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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 218, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238999

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common breathing disorder in sleep in which the airways narrow or collapse during sleep, causing obstructive sleep apnea. The prevalence of OSAS continues to rise worldwide, particularly in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The mechanism of upper airway collapse is incompletely understood but is associated with several factors, including obesity, craniofacial changes, altered muscle function in the upper airway, pharyngeal neuropathy, and fluid shifts to the neck. The main characteristics of OSAS are recurrent pauses in respiration, which lead to intermittent hypoxia (IH) and hypercapnia, accompanied by blood oxygen desaturation and arousal during sleep, which sharply increases the risk of several diseases. This paper first briefly describes the epidemiology, incidence, and pathophysiological mechanisms of OSAS. Next, the alterations in relevant signaling pathways induced by IH are systematically reviewed and discussed. For example, IH can induce gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis, impair the intestinal barrier, and alter intestinal metabolites. These mechanisms ultimately lead to secondary oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. We then summarize the effects of IH on disease pathogenesis, including cardiocerebrovascular disorders, neurological disorders, metabolic diseases, cancer, reproductive disorders, and COVID-19. Finally, different therapeutic strategies for OSAS caused by different causes are proposed. Multidisciplinary approaches and shared decision-making are necessary for the successful treatment of OSAS in the future, but more randomized controlled trials are needed for further evaluation to define what treatments are best for specific OSAS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/genetics , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , Hypoxia , Obesity , Pharynx
2.
Innovation (Camb) ; 4(4): 100451, 2023 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328376

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (alum) adjuvant is the most extensively used protein subunit vaccine adjuvant, and its effectiveness and safety have been widely recognized. The surface charge of the antigen determines its electrostatic adsorption to alum adjuvant, which directly affects the immune efficacy of the protein vaccine. In our study, we precisely modified its surface charge by inserting charged amino acids into the flexible region of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), achieving electrostatic adsorption and a site-specific anchor between the immunogen and alum adjuvant. This innovative strategy extended the bioavailability of the RBD and directionally displayed the neutralizing epitopes, thereby significantly enhancing humoral and cellular immunity. Furthermore, the required dose of antigen and alum adjuvant was greatly reduced, which improved the safety and accessibility of the protein subunit vaccine. On this basis, the wide applicability of this novel strategy to a series of representative pathogen antigens such as SARS-RBD, MERS-RBD, Mpox-M1, MenB-fHbp, and Tularemia-Tul4 was further confirmed. Charge modification of antigens provides a straightforward approach for antigenicity optimization of alum-adjuvanted vaccines, which has great potential to be adopted as a global defense against infectious diseases.

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1085456, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327391

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the effects of two processed forms of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide (CTX) in mice. In the CTX-induced immunosuppressive model, mice were given either steamed American ginseng (American ginseng red, AGR) or raw American ginseng (American ginseng soft branch, AGS) by intragastric administration. Serum and spleen tissues were collected, and the pathological changes in mice spleens were observed by conventional HE staining. The expression levels of cytokines were detected by ELISA, and the apoptosis of splenic cells was determined by western blotting. The results showed that AGR and AGS could relieve CTX-induced immunosuppression through the enhanced immune organ index, improved cell-mediated immune response, increased serum levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2) and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), as well as macrophage activities including carbon clearance and phagocytic index. AGR and AGS downregulated the expression of BAX and elevated the expression of Bcl-2, p-P38, p-JNK, and p-ERK in the spleens of CTX-injected animals. Compared to AGS, AGR significantly improved the number of CD4+CD8-T lymphocytes, the spleen index, and serum levels of IgA, IgG, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The expression of the ERK/MAPK pathway was markedly increased. These findings support the hypothesis that AGR and AGS are effective immunomodulatory agents capable of preventing immune system hypofunction. Future research may investigate the exact mechanism to rule out any unforeseen effects of AGR and AGS.


Subject(s)
Panax , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Mice , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Immunoglobulin A/pharmacology
5.
Natl Sci Rev ; 10(5): nwac034, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311829

ABSTRACT

The onset of various kidney diseases has been reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. However, detailed clinical and pathological features are lacking. We screened and analyzed patients with newly diagnosed kidney diseases after inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Peking University First Hospital from January 2021 to August 2021, and compared them with the reported cases in the literature. We obtained samples of blood, urine and renal biopsy tissues. Clinical and laboratory information, as well as light microscopy, immunostaining and ultrastructural observations, were described. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleoprotein were stained using the immunofluorescence technique in the kidney biopsy samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were tested using magnetic particle chemiluminescence immunoassay. The study group included 17 patients with a range of conditions including immune-complex-mediated kidney diseases (IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis), podocytopathy (minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and others (antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy). Seven patients (41.18%) developed renal disease after the first dose and ten (58.82%) after the second dose. The kidney disease spectrum as well as clinicopathological features are similar across different types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We found no definitive evidence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein or nucleoprotein deposition in the kidney biopsy samples. Seropositive markers implicated abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. Treatment and follow-up (median = 86 days) showed that biopsy diagnosis informed treatment and prognosis in all patients. In conclusion, we observed various kidney diseases following SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration, which show a high consistency across different types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Our findings provide evidence against direct vaccine protein deposition as the major pathomechanism, but implicate abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. These findings expand our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine renal safety.

6.
Am J Perinatol ; 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused far-reaching changes in all areas of society. However, limited data have focused on the long-term impacts on perinatal psychological health. This study aims to evaluate long-term impacts of COVID-19 pandemic crisis on psychological health among perinatal women and investigate associated factors. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, cross-sectional study, the psychological subproject of China Birth Cohort Study (CBCS), was conducted in 2021. Demographic and obstetric characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, psychological status, and COVID-19-pandemic-related factors were obtained. The symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia of participants were assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and Insomnia Severity Index, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify associated factors of adverse psychological symptoms. RESULTS: Totally, 1,246 perinatal women were enrolled, with the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms being 63.16, 41.89, and 44.38%, respectively. Perinatal women who needed psychological counseling and were very worried about the COVID-19 pandemic were 1.8 to 7.2 times more likely to report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Unemployment, flu-like symptoms, younger maternal age, and previous diseases before pregnancy were risk factors for depression, anxiety, or insomnia. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that the prevalence of perinatal depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms was at a high level even 1 year after the pandemic outbreak, implying pandemic-associated long-term psychological impacts on perinatal women existed. Government should not only pay attention to the acute effects of psychological health but also to long-term psychological impacts on perinatal women after major social events. KEY POINTS: · The prevalence of perinatal psychological symptoms was at a high level after the COVID-19 outbreak.. · Perinatal women who were very worried about COVID-19 were more often to have psychological symptoms.. · Perinatal women with demands of mental counseling were more likely to report psychological symptoms..

7.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309555

ABSTRACT

Via an insufficient coat protein complex I (COPI) retrieval signal, the majority of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) is resident in host early secretory organelles and a tiny amount is leaked out in cell surface. Only surface-exposed S can be recognized by B cell receptor (BCR) or anti-S therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that is the trigger step for B cell activation after S mRNA vaccination or infected cell clearance by S mAbs. Now, a drug strategy to promote S host surface exposure is absent. Here, we first combined structural and biochemical analysis to characterize S COPI sorting signals. A potent S COPI sorting inhibitor was then invented, evidently capable of promoting S surface exposure and facilitating infected cell clearance by S antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Importantly, with the inhibitor as a probe, we revealed Omicron BA.1 S is less cell surface exposed than prototypes because of a constellation of S folding mutations, possibly corresponding to its ER chaperone association. Our findings not only suggest COPI is a druggable target against COVID-19, but also highlight SARS-CoV-2 evolution mechanism driven by S folding and trafficking mutations.

8.
Front Oncol ; 13: 1115293, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296133

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly across the globe. Cancer patients have a higher risk of severe infections and associated mortality than the general population. However, the lethal effect of Omicron-variant affection on advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer patients is still not clear. Herein, we designed an observational study to shed light on the influence of the Omicron variant on this so-called "King of Cancer" and improve management of these patients with COVID-19 in the future. Methods: Omicron-infected patients with advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer were enrolled from 15 April to 31 May 2022. Four groups were set up in this study: Group 1, Omicron-infected cancer patients (N = 4); Group 2, non-infected cancer patients (N = 4); Group 3, infected non-cancer-afflicted subjects (N = 4); Group 4, non-infected non-cancer-afflicted subjects (N = 4). On Days 0, 7, and 14 after infection, the blood samples were collected dynamically from all subjects. The primary endpoints were disease severity and survival. Results: At the endpoint of this observational study, Patient Nos. 2, 3, and 4 died separately on Days 11, 25, and 13 after viral infection. All of them had advanced cancer, with a death rate of up to 75%. Group 1 presented an overall T-cell exhaustion status compared with other groups. Group 1 had obviously lower T-cell populations and higher B-cell percentages and CD4+T/CD8+T ratios (P <0.05). Time-course cytokine monitoring results showed that IL-1ß was significantly decreased in Group 1 (P <0.05) and generally kept at a low level without obvious fluctuation. IL-6 was markedly increased in infected cancer patients (P <0.01) but remained at a low level and had no apparent change during the whole infection process in non-cancer-afflicted subjects. Furthermore, several inflammatory parameter indexes indicated a tight association of Omicron infection with the disease course and prognosis of Omicron-infected cancer patients. Conclusions: Advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer patients with Omicron infection have severe symptoms and poor outcomes. More attention, protective measures, and routine healthcare services should be recommended to these vulnerable populations in clinical practice during the pandemic in the foreseeable future.

9.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; 49(12):5256, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2269953

ABSTRACT

[Background] The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic has lasted for nearly three years in the globe, which has not only caused serious harm to humans but also affected companion animals. The COVID-19 vaccines for human have been used globally, while those for animals are rarely reported. [Objective] To develop a bivalent vaccine against both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) and rabies virus(RABV) for animal use. [Methods] We cloned the S and S1 genes of SARS-CoV-2 into the region between G and L genes of the attenuated RABV vaccine strain rHEP-Flury to construct the recombinant plasmids pHEP-nCOV-S and pHEP-nCOV-S1, respectively.The two plasmids were respectively co-transfected into BHK-21 cells with the helper plasmids and finally the recombinant viruses rHEP-nCOV-S and rHEP-nCOV-S1 were rescued. The recombinant viruses were confirmed by RT-PCR and direct fluorescent antibody staining against RABV N protein.Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of S and S1 proteins in the cells infected with the recombinant viruses. The growth curves, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of recombinant viruses were confirmed in NA cells and mice. [Results] The rescued recombinant viruses rHEP-nCOV-S and rHEP-nCOV-S1 respectively carrying the S and S1 genes of SARS-CoV-2 were confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody assay based on the green fluorescence from the supernatants 7 days post infection.rHEP-nCOV-S1 rather than rHEP-nCOV-S showed stronger proliferation and diffusion abilities than the parental virus rHEP-Flury in NA cells. The specific bands at 72 kDa and 144 kDa in the Western blotting confirmed the efficient expression of S and S1 in the recombinant viruses, respectively. The mice vaccinated with the recombinant viruses did not show significant changes in the body weight compared with those vaccinated with rHEP-Flury, and the recombinant viruses induced the production of neutralizing antibody against RABV in mice. [Conclusion] The production of the recombinant RABV carrying the S/S1 gene of SARS-CoV-2 provides a foundation for the development of the bivalent vaccine against both SARS-CoV-2 and rabies virus for animal use.

10.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288686

ABSTRACT

Does COVID-19 affect people of all classes equally? In the current research, we focus on the social issue of risk inequality during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a nationwide survey conducted in China (N = 1,137), we predicted and found that compared to higher-class individuals, lower-class participants reported a stronger decline in self-rated health as well as economic well-being due to the COVID-19 outbreak. At the same time, we examined participants' beliefs regarding the distribution of risks. The results demonstrated that although lower-class individuals were facing higher risks, they expressed lesser belief in such a risk inequality than their higher-class counterparts. This tendency was partly mediated by their stronger endorsement of system-justifying beliefs. The findings provide novel evidence of the misperception of risk inequality among the disadvantaged in the context of COVID-19. Implications for science and policy are discussed.

12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3884, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286227

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. However, the treatment of vitiligo combined with COVID-19 has not been reported. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) has a therapeutic effect on patients with vitiligo and COVID-19. This study aims to discover its possible therapeutic mechanisms and provide potential drug targets. Using the Chinese Medicine System Pharmacological Database (TCMSP), GEO database and Genecards websites and other databases, AM target, vitiligo disease target, and COVID-19 related gene set were established. Then find the crossover genes by taking the intersection. Then use GO, KEGG enrichment analysis, and PPI network to discover its underlying mechanism. Finally, by importing drugs, active ingredients, crossover genes, and enriched signal pathways into Cytoscape software, a "drug-active ingredient-target signal pathway-" network is constructed. TCMSP screened and obtained 33 active ingredients including baicalein (MOL002714), NEOBAICALEIN (MOL002934), Skullcapflavone II (MOL002927), and wogonin (MOL000173), which acted on 448 potential targets. 1166 differentially expressed genes for vitiligo were screened by GEO. CIVID-19 related genes were screened by Genecards. Then by taking the intersection, a total of 10 crossover genes (PTGS2, CDK1, STAT1, BCL2L1, SCARB1, HIF1A, NAE1, PLA2G4A, HSP90AA1, and HSP90B1) were obtained. KEGG analysis found that it was mainly enriched in signaling pathways such as IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, Necroptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Five core targets (PTGS2, STAT1, BCL2L1, HIF1A, and HSP90AA1) were obtained by analyzing the PPI network. The network of "active ingredients-crossover genes" was constructed by Cytoscape, and the 5 main active ingredients acting on the 5 core crossover genes acacetin, wogonin, baicalein, bis2S)-2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate and 5,2'-Dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone. The core crossover genes obtained by PPI and the core crossover genes obtained by the "active ingredient-crossover gene" network are intersected to obtain the three most important core genes (PTGS2, STAT1, HSP90AA1). AM may act on PTGS2, STAT1, HSP90AA1, etc. through active components such as acacetin, wogonin, baicalein, bis2S)-2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate and 5,2'-Dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone to activate IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, Necroptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection, and VEGF signaling pathway and other signaling pathways to achieve the effect of treating vitiligo and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypopigmentation , Vitiligo , Humans , Vitiligo/drug therapy , Vitiligo/genetics , Astragalus propinquus , Interleukin-17 , Network Pharmacology , Benzene , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Computational Biology , NLR Proteins , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 63, 2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to a tricky clinical disease, known by its high morbidity and mortality, with no real specific medicine for AKI. The carbonization product from Pollen Typhae (i.e., Pu-huang in China) has been extensively employed in clinic, and it is capable of relieving the renal damage and other diseases in China since acient times. RESULTS: Inspired by the carbonization process of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a novel species of carbon dots derived from Pollen Typhae (PT-CDs) was separated and then collected using a one-pot pyrolysis method. The as-prepared PT-CDs (4.85 ± 2.06 nm) with negative charge and abundant oxygenated groups exhibited high solubility, and they were stable in water. Moreover, the rhabdomyolysis (RM)-induced AKI rat model was used, and it was first demonstrated that PT-CDs had significant activity in improving the level of BUN and CRE, urine volume and kidney index, and histopathological morphology in RM-induced AKI rats. It is noteworthy that interventions of PT-CDs significantly reduced degree of inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, which may be correlated with the basial potential mechanism of anti-AKI activities. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and biosafety evaluation exhibited high biocompatibility of PT-CDs. CONCLUSION: This study offers a novel relieving strategy for AKI based on PT-CDs and suggests its potential to be a related candidate for clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Rhabdomyolysis , Rats , Animals , Carbon/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Rhabdomyolysis/pathology
14.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1145669, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286163

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies have shown that the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is reduced under alkaline conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of nasal irrigation and oral rinse with sodium bicarbonate solution on virus clearance among COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: COVID-19 patients were recruited and randomly divided into two group, i.e., the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received regular care plus nasal irrigation and oral rinse with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution, while the control group only received regular care. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected daily for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. The negative conversion time and hospitalization time of the patients were recorded, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: A total of 55 COVID-19 patients with mild or moderate symptoms were included in our study. There was no significant difference in gender, age and health status between the two groups. The average negative conversion time was 1.63 days after treatment with sodium bicarbonate, and the average hospitalization time of the control group and the experimental group were 12.53 and 7.7 days, respectively. Conclusions: Nasal irrigation and oral rinse with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution is effective in virus clearance for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Bicarbonate/therapeutic use , Nasal Lavage
15.
Nurs Open ; 10(7): 4395-4403, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263451

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the sleep quality in dialysis patients during the COVID-19 epidemic and explore the association between negative psychology (including depression, anxiety, and stress) and sleep quality in this population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study including three centres. METHODS (PATIENTS OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION): This cross-sectional study included 378 dialysis patients from April to May 2022 in three dialysis centres in Shanghai. METHODS: Depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep quality were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14), and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), respectively. With a threshold of 5 to classify participants into good and poor sleep quality, with HADS/PSS-14 scores as independent variables (per standard deviation (SD) increment), respectively and binary Logistic regression model was constructed to explore the association between the three negative psychological aspects of depression, anxiety, and stress and sleep quality. RESULTS: The median PSQI score was 11.0 (mean ± SD: 11.8 ± 4.8). Among them, poor sleep quality (i.e., PSQI >5) was reported by 90.2% of participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic and disease-related information, HADS-depression was associated with a significant 49% (odds ratio (OR): 1.49; 95% CI 1.02-2.18) increase in the risk of poor sleep quality for each additional SD (2.4). Correspondingly, for each SD (7.1) increase in PSS-14, the risk of poor sleep quality was significantly increased by 95% (OR: 1.95; 95% CI 1.35-2.82). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant negative association between negative psychology, such as depression and stress, and sleep quality in dialysis patients, and this relationship was independent of the dialysis modality. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: In the context of the rampant COVID-19, the vast majority of dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease presents with severe sleep quality problems, and negative psychology is a potential influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Sleep Quality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , China/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
16.
Transl Behav Med ; 13(6): 389-399, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280131

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic minority, low socioeconomic status, and rural populations are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Developing and evaluating interventions to address COVID-19 testing and vaccination among these populations are crucial to improving health inequities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of a rapid-cycle design and adaptation process from an ongoing trial to address COVID-19 among safety-net healthcare system patients. The rapid-cycle design and adaptation process included: (a) assessing context and determining relevant models/frameworks; (b) determining core and modifiable components of interventions; and (c) conducting iterative adaptations using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles. PDSA cycles included: Plan. Gather information from potential adopters/implementers (e.g., Community Health Center [CHC] staff/patients) and design initial interventions; Do. Implement interventions in single CHC or patient cohort; Study. Examine process, outcome, and context data (e.g., infection rates); and, Act. If necessary, refine interventions based on process and outcome data, then disseminate interventions to other CHCs and patient cohorts. Seven CHC systems with 26 clinics participated in the trial. Rapid-cycle, PDSA-based adaptations were made to adapt to evolving COVID-19-related needs. Near real-time data used for adaptation included data on infection hot spots, CHC capacity, stakeholder priorities, local/national policies, and testing/vaccine availability. Adaptations included those to study design, intervention content, and intervention cohorts. Decision-making included multiple stakeholders (e.g., State Department of Health, Primary Care Association, CHCs, patients, researchers). Rapid-cycle designs may improve the relevance and timeliness of interventions for CHCs and other settings that provide care to populations experiencing health inequities, and for rapidly evolving healthcare challenges such as COVID-19.


Racial/ethnic minority, low socioeconomic status, and rural populations experience a disproportionate burden of COVID-19. Finding ways to address COVID-19 among these populations is crucial to improving health inequities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rapid-cycle design process for a research project to address COVID-19 testing and vaccination among safety-net healthcare system patients. The project used real-time information on changes in COVID-19 policy (e.g., vaccination authorization), local case rates, and the capacity of safety-net healthcare systems to iteratively change interventions to ensure interventions were relevant and timely for patients. Key changes that were made to interventions included a change to the study design to include vaccination as a focus of the interventions after the vaccine was authorized; change in intervention content according to the capacity of local Community Health Centers to provide testing to patients; and changes to intervention cohorts such that priority groups of patients were selected for intervention based on characteristics including age, residency in an infection "hot spot," or race/ethnicity. Iteratively improving interventions based on real-time data collection may increase intervention relevance and timeliness, and rapid-cycle adaptions can be successfully implemented in resource constrained settings like safety-net healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , Minority Groups , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1869(5): 166707, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269405

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic provide the opportunities to explore the numerous similarities in clinical symptoms with Kawasaki disease (KD), including severe vasculitis. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms of vascular injury in both KD and COVID-19 remain elusive. To identify these mechanisms, this study employs single-cell RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms of immune responses in vasculitis, and validate the results through in vitro experiments. METHOD: The single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of immune responses in vasculitis in KD and COVID-19. The analysis was performed on PBMCs from six children diagnosed with complete KD, three age-matched KD healthy controls (KHC), six COVID-19 patients (COV), three influenza patients (FLU), and four healthy controls (CHC). The results from the scRNA-seq analysis were validated through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence experiments on additional human samples. Subsequently, monocyte adhesion assays, immunofluorescence, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to analyze the damages to endothelial cells post-interaction with monocytes in HUVEC and THP1 cultures. RESULTS: The scRNA-seq analysis revealed the potential cellular types involved and the alterations in genetic transcriptions in the inflammatory responses. The findings indicated that while the immune cell compositions had been altered in KD and COV patients, and the ratio of CD14+ monocytes were both elevated in KD and COV. While the CD14+ monocytes share a large scale of same differentiated expressed geens between KD and COV. The differential activation of CD14 and CD16 monocytes was found to respond to both endothelial and epithelial dysfunctions. Furthermore, SELL+/CCR1+/XAF1+ CD14 monocytes were seen to enhance the adhesion and damage to endothelial cells. The results also showed that different types of B cells were involved in both KD and COV, while only the activation of T cells was recorded in KD. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study demonstrated the role of the innate immune response in the regulation of endothelial dysfunction in both KD and COVID-19. Additionally, our findings indicate that the adaptive immunity activation differs between KD and COVID-19. Our results demonstrate that monocytes in COVID-19 exhibit adhesion to both endothelial cells and alveolar epithelial cells, thus providing insight into the mechanisms and shared phenotypes between KD and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Vasculitis , Child , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Pandemics , RNA-Seq , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Vasculitis/genetics , Vasculitis/metabolism , Receptors, CCR1
18.
Environ Chem Lett ; 21(2): 725-739, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241154

ABSTRACT

Policies and measures to control pandemics are often failing. While biological factors controlling transmission are usually well explored, little is known about the environmental drivers of transmission and infection. For instance, respiratory droplets and aerosol particles are crucial vectors for the airborne transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the causation agent of the coronavirus 2019 pandemic (COVID-19). Once expectorated, respiratory droplets interact with atmospheric particulates that influence the viability and transmission of the novel coronavirus, yet there is little knowledge on this process or its consequences on virus transmission and infection. Here we review the effects of atmospheric particulate properties, vortex zones, and air pollution on virus survivability and transmission. We found that particle size, chemical constituents, electrostatic charges, and the moisture content of airborne particles can have notable effects on virus transmission, with higher survival generally associated with larger particles, yet some viruses are better preserved on small particles. Some chemical constituents and surface-adsorbed chemical species may damage peptide bonds in viral proteins and impair virus stability. Electrostatic charges and water content of atmospheric particulates may affect the adherence of virion particles and possibly their viability. In addition, vortex zones and human thermal plumes are major environmental factors altering the aerodynamics of buoyant particles in air, which can strongly influence the transport of airborne particles and the transmission of associated viruses. Insights into these factors may provide explanations for the widely observed positive correlations between COVID-19 infection and mortality with air pollution, of which particulate matter is a common constituent that may have a central role in the airborne transmission of the novel coronavirus. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10311-022-01557-z.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 158(2): 024203, 2023 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241151

ABSTRACT

A rapid and accurate diagnostic modality is essential to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we proposed a SARS-CoV-2 detection sensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to achieve rapid and ultrasensitive detection. The sensor utilized spike protein deoxyribonucleic acid aptamers with strong affinity as the recognition entity to achieve high specificity. The spherical cocktail aptamers-gold nanoparticles (SCAP) SERS substrate was used as the base and Au nanoparticles modified with the Raman reporter molecule that resonates with the excitation light and spike protein aptamers were used as the SERS nanoprobe. The SCAP substrate and SERS nanoprobes were used to target and capture the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to form a sandwich structure on the Au film substrate, which can generate ultra-strong "hot spots" to achieve ultrasensitive detection. Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 S protein was performed by monitoring changes in SERS peak intensity on a SCAP SERS substrate-based detection platform. This assay detects S protein with a LOD of less than 0.7 fg mL-1 and pseudovirus as low as 0.8 TU mL-1 in about 12 min. The results of the simulated oropharyngeal swab system in this study indicated the possibility of it being used for clinical detection, providing a potential option for rapid and accurate diagnosis and more effective control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods
20.
J Happiness Stud ; 24(3): 991-1012, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242660

ABSTRACT

Young adulthood (18-30 years old) is a crucial period due to its developmental tasks such as career establishment and financial independence. However, young adults' relative lack of resources makes them vulnerable to employment disruptions (job loss and income loss), which may have both immediate and long-term effects on their financial wellbeing and mental health. The economic impact of COVID-19 restrictions resulted in an increase in unemployment and a decrease in income worldwide, especially for young adults. This study examined to what extent and how job loss and income loss due to the pandemic influenced young adults' perception of their present financial wellbeing, future financial wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing by using cross-sectional survey data collected from six countries (China, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovenia, and the United States). Results showed that the impact of income loss and job loss on all three types of wellbeing were mediated by young adults' negative perception of the COVID-19 lockdown restriction (i.e., perceived as a misfortune). Cross-country differences existed in the key variables. The association between employment disruptions, young adults' perception of the COVID-19 lockdown restriction, and wellbeing were equivalent across countries except China. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

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