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J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28455, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269397


Traditional observational studies have suggested a potential association between trans fatty acids (TFAs), which are considered to be health-damaging fatty acids, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether there is a causal relationship between them is currently unclear. We aimed to investigate the causal link between genetically determined TFAs and COVID-19. We performed univariate and multivariate Mendelian randomization (MR) studies using summary statistics from the European Pedigree TFAs (n = 8013), COVID-19 susceptibility (n = 159 840), COVID-19 hospitalization (n = 44 986), and COVID-19 severity (n = 18 152) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary MR analysis, and several other methods were used as supplements. In univariate MR analysis, higher levels of circulating trans, cis-18:2 TFAs were positively associated with a higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (p < 0.0033; odds ratio [OR] = 1.637; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.116-2.401) and COVID-19 severity (p < 0.0033; OR = 2.575; 95% CI: 1.412-4.698). Furthermore, in multivariate MR analysis, trans, cis-18:2 had an independent and significant causal association with a higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (p = 0.00044; OR = 1.862; 95% CI = 1.316-2.636) and COVID-19 severity (p = 0.0016; OR = 2.268; 95% CI = 1.361-3.779) after the five TFAs were adjusted for each other. Together, our findings provide evidence that trans, cis-18:2 TFAs have an independent and robust causal effect on COVID-19 hospitalization and severity.

COVID-19 , Trans Fatty Acids , Humans , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Dietary Supplements , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Physiol Rev ; 101(4): 1745-1807, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216831


The prevalence of heart failure is on the rise and imposes a major health threat, in part, due to the rapidly increased prevalence of overweight and obesity. To this point, epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence supports the existence of a unique disease entity termed "obesity cardiomyopathy," which develops independent of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and other heart diseases. Our contemporary review evaluates the evidence for this pathological condition, examines putative responsible mechanisms, and discusses therapeutic options for this disorder. Clinical findings have consolidated the presence of left ventricular dysfunction in obesity. Experimental investigations have uncovered pathophysiological changes in myocardial structure and function in genetically predisposed and diet-induced obesity. Indeed, contemporary evidence consolidates a wide array of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology of obesity cardiomyopathy including adipose tissue dysfunction, systemic inflammation, metabolic disturbances (insulin resistance, abnormal glucose transport, spillover of free fatty acids, lipotoxicity, and amino acid derangement), altered intracellular especially mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress, autophagy/mitophagy defect, myocardial fibrosis, dampened coronary flow reserve, coronary microvascular disease (microangiopathy), and endothelial impairment. Given the important role of obesity in the increased risk of heart failure, especially that with preserved systolic function and the recent rises in COVID-19-associated cardiovascular mortality, this review should provide compelling evidence for the presence of obesity cardiomyopathy, independent of various comorbid conditions, underlying mechanisms, and offer new insights into potential therapeutic approaches (pharmacological and lifestyle modification) for the clinical management of obesity cardiomyopathy.

Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Obesity/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiomyopathies/mortality , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/genetics , SARS-CoV-2