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1064962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311819

ABSTRACT

Aim: Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies to contain the transmission of infectious diseases; however, people's intentions and behavior for vaccination vary across different regions and countries around the world. It is not clear how socioecological factors such as residential mobility influence people's vaccination behaviors for infectious diseases. Methods: We analyzed public data on residential mobility and vaccination rates for COVID-19 and seasonal flu in the United States and explored how residential mobility in the previous year influenced vaccination rates for COVID-19 and seasonal flu (2011-2018) across 50 states of the US. The data were accessed and analyzed in 2021. Results: Study 1 demonstrated that collective-level residential mobility predicted COVID-19 vaccination rates across the United States (B = -168.162, 95% CI [-307.097, -29.227], adjusted R 2 = 0.091, p = 0.019). Study 2 corroborated this finding by documenting that collective-level residential mobility predicted vaccination rates for seasonal flu from 2011 to 2018 across the United States (B = -0.789, 95% CI = [-1.018, -0.56], adjusted R 2 = 0.222, p < 0.001). The link between residential mobility and vaccination behavior was robust after controlling relevant variables, including collectivism, cultural tightness-looseness, and sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that residential mobility is an important socioecological factor that influences people's vaccination behaviors for COVID-19 and seasonal flu. The results enrich our understanding of the socioecological factors that influence vaccination behaviors and have implications for developing tailored interventions to promote vaccination during pandemics of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Seasons , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Population Dynamics
9.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1158163, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305516

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ongoing 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, is a global public health threat. Early diagnosis and identification of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants plays a critical role in COVID-19 prevention and control. Currently, the most widely used technique to detect SARS-CoV-2 is quantitative reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which takes nearly 1 hour and should be performed by experienced personnel to ensure the accuracy of results. Therefore, the development of a nucleic acid detection kit with higher sensitivity, faster detection and greater accuracy is important. Methods: Here, we optimized the system components and reaction conditions of our previous detection approach by using RT-RAA and Cas12b. Results: We developed a Cas12b-assisted one-pot detection platform (CDetection.v2) that allows rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 30 minutes. This platform was able to detect up to 5,000 copies/ml of SARS-CoV-2 without cross-reactivity with other viruses. Moreover, the sensitivity of this CRISPR system was comparable to that of RT-qPCR when tested on 120 clinical samples. Discussion: The CDetection.v2 provides a novel one-pot detection approach based on the integration of RT-RAA and CRISPR/Cas12b for detecting SARS-CoV-2 and screening of large-scale clinical samples, offering a more efficient strategy for detecting various types of viruses.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 11(16): 3484-3510, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288921

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) has become a key focus in the development of therapeutic agents, showing significant potential in preventing and treating a wide range of diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has accelerated the development of mRNA nucleic therapeutics and attracted significant investment from global biopharmaceutical companies. These therapeutics deliver genetic information into cells without altering the host genome, making them a promising treatment option. However, their clinical applications have been limited by issues such as instability, inefficient in vivo delivery, and low translational efficiency. Recent advances in molecular design and nanotechnology have helped overcome these challenges, and several mRNA formulations have demonstrated promising results in both animal and human testing against infectious diseases and cancer. This review provides an overview of the latest research progress in structural optimization strategies and delivery systems, and discusses key considerations for their future clinical use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Nanotechnology/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/methods
11.
Front Nutr ; 10: 1131103, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288698

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality, ICU admission, and the rates of mechanical ventilation or intubation among COVID-19 patients. Data sources and study selection: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang databases were searched from 1 December 2019 to 31 December 2022. The authors sought to identify randomized controlled trials and cohort studies that examined the relationship between vitamin D supplementation and mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation or intubation rates among COVID-19 patients. Data extraction and synthesis: Two investigators independently searched the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3, STATA 15.1, and R 4.1.3 software. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and eight cohort studies were included, involving 3359 COVID-19 patients. The pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that vitamin D supplementation did not have a significant effect on reducing mortality (Relative Risk, RR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.69-1.29, P = 0.7), while the results of cohort studies indicated that vitamin D supplementation had a positive impact on reducing mortality among COVID-19 patients (RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.23-0.47, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of ICU admission (RCTs: RR = 0.64, 95%CI 0.38-1.08, P = 0.10; cohort studies: RR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.08-1.29, P = 0.109) or rates of mechanical ventilation or intubation (RCTs: RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.58-1.02, P = 0.07; cohort studies: RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.55-1.58, P = 0.789). Conclusion: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that vitamin D supplementation does not have a significant impact on reducing mortality, ICU admission, and the rates of mechanical ventilation or intubation among COVID-19 patients. However, due to the limited number and quality of the studies included, further high-quality studies are needed to confirm these findings. Systematic review registration: www.crd.york.ac.uk, identifier CRD42021299521.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288126

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike (S) protein is a critical viral antigenic protein that enables the production of neutralizing antibodies, while other structural proteins, including the membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and envelope (E) proteins, have unclear roles in antiviral immunity. In this study, S1, S2, M, N and E proteins were expressed in 16HBE cells to explore the characteristics of the resultant innate immune response. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from mice immunized with two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or two doses of mRNA vaccine were isolated and stimulated by these five proteins to evaluate the corresponding specific T-cell immune response. In addition, the levels of humoral immunity induced by two-dose inactivated vaccine priming followed by mRNA vaccine boosting, two homologous inactivated vaccine doses and two homologous mRNA vaccine doses in immunized mice were compared. Our results suggested that viral structural proteins can activate the innate immune response and elicit a specific T-cell response in mice immunized with the inactivated vaccine. However, the existence of the specific T-cell response against M, N and E is seemingly insufficient to improve the level of humoral immunity.

13.
Vaccine ; 41(17): 2837-2845, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287513

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute and highly pathogenic infectious disease in humans caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Six months after immunization with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, however, antibodies are almost depleted. Intradermal immunization could be a new way to solve the problem of nondurable antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 or the poor immune protection against variant strains. We evaluated the preclinical safety of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for intradermal immunization in rhesus monkeys. The results showed that there were no obvious abnormalities in the general clinical condition, food intake, body weight or ophthalmologic examination except for a reaction at the local vaccination site. In the hematology examination, bone marrow imaging, serum biochemistry, and routine urine testing, the related indexes of each group fluctuated to different degrees after administration, but there was no dose-response or time-response correlation. The neutralization antibody and ELISpot results also showed that strong humoral and cellular immunity could be induced after vaccination, and the levels of neutralizing antibodies increased with certain dose- and time-response trends. The results of a repeated-administration toxicity test in rhesus monkeys intradermally inoculated with a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine showed good safety and immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Chlorocebus aethiops , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines
14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 141(4): 333-340, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286027

ABSTRACT

Importance: Progression of myopia in a school-aged population due to home confinement (January to May 2021) during the COVID-19 pandemic has been previously reported. A key remaining question was whether the myopia spike in children aged 6 to 8 years persisted. Objective: To investigate the changes in refractive status and prevalence of myopia in school-aged children 1 year after home confinement ended in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study with a cohort substudy prospectively evaluated data from school-based photoscreening in Feicheng, China. Children aged 6 to 13 years participated in 8 screenings from 2015 to 2021. Exposures: Noncycloplegic photorefraction was conducted using the Spot Vision photoscreener. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the differences in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and prevalence of myopia between 2020 (during home confinement) and 2021 (after home confinement). The SER was recorded for each child, and the prevalence of myopia was calculated annually for each age group. Results: A total of 325 443 children participated in the study (51.4% boys, 48.6% girls; age range, 6 to 13 years). Compared with 2020, the mean SER of children in 2021 increased significantly for those aged 6 (0.42 diopters [D]), 7 (0.41 D), and 8 (0.33 D) years. The prevalence of myopia in 2021 was similar to in 2019 for each age group (aged 6 years: 7.9% vs 5.7%; aged 7 years: 13.9% vs 13.6%; aged 8 years: 29.5% vs 26.2%). Both the prevalence of myopia and mean SER for these children returned to their prepandemic levels. Conclusions and Relevance: Compared with 2020, the prevalence of myopia among children aged 6 to 8 years in the 2021 screenings decreased, and the mean SER returned to prepandemic level. The refractive development in children aged 6 to 8 years may be most susceptible to environmental changes. These findings support the premise that age 6 to 8 years is a critical period for myopia development and suggest a need to focus preventive interventions for myopia control on children in this age range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Follow-Up Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/epidemiology , Refraction, Ocular , China/epidemiology
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1059465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257660

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the associations between anthropometric indicators and refraction in school-aged children in the post-COVID-19 era. Methods: Data were collected from 25,644 children aged 7 to 12 years in 48 elementary schools in Tianjin. The comprehensive examination included height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), refraction, and calculation of BMI, with a follow-up visit after 6 months. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction (SER) ≤-0.50 diopter (D). Bivariate correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression models were used to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between anthropometric indicators (height, weight, BMI, SBP, and DBP) and refraction. Results: The mean changes in height, weight, BMI, SBP, DBP, and SER of the participants were 4.03 ± 2.18 cm, 3.10 ± 2.39 kg, 0.45 ± 1.16 kg/m2, 2.26 ± 14.74 mmHg, 2.18 ± 11.79 mmHg and -0.17 ± 0.51 D, respectively. Overall, height, weight, BMI, SBP, and DBP were all correlated with SER (r = -0.324, r = -0.234, r = -0.121, r = -0.112, r = -0.066, both p < 0.001), and changes in height and weight were correlated with changes in SER (r = -0.034, -0.031, both p < 0.001). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the association of BMI, SBP, and DBP with SER was significant in myopic children but not in non-myopic children. The association between changes in weight and changes in SER was only present in non-myopic children but not in myopic children. Conclusion: Height and weight were negatively correlated with SER in both cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal changes, indicating that children's height, weight and growth rate may be used as a reference indicator for myopia risk prediction and myopia progression monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Refraction, Ocular , Anthropometry , Myopia/epidemiology
17.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1066730, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268658

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants stresses the continued need for broad-spectrum therapeutic antibodies. Several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies or cocktails have been introduced for clinical use. However, unremitting emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants showed reduced neutralizing efficacy by vaccine induced polyclonal antibodies or therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. In our study, polyclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments with strong affinity produced after equine immunization with RBD proteins produced strong affinity. Notably, specific equine IgG and F(ab')2 have broad and high neutralizing activity against parental virus, all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1,7, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, P.1, B.1.1.529 and BA.2, and all variants of interest (VOIs) including B.1.429, P.2, B.1.525, P.3, B.1.526, B.1.617.1, C.37 and B.1.621. Although some variants weaken the neutralizing ability of equine IgG and F(ab')2 fragments, they still exhibited superior neutralization ability against mutants compared to some reported monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, we tested the pre-exposure and post-exposure protective efficacy of the equine immunoglobulin IgG and F(ab')2 fragments in lethal mouse and susceptible golden hamster models. Equine immunoglobulin IgG and F(ab')2 fragments effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, fully protected BALB/c mice from the lethal challenge, and reduced golden hamster's lung pathological change. Therefore, equine pAbs are an adequate, broad coverage, affordable and scalable potential clinical immunotherapy for COVID-19, particularly for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs or VOIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Horses , Humans , Mice , Rodentia , Mesocricetus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Immunoglobulin G , Mice, Inbred BALB C
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 130: 60-70, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Asymptomatic infections and mild diseases were more common during the Omicron outbreak in Shanghai, China in 2022. This study aimed to assess the characteristics and viral RNA decay between patients with asymptomatic and mild infections. METHODS: A total of 55,111 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were quarantined in the National Exhibition & Convention Center (Shanghai) Fangcang shelter hospital within 3 days after diagnosis from April 9 to May 23, 2022 were enrolled. The kinetics of cycle threshold (Ct) values of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were assessed. The influencing factors for disease progression and the risk factors for the viral RNA shedding time (VST) were investigated. RESULTS: On admission, 79.6% (43,852/55,111) of the cases were diagnosed with asymptomatic infections, and 20.4% were mild diseases. However, 78.0% of initially asymptomatic subjects developed mild diseases at the follow-up. The final proportion of asymptomatic infections was 17.5%. The median time of symptom onset, the duration of symptoms, and the VST were 2 days, 5 days, and 7 days, respectively. Female, age 19-40 years, underlying comorbidities with hypertension and diabetes, and vaccination were associated with higher risks of progressing to mildly symptomatic infections. In addition, mildly symptomatic infections were found to be associated with prolonged VST compared with asymptomatic infections. However, the kinetics of viral RNA decay and dynamics of Ct values were similar among asymptomatic subjects, patients with asymptomatic-to-mild infection, and patients with mild infection. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of initially diagnosed asymptomatic Omicron infections is in the presymptomatic stage. The Omicron infection has a much shorter incubation period and VST than previous variants. The infectivity of asymptomatic infections and mildly symptomatic infections with Omicron is similar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Special , China/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units
19.
Biosci Trends ; 17(2): 85-116, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250322

ABSTRACT

Over three years have passed since the COVID-19 pandemic started. The dangerousness and impact of COVID-19 should definitely not be ignored or underestimated. Other than the symptoms of acute infection, the long-term symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are referred to here as "sequelae of long COVID (LC)", are also a conspicuous global public health concern. Although such sequelae were well-documented, the understanding of and insights regarding LC-related sequelae remain inadequate due to the limitations of previous studies (the follow-up, methodological flaws, heterogeneity among studies, etc.). Notably, robust evidence regarding diagnosis and treatment of certain LC sequelae remain insufficient and has been a stumbling block to better management of these patients. This awkward situation motivated us to conduct this review. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the updated information, particularly focusing on clinical issues. We attempt to provide the latest information regarding LC-related sequelae by systematically reviewing the involvement of main organ systems. We also propose paths for future exploration based on available knowledge and the authors' clinical experience. We believe that these take-home messages will be helpful to gain insights into LC and ultimately benefit clinical practice in treating LC-related sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Pandemics , Public Health
20.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has amplified preexisting racism and xenophobia. In this study, we investigated (a) whether perceived personal and group discrimination make distinct contributions to Chinese Canadians' negative affect and concern that the heightened discrimination they experienced during the pandemic will continue after the pandemic; (b) whether Canadian and Chinese identities and social support moderate the effect of discrimination on this concern; and (c) whether race-based rejection sensitivity (RS) explains why each type of discrimination predicts negative affect and expectation of future discrimination. METHOD: A sample of Chinese Canadian adults across Canadian provinces (N = 516; Mage = 42.74, 53.3% females) completed a questionnaire assessing personal and group discrimination, Chinese and Canadian identity, a short form of race-based RS, negative affect, and expectation of future discrimination. RESULTS: Personal and group discrimination were intercorrelated and positively associated with negative emotion and expectation of future discrimination. Chinese Canadians who identified more strongly as Chinese experienced a less adverse impact related to group discrimination. However, those who identified more (vs. less) strongly as Canadians were more likely to be impacted by personal discrimination. Finally, path analysis revealed that both personal and group discrimination were positively associated with RS, which in turn predicted an expectation that long-lasting racism would continue after the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Group and personal discrimination play different roles in Chinese Canadians' experiences during and expectations after the pandemic. Maintaining Chinese identity can be beneficial to Chinese Canadians, particularly in mitigating the negative effect of group discrimination during the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

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