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1.
Asia Pacific Scholar ; 7(2):42-45, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1836453

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) course is one of the mandatory certifications for the majority of medical as well as some nursing professionals. There are, however, multiple variations in its instruction model worldwide. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of traditional ACLS course versus a hybrid ACLS course utilised during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at SingHealth Duke-NUS Institute of Medical Simulation using course results of participants in the centre's ACLS course between May to October 2019 for the traditional course were compared with participants attending the hybrid course from February to June 2021. Results: A total of 925 participants were recruited during the study period. Of these, 626 participants were from the traditional group and 299 participants were from the hybrid learning group. There is no statistically significant difference between the two group (χ2=1.02 p = 0.313) in terms of first pass attempts;first pass attempt at MCQ (p=0.805) and first pass attempt at practical stations (p=0.408). However, there was statistically significant difference between the mean difference in results of traditional vs hybrid MCQ score, -0.29 (95% CI: -0.57 to -0.01, p=0.0409). Finally, senior doctors were also found to perform better than junior doctors in both traditional (p=0.0235) and hybrid courses (p=0.0309) at the first pass attempt of ACLS certification. Conclusion: Participants in the hybrid ACLS course demonstrated at least equal overall proficiency in certification of ACLS as compared to the traditional instruction. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Asia Pacific Scholar is the property of Centre for Medical Education (CenMed) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 32, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid test (NAT) could effectively control the spread of COVID-19 caused by large-scale sports competitions. However, quantitative analysis on the appropriate frequency of NAT is scarce, and the cost-effectiveness and necessity of high-frequency NAT remain to be fully explored and validated. This study aims to optimize the COVID-19 surveillance strategies through cost-effectiveness analysis for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games and the upcoming Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games. METHODS: A total of 18 scenarios were designed regarding the NAT frequency, symptom monitoring, and strengthening close-contact control. An agent-based stochastic dynamic model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of different NAT scenarios and optimize the surveillance strategies. The dynamics of the proposed model included the arrival and departure of agents, transmission of the disease according to Poisson processes, and quarantine of agents based on regular NATs and symptom onset. Accumulative infections, cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were simulated in the frame of the model. ICER was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of different scenarios. Univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: In Scenario 16, where the competition-related personnel (CRP) received NAT daily and national sports delegation (NSD) with quarantined infections accepted an additional NAT daily, accumulative infection was 320.90 (90 initial infections), the total cost was (United States Dollar) USD 8 920 000, and the cost of detecting out each infection was USD 27 800. Scenario 16 would reduce the total cost by USD 22 570 000 (avoid 569.61 infections), USD 1 420 000 (avoid 47.2 infections) compared with Scenario 10 (weekly NAT, strengthened close contact control) and Scenario 7 (daily NAT, no strengthened close contact control), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the result was most sensitive to the change in basic reproductive number. CONCLUSIONS: High-frequency NATs such as bidaily, daily, and twice a day were cost-effective. NAT daily for CRP with strengthening close-contact control could be prioritized in defense against COVID-19 at large-scale sports competitions. This study could assist policymakers by assessing the cost-effectiveness of NAT scenarios and provide the host country with an optimal COVID-19 surveillance strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans
4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(7): 1979-1993, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774827

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a substantial worldwide public health concern with no specific and effective therapies in clinic. NAD+ is a pivotal determinant of cellular energy metabolism involved in the progression of AKI; however, its mechanism in kidney injury remains poorly understood. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an NAD+ -dependent deacetylase associated with renal protection and acute stress resistance. In this study, we have investigated the role of NAD+ in AKI and the potential mechanism(s) involved in its renoprotective effect. NAD+ was notably decreased and negatively correlated with kidney dysfunction in AKI, restoring NAD+ with NMN significantly ameliorates LPS-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis and attenuates renal damage. We also found that the protection of NAD+ is associated with SIRT1 expressions and performs in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Inhibition of SIRT1 blunted the protective effect of NAD+ and up-regulated the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) that was concomitant with mitigated Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, thereby exacerbates AKI. These findings suggest that NAD+ /SIRT1/GSK-3ß/Nrf2 axis is an important mechanism that can protect against AKI which might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , NAD , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Sirtuin 1 , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Endotoxins , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Humans , NAD/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sirtuin 1/metabolism
5.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765944

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the major pathogen that causes diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, with devastating impact on the pig industry. To further understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field strains, in this study the complete genomes of four PEDV variants (HN2021, CH-HNYY-2018, CH-SXWS-2018, and CH-HNKF-2016) obtained from immunized pig farms in central China between 2016 to 2021 were characterized and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome and S gene showed that the four strains identified in the present study had evolved into the subgroup G2a, but were distant from the vaccine strain CV777. Additionally, it was noteworthy that a new PEDV strain (named HN2021) belonging to the G2a PEDV subgroup was successfully isolated in vitro and it was further confirmed by RT-PCR that this isolate had a large natural deletion at 207-373 nt of the ORF3 gene, which has never been reported before. Particularly, in terms of pathogenicity evaluation, colostrum deprivation piglets challenged with PEDV HN2021 showed severe diarrhea and high mortality, confirming that PEDV HN2021 was a virulent strain. Hence, PEDV strain HN2021 of subgroup G2a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of recurring porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China. This study lays the foundation for better understanding of the genetic evolution and molecular pathogenesis of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Vaccines , Animals , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea , Phylogeny , Swine , Virulence
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids in treating viral acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were entered into meta-analyses performed separately for each indication. Efficacy analyses were based on changes in disease-specific symptom scores. Safety was analyzed based on the pooled data from all eligible trials, by comparing the incidence of adverse events between flavonoids and the control. RESULTS: In this study, thirty RCTs (n = 5,166) were included. In common cold, results showed that the flavonoids group decreased total cold intensity score (CIS), the sum of sum of symptom intensity differences (SSID) of CIS, and duration of inability to work vs. the control group. In influenza, the flavonoids group improved the visual analog scores for symptoms. In COVID-19, the flavonoids group decreased the time taken for alleviation of symptoms, time taken for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR clearance, the RT-PCR positive subjects at day 7, time to achievement of the normal status of symptoms, patients needed oxygen, patients hospitalized and requiring mechanical ventilation, patients in ICU, days of hospitalization, and mortality vs. the control group. In acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, the flavonoids group decreased the tonsillitis severity score (TSS) on day 7. In acute rhinosinusitis, the flavonoids group decreased the sinusitis severity score (SSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In acute bronchitis, the flavonoids group decreased the bronchitis severity score (BSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In bronchial pneumonia, the flavonoids group decreased the time to symptoms disappearance, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In upper respiratory tract infections, the flavonoids group decreased total CIS on day 7 and increased the improvement rate of symptoms. Furthermore, the results of the incidence of adverse reactions did not differ between the flavonoids and the control group. CONCLUSION: Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that flavonoids were efficacious and safe in treating viral ARTIs including the common cold, influenza, COVID-19, acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, acute rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, and upper respiratory tract infections. However, uncertainty remains because there were few RCTs per type of ARTI and many of the RCTs were small and of low quality with a substantial risk of bias. Given the limitations, we suggest that the conclusions need to be confirmed on a larger scale with more detailed instructions in future studies.Systematic Review Registration: inplasy.com/inplasy-2021-8-0107/, identifier: INPLASY20218010.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Fam Psychol ; 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713125

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively impacted the well-being of many college students, particularly lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ +) students who are already at a disproportionate risk for negative mental health and well-being outcomes. To identify potential risk and protective factors we examined LGBTQ + college students' disclosure of sexual orientation, gender identity, or both (SOGI) to mothers and fathers, living arrangements (whether or not students lived with mothers and fathers), social support from family and friends, and parent-child relationship quality and their association with stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and problem drinking during the pandemic. LGBTQ + college students (N = 366; Mage = 20.4) completed an online survey. Students who reported more social support from family and friends and better quality relationships with mothers or fathers had better well-being and were less likely to perceive a substantial decrease in their well-being due to the pandemic. In contrast, SOGI disclosure and whether or not students lived with mothers or fathers were generally unrelated to well-being. Findings suggest that universities should consider offering mental health resources for students living on- and off-campus, and that clinical professionals should consider strategies to help these young adults identify and maintain support systems and highlight the value of positive parent-child relationships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699203

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a pandemic of COVID-19 disease, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread across the globe. At present, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued emergency approval for the use of some antiviral drugs. However, these drugs still have limitations in the specific treatment of COVID-19, and as such, new treatment strategies urgently need to be developed. RNA-interference-based gene therapy provides a tractable target for antiviral treatment. Ensuring cell-specific targeted delivery is important to the success of gene therapy. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) as carriers for the delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNAs) to specific tissues or organs of the human body could play a crucial role in the specific therapy of severe respiratory infections, such as COVID-19. In this review, we describe a variety of novel nanocarriers, such as lipid NPs, star polymer NPs, and glycogen NPs, and summarize the pre-clinical/clinical progress of these nanoparticle platforms in siRNA delivery. We also discuss the application of various NP-capsulated siRNA as therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the challenges with targeting these therapeutics to local delivery in the lung, and various inhalation devices used for therapeutic administration. We also discuss currently available animal models that are used for preclinical assessment of RNA-interference-based gene therapy. Advances in this field have the potential for antiviral treatments of COVID-19 disease and could be adapted to treat a range of respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , RNAi Therapeutics/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Genetic , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325173

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 continues to spread globally and results in additional challenges for perioperative management in parturients. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and identify associated factors for neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension in COVDI-19 parturients during caesarean delivery. Methods: : We performed a multicenter case-control study at 3 medical institutions in Hubei province, China form 1th January to 30th May 2020. All ASA Physical Status II full termed pregnant women who received caesarean delivery under neuraxial anaesthesia were eligible for inclusion. The univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to identified the independent predictors of neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension. Results: : Present study included 102 COVID-19 parturients. The incidence of neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension was 58%. Maternal abnormal lymphocyte count (OR = 3.41, p = 0.03), full stomach (OR = 3.22, p = 0.04), baseline heart rate (OR = 1.04, p = 0.03), experience of anaesthetist (OR = 0.86, p = 0.02) and surgeon (OR = 0.76, p = 0.03), and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia technique (OR = 3.27, p = 0.02) were associated with neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve achieved 0.83 which was significantly higher than 0.5 (p < 0.001). And the sensitivity, specificity and percentage correct were 75%, 79% and 75%, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a good calibration of the model (H = 2.01, DF = 8, p = 0.98). Conclusions: : Maternal abnormal lymphocyte count, full stomach, baseline heart rate, experience of anaesthetist and surgeon, and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia technique were identified as the independent predictors of neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324725

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread across countries and become a global crisis. Understanding the transmission mechanism and effects of interventions is critical to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic. A recent study by Hao et al (2020) provided an interesting perspective on the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in Wuhan and inferred that 87% of the infections before 8 March 2020 were not laboratory-confirmed. However we believe that there are a few major issues due to the vagueness in the definitions of compartments and inconsistence in the settings of parameters. In this paper, we clarify the definitions of the model compartments and raise questions in regard to the underlying homogenous assumption within compartments and settings of the parameters in the dynamic model by Hao et al (2020), and furthermore offer a modified model to resolve these potential limitations. Compared with the model in Hao et al (2020), the active virus carriers were predicted to persist for a longer period in our model which is well consistent with the active virus carriers detected in Wuhan in mid-May. Our model suggests that control measures cannot be easily lifted while continuous efforts are needed to contain the spread of the pandemic;a universal PT-PCR screening is essential to detect hidden cases before lifting control measure. In addition, we also provide a possible solution to solve the problem of heterogeneity transmission rate in disease courses.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323776

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is a potential factor affecting semen quality. However, the relationship between depression and semen quality remains to be fully elucidated. We investigated the association between depression and semen quality in men during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : Cross‐sectional, participants completed a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to evaluate the psychological depression status of subjects. Semen quality assessment implements the requirements of the fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO )manual ,multivariable logistic regression analysis and linear regression analysis were conducted to assess the associations between depression and semen quality. Results: : Of the 896 participants, 173 were depressed (19.30%). A Linear regression model was fitted to assess the strength and significant level of the association between depressive symptoms and semen quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, depression was significantly associated with 9.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.39, 15.15), 0.57(95% CI 0.27, 0.87), 62.20 (95% CI 32.93, 91.48), and 12.96 (95% CI 10.55, 15.37) reduction in sperm concentration, sperm volume, total sperm count, and progressive motility, respectively. Which are consistent with the logistic regression analysis results. The semen concentration and total sperm count were linearly correlated with depression scores, whereas the semen volume and progressive motility of sperm were nonlinearly correlated with depression scores. Conclusions: : Depression were associated with lower levels of semen concentration, semen volume, total sperm count, and progressive motility, which could affect male reproductive health.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323647

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate clinical features and the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shanghai. Materials and Methods: Two hundred seven patients (102 men and 105 women, 15-84 years old) with COVID-19 from 23 January 2020 to 8 February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The imaging findings, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were evaluated and analyzed. The CT score was determined by totaling the lobes of lungs affected ranging from 0-25. Results: The median time from onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 5.3±3.9 days.After being tested positive, the hospital stay of patients with onset of symptoms within one week is longer than that of patients with onset of symptoms over one week (15.7 vs. 11.5 respectively, p<0.01). The initial lung findings of patients with COVID-19 on chest CT were small subpleural ground glass opacities (GGO) that grew larger with crazy-paving pattern and consolidation with or without interstitial opacity. The mean CT scores peaked at 8-10 days of illness, with a slow decline thereafter and substantial scores after the 10 days. Both age and CD4+ cell counts had a remarkable prognostic effect on imaging outcomes (p<0.05). Conclusion: For patients in mild-to-moderatecondition, the disease began to improve after 10 days from the initiation of the symptoms. Both age and baseline CD4+ cell count were pivotal predictor of the outcome of imaging of the patients with COVID-19.

15.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-326203

ABSTRACT

Based on newly mandated SEC human capital disclosures in 10-K filings, we assess whether corporate human capital management responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (COVIDHCM) have value implications. We first show that firm COVIDHCM disclosure is positively associated with how favorably employees view the firm’s pandemic response, suggesting the disclosures reflect firm actions. We then examine whether COVIDHCM is relevant for assessing firm value. We find that while the effects of COVIDHCM on firm value are insignificant on average, favorable COVIDHCM valuation effects are observed as financial flexibility increases. Further analyses suggest that COVIDHCM enhances firm value via improved overall employee satisfaction and higher employee productivity, with such effects again being conditional on financial flexibility. Overall, the results provide early evidence on the usefulness of COVID-19 related human capital management disclosures and shed light on the economic implications of firms’ actions to protect employees’ welfare during a global pandemic.

16.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052497, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685587

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is an infectious disease spreading through respiratory droplets. Using a face mask correctly is one of the essential preventive measures. We launched a survey to discover the current face mask-wearing problems for better prevention and control of the pandemic. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1240 residents in Shanghai during 18-28 February 2020. Stratified random sampling was adopted in the urban area, urban-rural fringe area and rural area. A mobile self-designed questionnaire was used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of the demographic and sociological factors influencing residents' face mask type selection, disposable surgical mask-wearing behaviour, replacement time and the storage method for reuse of disposable surgical masks. RESULTS: The accuracy of residents' face mask type selection was rated 41.61% (513/1233), and that of urban-rural fringe residents, low-education residents, elderly residents, were low, respectively (p<0.001). 96.67% of residents always wore face masks in crowded public places. Multiple-factor analysis showed that region, gender and education level were the influencing factors for entirely fitting the disposable surgical mask to the face. Region was an influencing factor for not touching the mask's external surface while wearing or removing it. Education level was an influencing factor for recognising the external and inner mask surface, upper and lower edge of a disposable surgical mask. The accuracy of the mask replacement time was 25.63% (316/1223). It was low with elderly, low-education residents, respectively (p<0.001).The accuracy of residents' storage method for reuse of disposable surgical mask was 3.81% (47/1233), and region, age and education level were influencing factors. CONCLUSIONS: Shanghai residents recorded a high rate of wearing face masks. Selection of an appropriate type of face mask, disposable surgical mask-wearing behaviour, replacement time and storage method for reuse of disposable surgical masks should be particularly emphasised in future behaviour change interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Urban Studies ; : 00420980211064136, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1673690

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of a virus such as COVID-19 is composed of a series of seemingly random incidents which are nevertheless interconnected. In a novel approach, this article adopts the event system theory (EST), established in organisational behaviour science, to investigate the mechanism of epidemic governance in Wuhan, the city which reported the first case of COVID-19 and thereafter successfully controlled the outbreak. The event system analysis divided Wuhan?s response mechanism to COVID-19 into four dimensions: the graded response systems, the interactive relationship between multilevel entities of epidemic governance, the quarantine regulations and the governance of public sentiment. There are numerous lessons learned and effective measures developed from the ?Wuhan experience?. These lessons and measures can assist other cities around the world to cope with the current COVID-19 crisis and prepare their urban governance systems for similar infectious diseases in the future. We urgently advocate the addition of more scholarly discussion on urban epidemic governance by incorporating interdisciplinary approaches like EST in particular.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 795940, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643540

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a dramatic reshaping of passenger risk perception for airline industry. The sharp increase in risk aversion by air passenger has caused a disastrous impact on the tourism service industry, particularly airline industry. Although the existing literature has provided a lot of studies on the impact of the pandemic on travel industry, there are very few studies discussing the impact of change in passenger risk perception on the stock market performance of airline industry. This study considers two types of airline companies, full-service and low-cost. In order to overcome the traditional problem of the Chow test, Quandt-Andrews test is used to identify structural change points during the pandemic in the stock prices of United States airline companies. The result shows that an industry-wide structural change in the stock market performance indeed is found to take place during the pandemic for United States airline companies. Meanwhile, no significant difference is found in the structural change date between the two types of airline companies. The selected airline companies are found to be clustered toward the end of 2020 (November and December) in their structural change dates. Although the strike of the COVID-19 pandemic on airline industry has proven to be widespread and profound, our investigation implies that air passengers have gradually adapted to the new normal of travel activities at some level and partly rebuild their sense of safety under the strict epidemic-control measures.

19.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 20(1): 2, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between echocardiography results and lung ultrasound score (LUS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia patients and evaluate the impact of the combined application of these techniques in the evaluation of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients who underwent daily lung ultrasound and echocardiography were included in this study. Patients with tricuspid regurgitation within three days of admission were enrolled. Moreover, the correlation and differences between their pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and LUS on days 3, 8, and 13 were analyzed. The inner diameter of the pulmonary artery root as well as the size of the atria and ventricles were also considered. RESULTS: The PAP on days 3, 8, and 13 of hospitalization was positively correlated with the LUS (r = 0.448, p = 0.003; r = 0.738, p < 0.001; r = 0.325, p = 0.036, respectively). On day 8, the values of both PAP and LUS were higher than on days 3 and 13 (p < 0.01). Similarly, PAP and LUS were significantly increased in 92.9% (39/42) and 90.5% (38/42) of patients, respectively, and at least one of these two values was positive in 97.6% (41/42) of cases. The inner diameters of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery also differed significantly from their corresponding values on days 3 and 13 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PAP is positively correlated with LUS in COVID-19 pneumonia. The two values could be combined for a more precise assessment of disease progression and recovery status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Echocardiography , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2239, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients with long incubation period were reported in clinical practice and tracing of close contacts, but their epidemiological or clinical features remained vague. METHODS: We analyzed 11,425 COVID-19 cases reported between January-August, 2020 in China. The accelerated failure time model, Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to investigate the determinants of prolonged incubation period, as well as their association with clinical severity and transmissibility, respectively. RESULT: Among local cases, 268 (10.2%) had a prolonged incubation period of > 14 days, which was more frequently seen among elderly patients, those residing in South China, with disease onset after Level I response measures administration, or being exposed in public places. Patients with prolonged incubation period had lower risk of severe illness (ORadjusted = 0.386, 95% CI: 0.203-0.677). A reduced transmissibility was observed for the primary patients with prolonged incubation period (50.4, 95% CI: 32.3-78.6%) than those with an incubation period of ≤14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence supporting a prolonged incubation period that exceeded 2 weeks in over 10% for COVID-19. Longer monitoring periods than 14 days for quarantine or persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2 should be justified in extreme cases, especially for those elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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