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Tran, Khanh Bao, Lang, Justin J.; Compton, Kelly, Xu, Rixing, Acheson, Alistair R.; Henrikson, Hannah Jacqueline, Kocarnik, Jonathan M.; Penberthy, Louise, Aali, Amirali, Abbas, Qamar, Abbasi, Behzad, Abbasi-Kangevari, Mohsen, Abbasi-Kangevari, Zeinab, Abbastabar, Hedayat, Abdelmasseh, Michael, Abd-Elsalam, Sherief, Abdelwahab, Ahmed Abdelwahab, Abdoli, Gholamreza, Abdulkadir, Hanan Abdulkadir, Abedi, Aidin, Abegaz, Kedir Hussein, Abidi, Hassan, Aboagye, Richard Gyan, Abolhassani, Hassan, Absalan, Abdorrahim, Abtew, Yonas Derso, Abubaker Ali, Hiwa, Abu-Gharbieh, Eman, Achappa, Basavaprabhu, Acuna, Juan Manuel, Addison, Daniel, Addo, Isaac Yeboah, Adegboye, Oyelola A.; Adesina, Miracle Ayomikun, Adnan, Mohammad, Adnani, Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah, Advani, Shailesh M.; Afrin, Sumia, Afzal, Muhammad Sohail, Aggarwal, Manik, Ahinkorah, Bright Opoku, Ahmad, Araz Ramazan, Ahmad, Rizwan, Ahmad, Sajjad, Ahmad, Sohail, Ahmadi, Sepideh, Ahmed, Haroon, Ahmed, Luai A.; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Ahmed Rashid, Tarik, Aiman, Wajeeha, Ajami, Marjan, Akalu, Gizachew Taddesse, Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, Mostafa, Aklilu, Addis, Akonde, Maxwell, Akunna, Chisom Joyqueenet, Al Hamad, Hanadi, Alahdab, Fares, Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour, Alanzi, Turki M.; Alessy, Saleh Ali, Algammal, Abdelazeem M.; Al-Hanawi, Mohammed Khaled, Alhassan, Robert Kaba, Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir, Ali, Liaqat, Ali, Syed Shujait, Alimohamadi, Yousef, Alipour, Vahid, Aljunid, Syed Mohamed, Alkhayyat, Motasem, Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali Ali, Almustanyir, Sami, Alonso, Nivaldo, Alqalyoobi, Shehabaldin, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Al-Rifai, Rami H. Hani, Al-Sabah, Salman Khalifah, Al-Tammemi, Ala'a B.; Altawalah, Haya, Alvis-Guzman, Nelson, Amare, Firehiwot, Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena, Aminian Dehkordi, Javad Javad, Amirzade-Iranaq, Mohammad Hosein, Amu, Hubert, Amusa, Ganiyu Adeniyi, Ancuceanu, Robert, Anderson, Jason A.; Animut, Yaregal Animut, Anoushiravani, Amir, Anoushirvani, Ali Arash, Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza, Ansha, Mustafa Geleto, Antony, Benny, Antwi, Maxwell Hubert, Anwar, Sumadi Lukman, Anwer, Razique, Anyasodor, Anayochukwu Edward, Arabloo, Jalal, Arab-Zozani, Morteza, Aremu, Olatunde, Argaw, Ayele Mamo, Ariffin, Hany, Aripov, Timur, Arshad, Muhammad, Artaman, Al, Arulappan, Judie, Aruleba, Raphael Taiwo, Aryannejad, Armin, Asaad, Malke, Asemahagn, Mulusew A.; Asemi, Zatollah, Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad, Ashraf, Tahira, Assadi, Reza, Athar, Mohammad, Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin, Atout, Maha Moh'd Wahbi, Attia, Sameh, Aujayeb, Avinash, Ausloos, Marcel, Avila-Burgos, Leticia, Awedew, Atalel Fentahun, Awoke, Mamaru Ayenew, Awoke, Tewachew, Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina, Ayana, Tegegn Mulatu, Ayen, Solomon Shitu, Azadi, Davood, Azadnajafabad, Sina, Azami-Aghdash, Saber, Azanaw, Melkalem Mamuye, Azangou-Khyavy, Mohammadreza, Azari Jafari, Amirhossein, Azizi, Hosein, Azzam, Ahmed Y. Y.; Babajani, Amirhesam, Badar, Muhammad, Badiye, Ashish D.; Baghcheghi, Nayereh, Bagheri, Nader, Bagherieh, Sara, Bahadory, Saeed, Baig, Atif Amin, Baker, Jennifer L.; Bakhtiari, Ahad, Bakshi, Ravleen Kaur, Banach, Maciej, Banerjee, Indrajit, Bardhan, Mainak, Barone-Adesi, Francesco, Barra, Fabio, Barrow, Amadou, Bashir, Nasir Z.; Bashiri, Azadeh, Basu, Saurav, Batiha, Abdul-Monim Mohammad, Begum, Aeysha, Bekele, Alehegn Bekele, Belay, Alemayehu Sayih, Belete, Melaku Ashagrie, Belgaumi, Uzma Iqbal, Bell, Arielle Wilder, Belo, Luis, Benzian, Habib, Berhie, Alemshet Yirga, Bermudez, Amiel Nazer C.; Bernabe, Eduardo, Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth, Bhala, Neeraj, Bhandari, Bharti Bhandari, Bhardwaj, Nikha, Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bhattacharyya, Krittika, Bhojaraja, Vijayalakshmi S.; Bhuyan, Soumitra S.; Bibi, Sadia, Bilchut, Awraris Hailu, Bintoro, Bagas Suryo, Biondi, Antonio, Birega, Mesfin Geremaw Birega, Birhan, Habitu Eshetu, Bjørge, Tone, Blyuss, Oleg, Bodicha, Belay Boda Abule, Bolla, Srinivasa Rao, Boloor, Archith, Bosetti, Cristina, Braithwaite, Dejana, Brauer, Michael, Brenner, Hermann, Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich, Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich, Buchanan, Christina Maree, Bulamu, Norma B.; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa, Butt, Muhammad Hammad, Butt, Nadeem Shafique, Butt, Zahid A.; Caetano dos Santos, Florentino Luciano, Cámera, Luis Alberto, Cao, Chao, Cao, Yin, Carreras, Giulia, Carvalho, Márcia, Cembranel, Francieli, Cerin, Ester, Chakraborty, Promit Ananyo, Charalampous, Periklis, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel, Chirinos-Caceres, Jesus Lorenzo, Cho, Daniel Youngwhan, Cho, William C. S.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Chu, Dinh-Toi, Chukwu, Isaac Sunday, Cohen, Aaron J.; Conde, Joao, Cortés, Sandra, Costa, Vera Marisa, Cruz-Martins, Natália, Culbreth, Garland T.; Dadras, Omid, Dagnaw, Fentaw Teshome, Dahlawi, Saad M. A.; Dai, Xiaochen, Dandona, Lalit, Dandona, Rakhi, Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz, Danielewicz, Anna, Dao, An Thi Minh, Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza, Darwesh, Aso Mohammad, Das, Saswati, Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil, Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham, De la Hoz, Fernando Pio, Debela, Sisay Abebe, Dehghan, Azizallah, Demisse, Biniyam, Demisse, Fitsum Wolde, Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar, Derakhshani, Afshin, Derbew Molla, Meseret, Dereje, Diriba, Deribe, Kalkidan Solomon, Desai, Rupak, Desalegn, Markos Desalegn, Dessalegn, Fikadu Nugusu, Dessalegni, Samuel Abebe A.; Dessie, Gashaw, Desta, Abebaw Alemayehu, Dewan, Syed Masudur Rahman, Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda, Dhimal, Meghnath, Dianatinasab, Mostafa, Diao, Nancy, Diaz, Daniel, Digesa, Lankamo Ena, Dixit, Shilpi Gupta, Doaei, Saeid, Doan, Linh Phuong, Doku, Paul Narh, Dongarwar, Deepa, dos Santos, Wendel Mombaque, Driscoll, Tim Robert, Dsouza, Haneil Larson, Durojaiye, Oyewole Christopher, Edalati, Sareh, Eghbalian, Fatemeh, Ehsani-Chimeh, Elham, Eini, Ebrahim, Ekholuenetale, Michael, Ekundayo, Temitope Cyrus, Ekwueme, Donatus U.; El Tantawi, Maha, Elbahnasawy, Mostafa Ahmed, Elbarazi, Iffat, Elghazaly, Hesham, Elhadi, Muhammed, El-Huneidi, Waseem, Emamian, Mohammad Hassan, Engelbert Bain, Luchuo, Enyew, Daniel Berhanie, Erkhembayar, Ryenchindorj, Eshetu, Tegegne, Eshrati, Babak, Eskandarieh, Sharareh, Espinosa-Montero, Juan, Etaee, Farshid, Etemadimanesh, Azin, Eyayu, Tahir, Ezeonwumelu, Ifeanyi Jude, Ezzikouri, Sayeh, Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis, Fahimi, Saman, Fakhradiyev, Ildar Ravisovich, Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Fares, Jawad, Farmany, Abbas, Farooque, Umar, Farrokhpour, Hossein, Fasanmi, Abidemi Omolara, Fatehizadeh, Ali, Fatima, Wafa, Fattahi, Hamed, Fekadu, Ginenus, Feleke, Berhanu Elfu, Ferrari, Allegra Allegra, Ferrero, Simone, Ferro Desideri, Lorenzo, Filip, Irina, Fischer, Florian, Foroumadi, Roham, Foroutan, Masoud, Fukumoto, Takeshi, Gaal, Peter Andras, Gad, Mohamed M.; Gadanya, Muktar A.; Gaipov, Abduzhappar, Galehdar, Nasrin, Gallus, Silvano, Garg, Tushar, Gaspar Fonseca, Mariana, Gebremariam, Yosef Haile, Gebremeskel, Teferi Gebru, Gebremichael, Mathewos Alemu, Geda, Yohannes Fikadu, Gela, Yibeltal Yismaw, Gemeda, Belete Negese Belete, Getachew, Melaku, Getachew, Motuma Erena, Ghaffari, Kazem, Ghafourifard, Mansour, Ghamari, Seyyed-Hadi, Ghasemi Nour, Mohammad, Ghassemi, Fariba, Ghimire, Ajnish, Ghith, Nermin, Gholamalizadeh, Maryam, Gholizadeh Navashenaq, Jamshid, Ghozy, Sherief, Gilani, Syed Amir, Gill, Paramjit Singh, Ginindza, Themba G.; Gizaw, Abraham Tamirat T.; Glasbey, James C.; Godos, Justyna, Goel, Amit, Golechha, Mahaveer, Goleij, Pouya, Golinelli, Davide, Golitaleb, Mohamad, Gorini, Giuseppe, Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia, Grosso, Giuseppe, Guadie, Habtamu Alganeh, Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen, Gudayu, Temesgen Worku, Guerra, Maximiliano Ribeiro, Gunawardane, Damitha Asanga, Gupta, Bhawna, Gupta, Sapna, Gupta, Veer Bala, Gupta, Vivek Kumar, Gurara, Mekdes Kondale, Guta, Alemu, Habibzadeh, Parham, Haddadi Avval, Atlas, Hafezi-Nejad, Nima, Hajj Ali, Adel, Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin, Halboub, Esam S.; Halimi, Aram, Halwani, Rabih, Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hameed, Sajid, Hamidi, Samer, Hanif, Asif, Hariri, Sanam, Harlianto, Netanja I.; Haro, Josep Maria, Hartono, Risky Kusuma, Hasaballah, Ahmed I.; Hasan, S. M. Mahmudul, Hasani, Hamidreza, Hashemi, Seyedeh Melika, Hassan, Abbas M.; Hassanipour, Soheil, Hayat, Khezar, Heidari, Golnaz, Heidari, Mohammad, Heidarymeybodi, Zahra, Herrera-Serna, Brenda Yuliana, Herteliu, Claudiu, Hezam, Kamal, Hiraike, Yuta, Hlongwa, Mbuzeleni Mbuzeleni, Holla, Ramesh, Holm, Marianne, Horita, Nobuyuki, Hoseini, Mohammad, Hossain, Md Mahbub, Hossain, Mohammad Bellal Hossain, Hosseini, Mohammad-Salar, Hosseinzadeh, Ali, Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi, Hostiuc, Mihaela, Hostiuc, Sorin, Househ, Mowafa, Huang, Junjie, Hugo, Fernando N.; Humayun, Ayesha, Hussain, Salman, Hussein, Nawfal R.; Hwang, Bing-Fang, Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel, Iftikhar, Pulwasha Maria, Ikuta, Kevin S.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Ilic, Irena M.; Ilic, Milena D.; Immurana, Mustapha, Innos, Kaire, Iranpour, Pooya, Irham, Lalu Muhammad, Islam, Md Shariful, Islam, Rakibul M.; Islami, Farhad, Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah, Isola, Gaetano, Iwagami, Masao, J, Linda Merin, Jaiswal, Abhishek, Jakovljevic, Mihajlo, Jalili, Mahsa, Jalilian, Shahram, Jamshidi, Elham, Jang, Sung-In, Jani, Chinmay T.; Javaheri, Tahereh, Jayarajah, Umesh Umesh, Jayaram, Shubha, Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad, Jebai, Rime, Jemal, Bedru, Jeong, Wonjeong, Jha, Ravi Prakash, Jindal, Har Ashish, John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Jonas, Jost B.; Joo, Tamas, Joseph, Nitin, Joukar, Farahnaz, Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy, Jürisson, Mikk, Kabir, Ali, Kacimi, Salah Eddine Oussama, Kadashetti, Vidya, Kahe, Farima, Kakodkar, Pradnya Vishal, Kalankesh, Laleh R.; Kalankesh, Leila R.; Kalhor, Rohollah, Kamal, Vineet Kumar, Kamangar, Farin, Kamath, Ashwin, Kanchan, Tanuj, Kandaswamy, Eswar, Kandel, Himal, Kang, HyeJung, Kanno, Girum Gebremeskel, Kapoor, Neeti, Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar, Karanth, Shama D.; Karaye, Ibraheem M.; Karch, André, Karimi, Amirali, Kassa, Bekalu Getnet, Katoto, Patrick D. M. C.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Kaur, Harkiran, Kebede, Abinet Gebremickael, Keikavoosi-Arani, Leila, Kejela, Gemechu Gemechu, Kemp Bohan, Phillip M.; Keramati, Maryam, Keykhaei, Mohammad, Khajuria, Himanshu, Khan, Abbas, Khan, Abdul Aziz Khan, Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Khan, Gulfaraz, Khan, Md Nuruzzaman, Khan, Moien A. B.; Khanali, Javad, Khatab, Khaled, Khatatbeh, Moawiah Mohammad, Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli, Khayamzadeh, Maryam, Khayat Kashani, Hamid Reza, Khazeei Tabari, Mohammad Amin, Khezeli, Mehdi, Khodadost, Mahmoud, Kim, Min Seo, Kim, Yun Jin, Kisa, Adnan, Kisa, Sezer, Klugar, Miloslav, Klugarová, Jitka, Kolahi, Ali-Asghar, Kolkhir, Pavel, Kompani, Farzad, Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koulmane Laxminarayana, Sindhura Lakshmi, Koyanagi, Ai, Krishan, Kewal, Krishnamoorthy, Yuvaraj, Kucuk Bicer, Burcu, Kugbey, Nuworza, Kulimbet, Mukhtar, Kumar, Akshay, Kumar, G. Anil, Kumar, Narinder, Kurmi, Om P.; Kuttikkattu, Ambily, La Vecchia, Carlo, Lahiri, Arista, Lal, Dharmesh Kumar, Lám, Judit, Lan, Qing, Landires, Iván, Larijani, Bagher, Lasrado, Savita, Lau, Jerrald, Lauriola, Paolo, Ledda, Caterina, Lee, Sang-woong, Lee, Shaun Wen Huey, Lee, Wei-Chen, Lee, Yeong Yeh, Lee, Yo Han, Legesse, Samson Mideksa, Leigh, James, Leong, Elvynna, Li, Ming-Chieh, Lim, Stephen S.; Liu, Gang, Liu, Jue, Lo, Chun-Han, Lohiya, Ayush, Lopukhov, Platon D.; Lorenzovici, László, Lotfi, Mojgan, Loureiro, Joana A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas, Madadizadeh, Farzan, Mafi, Ahmad R.; Magdeldin, Sameh, Mahjoub, Soleiman, Mahmoodpoor, Ata, Mahmoudi, Morteza, Mahmoudimanesh, Marzieh, Mahumud, Rashidul Alam, Majeed, Azeem, Majidpoor, Jamal, Makki, Alaa, Makris, Konstantinos Christos, Malakan Rad, Elaheh, Malekpour, Mohammad-Reza, Malekzadeh, Reza, Malik, Ahmad Azam, Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain, Mallya, Sneha Deepak, Mamun, Mohammed A.; Manda, Ana Laura, Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz, Mansouri, Borhan, Mansournia, Mohammad Ali, Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni, Martini, Santi, Martorell, Miquel, Masoudi, Sahar, Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra, Matei, Clara N.; Mathews, Elezebeth, Mathur, Manu Raj, Mathur, Vasundhara, McKee, Martin, Meena, Jitendra Kumar, Mehmood, Khalid, Mehrabi Nasab, Entezar, Mehrotra, Ravi, Melese, Addisu, Mendoza, Walter, Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mengesha, SIsay Derso, Mensah, Laverne G.; Mentis, Alexios-Fotios A.; Mera-Mamián, Andry Yasmid Mera, Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Merid, Mehari Woldemariam, Mersha, Amanual Getnet, Meselu, Belsity Temesgen, Meshkat, Mahboobeh, Mestrovic, Tomislav, Miao Jonasson, Junmei, Miazgowski, Tomasz, Michalek, Irmina Maria, Mijena, Gelana Fekadu Worku, Miller, Ted R.; Mir, Shabir Ahmad, Mirinezhad, Seyed Kazem, Mirmoeeni, Seyyedmohammadsadeq, Mirza-Aghazadeh-Attari, Mohammad, Mirzaei, Hamed, Mirzaei, Hamid Reza, Misganaw, Abay Sisay, Misra, Sanjeev, Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin, Mohammadi, Esmaeil, Mohammadi, Mokhtar, Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah, Mohammadpourhodki, Reza, Mohammed, Arif, Mohammed, Shafiu, Mohan, Syam, Mohseni, Mohammad, Moka, Nagabhishek, Mokdad, Ali H.; Molassiotis, Alex, Molokhia, Mariam, Momenzadeh, Kaveh, Momtazmanesh, Sara, Monasta, Lorenzo, Mons, Ute, Montasir, Ahmed Al, Montazeri, Fateme, Montero, Arnulfo, Moosavi, Mohammad Amin, Moradi, Abdolvahab, Moradi, Yousef, Moradi Sarabi, Mostafa, Moraga, Paula, Morawska, Lidia, Morrison, Shane Douglas, Morze, Jakub, Mosapour, Abbas, Mostafavi, Ebrahim, Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam, Mousavi Isfahani, Haleh, Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin, Mpundu-Kaambwa, Christine, Mubarik, Sumaira, Mulita, Francesk, Munblit, Daniel, Munro, Sandra B.; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén, Musa, Jonah, Nabhan, Ashraf F.; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman, Nagaraju, Shankar Prasad, Nagel, Gabriele, Naghipour, Mohammadreza, Naimzada, Mukhammad David, Nair, Tapas Sadasivan, Naqvi, Atta Abbas, Narasimha Swamy, Sreenivas, Narayana, Aparna Ichalangod, Nassereldine, Hasan, Natto, Zuhair S.; Nayak, Biswa Prakash, Ndejjo, Rawlance, Nduaguba, Sabina Onyinye, Negash, Wogene Wogene, Nejadghaderi, Seyed Aria, Nejati, Kazem, Neupane Kandel, Sandhya, Nguyen, Huy Van Nguyen, Niazi, Robina Khan, Noor, Nurulamin M.; Noori, Maryam, Noroozi, Nafise, Nouraei, Hasti, Nowroozi, Ali, Nuñez-Samudio, Virginia, Nzoputam, Chimezie Igwegbe, Nzoputam, Ogochukwu Janet, Oancea, Bogdan, Odukoya, Oluwakemi Ololade, Oghenetega, Onome Bright, Ogunsakin, Ropo Ebenezer, Oguntade, Ayodipupo Sikiru, Oh, In-Hwan, Okati-Aliabad, Hassan, Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul, Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olakunde, Babayemi Oluwaseun, Olufadewa, Isaac Iyinoluwa, Omer, Emad, Omonisi, Abidemi E. Emmanuel, Ong, Sokking, Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Orru, Hans, Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Oulhaj, Abderrahim, Oumer, Bilcha, Owopetu, Oluwatomi Funbi, Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel, P A, Mahesh, Padron-Monedero, Alicia, Padubidri, Jagadish Rao, Pakbin, Babak, Pakshir, Keyvan, Pakzad, Reza, Palicz, Tamás, Pana, Adrian, Pandey, Anamika, Pandey, Ashok, Pant, Suman, Pardhan, Shahina, Park, Eun-Cheol, Park, Eun-Kee, Park, Seoyeon, Patel, Jay, Pati, Siddhartha, Paudel, Rajan, Paudel, Uttam, Paun, Mihaela, Pazoki Toroudi, Hamidreza, Peng, Minjin, Pereira, Jeevan, Pereira, Renato B.; Perna, Simone, Perumalsamy, Navaraj, Pestell, Richard G.; Pezzani, Raffaele, Piccinelli, Cristiano, Pillay, Julian David, Piracha, Zahra Zahid, Pischon, Tobias, Postma, Maarten J.; Pourabhari Langroudi, Ashkan, Pourshams, Akram, Pourtaheri, Naeimeh, Prashant, Akila, Qadir, Mirza Muhammad Fahd, Quazi Syed, Zahiruddin, Rabiee, Mohammad, Rabiee, Navid, Radfar, Amir, Radhakrishnan, Raghu Anekal, Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman, Raeisi, Mojtaba, Rafiee, Ata, Rafiei, Alireza, Raheem, Nasiru, Rahim, Fakher, Rahman, Md Obaidur, Rahman, Mosiur, Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Rahmani, Amir Masoud, Rahmani, Shayan, Rahmanian, Vahid, Rajai, Nazanin, Rajesh, Aashish, Ram, Pradhum, Ramezanzadeh, Kiana, Rana, Juwel, Ranabhat, Kamal, Ranasinghe, Priyanga, Rao, Chythra R.; Rao, Sowmya J.; Rashedi, Sina, Rashidi, Amirfarzan, Rashidi, Mahsa, Rashidi, Mohammad-Mahdi, Ratan, Zubair Ahmed, Rawaf, David Laith, Rawaf, Salman, Rawal, Lal, Rawassizadeh, Reza, Razeghinia, Mohammad Sadegh, Rehman, Ashfaq Ur, Rehman, Inayat ur, Reitsma, Marissa B.; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Rezaei, Maryam, Rezaei, Nazila, Rezaei, Negar, Rezaei, Nima, Rezaei, Saeid, Rezaeian, Mohsen, Rezapour, Aziz, Riad, Abanoub, Rikhtegar, Reza, Rios-Blancas, Maria, Roberts, Thomas J.; Rohloff, Peter, Romero-Rodríguez, Esperanza, Roshandel, Gholamreza, Rwegerera, Godfrey M.; S, Manjula, Saber-Ayad, Maha Mohamed, Saberzadeh-Ardestani, Bahar, Sabour, Siamak, Saddik, Basema, Sadeghi, Erfan, Saeb, Mohammad Reza, Saeed, Umar, Safaei, Mohsen, Safary, Azam, Sahebazzamani, Maryam, Sahebkar, Amirhossein, Sahoo, Harihar, Sajid, Mirza Rizwan, Salari, Hedayat, Salehi, Sana, Salem, Marwa Rashad, Salimzadeh, Hamideh, Samodra, Yoseph Leonardo, Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan, Sankararaman, Senthilkumar, Sanmarchi, Francesco, Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.; Saqib, Muhammad Arif Nadeem, Sarveazad, Arash, Sarvi, Fatemeh, Sathian, Brijesh, Satpathy, Maheswar, Sayegh, Nicolas, Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola, Schwarzinger, Michaël, Šekerija, Mario, Senthilkumaran, Subramanian, Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Seylani, Allen, Seyoum, Kenbon, Sha, Feng, Shafaat, Omid, Shah, Pritik A.; Shahabi, Saeed, Shahid, Izza, Shahrbaf, Mohammad Amin, Shahsavari, Hamid R.; Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shaka, Mohammed Feyisso, Shaker, Elaheh, Shannawaz, Mohammed, Sharew, Mequannent Melaku Sharew, Sharifi, Azam, Sharifi-Rad, Javad, Sharma, Purva, Shashamo, Bereket Beyene, Sheikh, Aziz, Sheikh, Mahdi, Sheikhbahaei, Sara, Sheikhi, Rahim Ali, Sheikhy, Ali, Shepherd, Peter Robin, Shetty, Adithi, Shetty, Jeevan K.; Shetty, Ranjitha S.; Shibuya, Kenji, Shirkoohi, Reza, Shirzad-Aski, Hesamaddin, Shivakumar, K. M.; Shivalli, Siddharudha, Shivarov, Velizar, Shobeiri, Parnian, Shokri Varniab, Zahra, Shorofi, Seyed Afshin, Shrestha, Sunil, Sibhat, Migbar Mekonnen, Siddappa Malleshappa, Sudeep K.; Sidemo, Negussie Boti, Silva, Diego Augusto Santos, Silva, Luís Manuel Lopes Rodrigues, Silva Julian, Guilherme, Silvestris, Nicola, Simegn, Wudneh, Singh, Achintya Dinesh, Singh, Ambrish, Singh, Garima, Singh, Harpreet, Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Singh, Paramdeep, Singh, Surjit, Sinha, Dhirendra Narain, Sinke, Abiy H.; Siraj, Md Shahjahan, Sitas, Freddy, Siwal, Samarjeet Singh, Skryabin, Valentin Yurievich, Skryabina, Anna Aleksandrovna, Socea, Bogdan, Soeberg, Matthew J.; Sofi-Mahmudi, Ahmad, Solomon, Yonatan, Soltani-Zangbar, Mohammad Sadegh, Song, Suhang, Song, Yimeng, Sorensen, Reed J. 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L..
The Lancet ; 400(10352):563-591, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991370

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk–outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01–4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0–116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3–48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1–45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60–3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8–54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36–1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5–41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6–28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8–25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9–42·8] and 33·3% [25·8–42·0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100022, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692819

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of patients are being killed by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, risk factors for the fatality of COVID-19 remain unclear. A total of 21,392 COVID-19 cases were recruited in the Hubei Province of China between December 2019 and February 2020, and followed up until March 18, 2020. We adopted Cox regression models to investigate the risk factors for case fatality and predicted the death probability under specific combinations of key predictors. Among the 21,392 patients, 1,020 (4.77%) died of COVID-19. Multivariable analyses showed that factors, including age (≥60 versus <45 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 7.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.42, 9.89), sex (male versus female, HR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.50), severity of the disease (critical versus mild, HR = 39.98; 95% CI, 29.52, 48.86), comorbidity (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23, 1.60), highest body temperature (>39°C versus <39°C, HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09, 1.49), white blood cell counts (>10 × 109/L versus (4-10) × 109/L, HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.35, 2.13), and lymphocyte counts (<0.8 × 109/L versus (0.8-4) × 109/L, HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were significantly associated with case fatality of COVID-19 patients. Individuals of an older age, who were male, with comorbidities, and had a critical illness had the highest death probability, with 21%, 36%, 46%, and 54% within 1-4 weeks after the symptom onset. Risk factors, including demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory factors were confirmed to be important determinants of fatality of COVID-19. Our predictive model can provide scientific evidence for a more rational, evidence-driven allocation of scarce medical resources to reduce the fatality of COVID-19.

4.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113418, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambient PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1 µm) is an important contribution of PM2.5 mass. However, little is known worldwide regarding the PM1-associated health effects due to a wide lack of ground-based PM1 measurements from air monitoring stations. METHODS: We collected daily records of hospital admission for respiratory diseases and station-based measurements of air pollution and weather conditions in Shenzhen, China, 2015-2016. Time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models were adopted to estimate hospitalization risks associated with short-term exposures to PM1 and PM2.5. RESULTS: PM1 and PM2.5 showed significant adverse effects on respiratory disease hospitalizations, while no evident associations with PM1-2.5 were identified. Admission risks for total respiratory diseases were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.14) and 1.06 (1.02 to 1.10), corresponding to per 10 µg/m3 rise in exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 at lag 0-2 days, respectively. Both PM1 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with increased admission for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but exhibited no effects on asthma and upper respiratory tract infection. Largely comparable risk estimates were observed between male and female patients. Groups aged 0-14 years and 45-74 years were significantly affected by PM1- and PM2.5-associated risks. PM-hospitalization associations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with significantly larger risks in cold season than those in warm season among some subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that PM1 rather than PM1-2.5 contributed to PM2.5-induced risks of hospitalization for respiratory diseases and effects of PM1 and PM2.5 mainly occurred in cold season.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Particulate Matter , Pneumonia , Seasons , Young Adult
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