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1.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Biosaf Health ; 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588184

ABSTRACT

Although significant achievements have shown that the COVID-19 resurgence in Beijing, China, was initiated by contaminated frozen products and transported via cold chain transportation, international travelers with asymptomatic symptoms or false-negative nucleic acid may have another possible transmission mode that spread the virus into Beijing. One of the key differences between these two assumptions was whether the virus actively replicated since, so far, no reports showed viruses could stop evolution in alive hosts. We studied SARS-CoV-2 sequences in this outbreak by a modified leaf-dating method with the Bayes factor. The numbers of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) found in SARS-CoV-2 sequences were significantly lower than those called from B.1.1 records collected at the matching time worldwide (p = 0.047). In addition, results of the Leaf-dating method showed ages of viruses sampled from this outbreak were earlier than their recorded dates of collection (Bayes factors > 10), while control sequences (selected randomly with ten replicates) showed no differences in their collection dates (Bayes factors < 10). Our results which indicated that the re-emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in Beijing in June 2020 was caused by a virus that exhibited a lack of evolutionary changes compared to viruses collected at the corresponding time, provided evolutionary evidence to the contaminated imported frozen food should be responsible for the reappearance of COVID-19 cases in Beijing. The method developed here might also be helpful to provide the very first clues for potential sources of COVID-19 cases in the future.

3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(1): 14, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556195

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, simple, rapid, point-of-care tests not requiring trained personnel for primary care testing are essential. Saliva-based antigen rapid tests (ARTs) can fulfil this need, but these tests require overnight-fasted samples; without which independent studies have demonstrated sensitivities of only 11.7 to 23.1%. Herein, we report an Amplified Parallel ART (AP-ART) with sensitivity above 90%, even with non-fasted samples. The virus was captured multimodally, using both anti-spike protein antibodies and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. It also featured two parallel flow channels. The first contained spike protein binding gold nanoparticles which produced a visible red line upon encountering the virus. The second contained signal amplifying nanoparticles that complex with the former and amplify the signal without any linker. Compared to existing dual gold amplification techniques, a limit of detection of one order of magnitude lower was achieved (0.0064 ng·mL-1). AP-ART performance in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva of COVID-19 patients was investigated using a case-control study (139 participants enrolled and 162 saliva samples tested). Unlike commercially available ARTs, the sensitivity of AP-ART was maintained even when non-fasting saliva was used. Compared to the gold standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing on nasopharyngeal samples, non-fasting saliva tested on AP-ART showed a sensitivity of 97.0% (95% CI: 84.7-99.8); without amplification, the sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI: 83.7-94.8). Thus, AP-ART has the potential to be developed for point-of-care testing, which may be particularly important in resource-limited settings, and for early diagnosis to initiate newly approved therapies to reduce COVID-19 severity.

5.
Geoscience Frontiers ; : 101320, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1482603

ABSTRACT

Intensive measurements were conducted in Xi’an, China before and during a COVID-19 lockdown period to investigate how changes in anthropogenic emissions affected the optical properties and radiative effects of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol. The contribution of BrC to total aerosol light absorption during the lockdown (13%–49%) was higher compared with the normal period (4%–29%). Mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of specific organic aerosol (OA) factors were calculated from a ridge regression model. Of the primary OA (POA), coal combustion OA (CCOA) had the largest MACs at all tested wavelengths during both periods due to high molecular-weight BrC chromophores;that was followed by biomass burning OA (BBOA) and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA). For secondary OA (SOA), the MACs of the less-oxidized oxygenated OA (OOA) species (LO-OOA) at λ = 370–590 nm were higher than those of more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA) during both periods, presumably due to chromophore bleaching. The largest contributor to BrC absorption at the short wavelengths was CCOA during both periods, but BrC absorption by LO-OOA and MO-OOA became dominant at longer wavelengths during the lockdown. The estimated radiation forcing efficiency of BrC over 370–600 nm increased from 37.5 W· g-1 during the normal period to 50.2 W·g-1 during the lockdown, and that enhancement was mainly caused by higher MACs for both LO-OOA and MO-OOA. This study provides insights into the optical properties and radiative effects of source-specific BrC aerosol when pollution emissions are reduced.

6.
J Pediatr Urol ; 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458871
8.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1446838

ABSTRACT

The temporal variation of greenhouse gas concentrations in China during the COVID-19 lockdown in China is analyzed in this work using high resolution measurements of near surface △CO2, △CH4 and △CO concentrations above the background conditions at Lin'an (LAN), a regional background station in the Yangtze River Delta region. During the pre-lockdown observational period (IOP-1), both △CO2 and △CH4 exhibited a significant increasing trend relative to the 2011-2019 climatological mean. The reduction of △CO2, △CH4 and △CO during the lockdown observational period (IOP-2) (which also coincided with the Chinese New Year Holiday) reached up to 15.0 ppm, 14.2 ppb and 146.8 ppb, respectively, and a reduction of △CO2/△CO probably due to a dramatic reduction from industrial emissions. △CO2, △CH4 and △CO were observed to keep declining during the post-lockdown easing phase (IOP-3), which is the synthetic result of lower than normal CO2 emissions from rural regions around LAN coupled with strong uptake of the terrestrial ecosystem. Interestingly, the trend reversed to gradual increase for all species during the later easing phase (IOP-4), with △CO2/△CO constantly increasing from IOP-2 to IOP-3 and finally IOP-4, consistent with recovery in industrial emissions associated with the staged resumption of economic activity. On average, △CO2 declined sharply throughout the time of day during IOP-2 but increased gradually throughout the day during IOP-4. The findings showcase the significant role of emission reduction in accounting for the dramatic changes in measured atmospheric △CO2 and △CH4 associated with the COVID-19 lockdown and recovery.

10.
Front Chem ; 9: 689521, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435982

ABSTRACT

The densely glycosylated spike (S) proteins that are highly exposed on the surface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) facilitate viral attachment, entry, and membrane fusion. We have previously reported all the 22 N-glycosites and site-specific N-glycans in the S protein protomer. Herein, we report the O-glycosylation landscapes of SARS-CoV-2 S proteins, which were characterized through high-resolution mass spectrometry. Following digestion with trypsin and trypsin/Glu-C, and de-N-glycosylation using PNGase F, we determined the GalNAc-type O-glycosylation pattern of S proteins, including O-glycosites and the six most common O-glycans occupying them, via Byonic identification and manual validation. Finally, 255 intact O-glycopeptides composed of 50 peptides sequences and 43 O-glycosites were discovered by higher energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD), and three O-glycosites were confidently identified by electron transfer/higher energy collision-induced dissociation (EThcD) in the insect cell-expressed S protein. Most glycosites were modified by non-sialylated O-glycans such as HexNAc(1) and HexNAc(1)Hex (1). In contrast, in the human cell-expressed S protein S1 subunit, 407 intact O-glycopeptides composed of 34 peptides sequences and 30 O-glycosites were discovered by HCD, and 11 O-glycosites were unambiguously assigned by EThcD. However, the measurement of O-glycosylation occupancy hasn't been made. Most glycosites were modified by sialylated O-glycans such as HexNAc(1)Hex (1)NeuAc (1) and HexNAc(1)Hex (1)NeuAc (2). Our results reveal that the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is an O-glycoprotein; the O-glycosites and O-glycan compositions vary with the host cell type. These comprehensive O-glycosylation landscapes of the S protein are expected to provide novel insights into the viral binding mechanism and present a strategy for the development of vaccines and targeted drugs.

11.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427409

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic quickly spread throughout China and beyond, posing enormous global challenges. With prompt, vigorous, and coordinated control measures, mainland China contained the spread of the epidemic within two months and halted the epidemic in three months. Aggressive containment strategy, hierarchical management, rational reallocation of resources, efficient contact tracing, and voluntary cooperation of Chinese citizens contributed to the rapid and efficient control of the epidemic, thus promoting the rapid recovery of the Chinese economy. This review summarizes China's prevention and control strategies and other public health measures, which may provide a reference for the epidemic control in other countries.

15.
Virus Evol ; 6(2): veaa078, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383237

ABSTRACT

To better understand the genetic diversity, host associations and evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) in China we analyzed a total of 696 rodents encompassing 16 different species sampled from Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces. Based on reverse transcriptase PCR-based CoV screening of fecal samples and subsequent sequence analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene, we identified CoVs in diverse rodent species, comprising Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus chevrieri, Apodemus latronum, Bandicota indica, Eothenomys cachinus, Eothenomys miletus, Rattus andamanensis, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus tanezumi. CoVs were particularly commonplace in A. chevrieri, with a detection rate of 12.44 per cent (24/193). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three groups of CoVs carried by a range of rodents that were closely related to the Lucheng Rn rat CoV (LRNV), China Rattus CoV HKU24 (ChRCoV_HKU24), and Longquan Rl rat CoV (LRLV) identified previously. One newly identified A. chevrieri-associated virus closely related to LRNV lacked an NS2 gene. This virus had a similar genetic organization to AcCoV-JC34, recently discovered in the same rodent species in Yunnan, suggesting that it represents a new viral subtype. Notably, additional variants of LRNV were identified that contained putative non-structural (NS)2b genes located downstream of the NS2 gene that were likely derived from the host genome. Recombination events were also identified in the open reading frame (ORF) 1a gene of Lijiang-71. In sum, these data reveal the substantial genetic diversity and genomic complexity of rodent-borne CoVs, and extend our knowledge of these major wildlife virus reservoirs.

16.
Cell Res ; 31(10): 1047-1060, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380899

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS2) has caused a global COVID-19 pandemic. The spike protein of SARS2 (SARS2-S) recognizes host receptors, including ACE2, to initiate viral entry in a complex biomechanical environment. Here, we reveal that tensile force, generated by bending of the host cell membrane, strengthens spike recognition of ACE2 and accelerates the detachment of spike's S1 subunit from the S2 subunit to rapidly prime the viral fusion machinery. Mechanistically, such mechano-activation is fulfilled by force-induced opening and rotation of spike's receptor-binding domain to prolong the bond lifetime of spike/ACE2 binding, up to 4 times longer than that of SARS-S binding with ACE2 under 10 pN force application, and subsequently by force-accelerated S1/S2 detachment which is up to ~103 times faster than that in the no-force condition. Interestingly, the SARS2-S D614G mutant, a more infectious variant, shows 3-time stronger force-dependent ACE2 binding and 35-time faster force-induced S1/S2 detachment. We also reveal that an anti-S1/S2 non-RBD-blocking antibody that was derived from convalescent COVID-19 patients with potent neutralizing capability can reduce S1/S2 detachment by 3 × 106 times under force. Our study sheds light on the mechano-chemistry of spike activation and on developing a non-RBD-blocking but S1/S2-locking therapeutic strategy to prevent SARS2 invasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tensile Strength , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunization, Passive , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/immunology , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization
20.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(34): 645-650, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355404

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, while the profile of antibody response against the COVID-19 virus has not been well clarified. What is added by this report?: In this study, 210 serum samples from 160 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities were recruited. The IgM, IgA, IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against COVID-19 virus were determined. Our findings indicated that four antibodies could be detectable at low levels within 2 weeks of disease onset, then rapidly increasing and peaking from the 3rd to 5th Weeks. NAb decreased between 5th and 9th Weeks, and a higher IgM/IgA level was observed in the groups with mild/moderate severity within 2 weeks (p<0.05), while all 4 types of antibodies were higher in the group with severe/critical severity after 4 weeks (p<0.05). What are the implications for public health practice?: Our study on the dynamics of serological antibody responses against COVID-19 virus among COVID-19 patients complements the recognition regarding the humoral immune response to COVID-19 virus infection. The findings will help in the interpretation of antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and be beneficial for the evaluation of vaccination effects.

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