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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837988

ABSTRACT

The persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), characterized by severe respiratory syndrome, is caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and it poses a major threat to public health all over the world. Currently, optimal COVID-19 management involves effective vaccination. Vaccination is known to greatly enhance immune response against viral infections and reduce public transmission of COVID-19. However, although current vaccines offer some benefits, viral variations and other factors demand the continuous development of vaccines to eliminate this virus from host. Hence, vaccine research and development is crucial and urgent to the elimination of this pandemic. Herein, we summarized the structural and replicatory features of SARS-CoV-2, and focused on vaccine-mediated disease prevention strategies like vaccine antigen selection, vaccine research, and vaccine application. We also evaluated the latest literature on COVID-19 and extensively reviewed action mechanisms, clinical trial (CT) progresses, advantages, as well as disadvantages of various vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Lastly, we discussed the current viral treatment, prevention trends, and future prospects.

2.
AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings. AMIA Symposium ; 2021:1089-1098, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749130

ABSTRACT

Community-based telehealth programs (CTPs) allow patients to regularly monitor health at community-based facilities. Evidence from community-based telehealth programs is scarce. In this paper, we assess factors of retention-patients remaining active participants-in a CTP called the Telehealth Intervention Programs for Seniors (TIPS). We analyzed 5-years of data on social, demographic, and multiple chronic conditions among participants from 17 sites (N=1878). We modeled a stratified multivariable logistic regression to test the association between self-reported demographic factors, caregiver status, presence of multiple chronic conditions, and TIPS retention status by limited English proficient (LEP) status. Overall, 59.5% of participants (mean age: 75.8yrs, median 77yrs, SD 13.43) remained active. Significantly higher odds of retention were observed among LEP females, English-speaking diabetics, and English proficient (EP) participants without a caregiver. We discuss the impact of CTPs in the community, the role of caregiving, and recommendations for how to retain successfully recruited non-English speaking participants.

3.
Chinese Journal of Communication ; : 1-23, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1740674
4.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 9(1): e30883, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Smart glasses have been gaining momentum as a novel technology because of their advantages in enabling hands-free operation and see-what-I-see remote consultation. Researchers have primarily evaluated this technology in hospital settings; however, limited research has investigated its application in prehospital operations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to understand the potential of smart glasses to support the work practices of prehospital providers, such as emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 EMS providers recruited from 4 hospital-based EMS agencies in an urban area in the east coast region of the United States. The interview questions covered EMS workflow, challenges encountered, technology needs, and users' perceptions of smart glasses in supporting daily EMS work. During the interviews, we demonstrated a system prototype to elicit more accurate and comprehensive insights regarding smart glasses. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the open coding technique. RESULTS: We identified four potential application areas for smart glasses in EMS: enhancing teleconsultation between distributed prehospital and hospital providers, semiautomating patient data collection and documentation in real time, supporting decision-making and situation awareness, and augmenting quality assurance and training. Compared with the built-in touch pad, voice commands and hand gestures were indicated as the most preferred and suitable interaction mechanisms. EMS providers expressed positive attitudes toward using smart glasses during prehospital encounters. However, several potential barriers and user concerns need to be considered and addressed before implementing and deploying smart glasses in EMS practice. They are related to hardware limitations, human factors, reliability, workflow, interoperability, and privacy. CONCLUSIONS: Smart glasses can be a suitable technological means for supporting EMS work. We conclude this paper by discussing several design considerations for realizing the full potential of this hands-free technology.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309736

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since initially detected in late December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak rapidly swept the world. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the pattern of hospital admissions and healthcare services for acute pancreatitis(AP). Methods: This single-center, retrospective observational study from a regional medical center in the northeast of China included all consecutively admitted patients with AP from January 23 to June 10, 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak in Harbin), compared with the equivalent period of the previous year, in terms of demographics, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes. Results: In the present article, we observed a reduction in AP admissions after the onset of COVID-19. With the prolonged time from symptom onset to hospitalization (32.0 [22.0–72.0] versus 18.0 [12.0–24.0] hours;P &lt;.001), a higher proportion of patients developed acute renal failure (39% versus 34%, P =.004) and acute necrotic collection (16.5% versus 11.2%;P =.038) in the COVID-19 era. The percentage of alcohol etiology significantly reduced after the implementation of social restriction measures (11.5% versus 22.4%;P &lt;.001), whereas biliary etiology was numerically more common amidst the COVID-19 era (41.6% versus 32.6%;P = .014). No significant differences were found in the rates of intensive care unit admission and mortality between the two groups. Conclusions: The current study preliminarily demonstrated the descending trend and delay in hospital presentations for AP during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic requires the modification of medical centers to optimize the management of AP and the containment of nosocomial viral transmission. Trial Registration: ClincialTrials.gov number, ChiCTR2100043350. Funding: None to declare Declaration of Interest: None to declare Ethical Approval: Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of 1st HMU.<br>

6.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(1): 386-408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607858

ABSTRACT

Responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an unexpected and unprecedented global challenge for humanity in this century. During this crisis, specialists from the laboratories and frontline clinical personnel have made great efforts to prevent and treat COVID-19 by revealing the molecular biological characteristics and epidemic characteristics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has severe consequences for public health, including human respiratory system, immune system, blood circulation system, nervous system, motor system, urinary system, reproductive system and digestive system. In the review, we summarize the physiological and pathological damage of SARS-CoV-2 to these systems and its molecular mechanisms followed by clinical manifestation. Concurrently, the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 will be discussed in preclinical and clinical studies. With constantly unfolding and expanding scientific understanding about COVID-19, the updated information can help applied researchers understand the disease to build potential antiviral drugs or vaccines, and formulate creative therapeutic ideas for combating COVID-19 at speed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice
7.
Zhongguo Yaolixue yu Dulixue Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; - (10):737, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1564981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Since the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019, the search for a potential treatment for COVID-19 has been a constant focus. Therefore, we identified potential treatments for COVID-19 from Hippophae Fructus, a Tibetan medicine that may act on COVID-19, using a network pharmacology approach.METHODS We collected the chemical constituents and corresponding targets of Hippophae Fructus from traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology(TCMSP). COVID-19 related genes were predicted in pubmed-Gene, OMIM and GeneCards databases. Then, protein-protein interactions(PPIs) of key genes were analyzed by STRING database.Compound-target-diseases network was constructed using Cytoscape software. The potential pathways were determined by Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway analyses. Additionally,molecular docking was used to verify the binding effect between the active component and the target. RESULTS A total of 33 components and 192 corresponding targets in Hippophae Fructus were found. 50 genes were obtained from the intersection of component targets and disease targets. These genes include IL-6, TNF, MAPK8 and PTGS2, which regulate several pathways associated with COVID-19, involving Hepatitis B, Influenza A, TNF signaling pathway and Tuberculosis. More importantly, high-node compounds such as quercetin and beta-sitosterol can well bind to key targets.CONCLUSION Some components in Hippophae Fructus can act on COVID-19 related genes and regulate multiple pathways. Perhaps Hippophae Fructus has the effect in treating COVID-19.

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 520, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and therapeutic effects of allogeneic human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in treating severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single centre, two arm ratio 1:1, triple blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty serious COVID-19 cases will be enrolled in the trial from April 6th to December 31st 2020. INCLUSION CRITERIA: hospitalised patients at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University satisfy all criteria as below: 1)Adults aged 18-65 years;2)Voluntarily participate in this clinical trial and sign the "informed consent form" or have consent from a legal representative.3)Diagnosed with severe pneumonia of COVID-19: nucleic acid test SARS-CoV-2 positive; respiratory distress (respiratory rate > 30 times / min); hypoxia (resting oxygen saturation < 93% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen / oxygen concentration < 300 mmHg).4)COVID-19 featured lung lesions in chest X-ray image. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients will be excluded from the study if they meet any of the following criteria. 1.Patients have received other experimental treatment for COVID-19 within the last 30 days;2.Patients have severe liver condition (e.g., Child Pugh score >=C or AST> 5 times of the upper limit);3.Patients with severe renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate <=30mL / min/1.73 m2) or patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis;4.Patients who are co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B, tuberculosis, influenza virus, adenovirus or other respiratory infection viruses;5.Female patients who have no sexual protection in the last 30 days prior to the screening assessment;6.Pregnant or lactating women or women using estrogen contraception;7.Patients who are planning to become pregnant during the study period or within 6 months after the end of the study period;8.Other conditions that the researchers consider not suitable for participating in this clinical trial. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: There will be two study groups: experimental and control. Both will receive all necessary routine treatment for COVID-19. The experimental group will receive an intravenous injection of dental pulp stem cells suspension (3.0x107 human DPSCs in 30ml saline solution) on day 1, 4 and 7; The control group will receive an equal amount of saline (placebo) on the same days. Clinical and laboratory observations will be performed for analysis during a period of 28 days for each case since the commencement of the study. MAIN OUTCOMES: 1. Primary outcome The primary outcome is Time To Clinical Improvement (TTCI). By definition, TTCI is the time (days) it takes to downgrade two levels from the following six ordered grades [(grade 1) discharge to (grade 6) death] in the clinical state of admission to the start of study treatments (hDPSCs or placebo). Six grades of ordered variables: GradeDescriptionGrade 1:Discharged of patient;Grade 2:Hospitalized without oxygen supplement;Grade 3:Hospitalized, oxygen supplement is required, but NIV / HFNC is not required;Grade 4:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, and NIV / HFNC treatment is required;Grade 5:Hospitalized in intensive care unit, requiring ECMO and/or IMV;Grade 6:Death. ABBREVIATIONS: NIV, non-invasive mechanical ventilation; HFNC, high-flow nasal catheter; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Secondary outcomes 2.1 vital signs: heart rate, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure). During the screening period, hospitalization every day (additional time points of D1, D4, D7 30min before injection, 2h ± 30min, 24h ± 30min after the injection) and follow-up period D90 ± 3 days. 2.2 Laboratory examinations: during the screening period, 30 minutes before D1, D4, D7 infusion, 2h ± 30min, 24h ± 30min after the end of infusion, D10, D14, D28 during hospitalization or discharge day and follow-up period D90 ± 3 days. 2.3 Blood routine: white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils Acidic granulocyte count, basophil count, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, average volume of red blood cells, average red blood cell Hb content, average red blood cell Hb concentration, RDW standard deviation, RDW coefficient of variation, platelet count, platelet specific platelet average Volume, platelet distribution width,% of large platelets; 2.4 Liver and kidney function tests: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, prealbumin, total protein, albumin, globulin, white / globule ratio , Total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, cholinesterase, urea, creatinine, total carbon dioxide, uric acid glucose, potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, corrected calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and phosphorus product, anion gap, penetration Pressure, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein a, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, estimated glomerular filtration rate. 2.5 Inflammation indicators: hypersensitive C-reactive protein, serum amyloid (SAA); 2.6 Infectious disease testing: Hepatitis B (HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb), Hepatitis C (Anti-HCV), AIDS (HIVcombin), syphilis (Anti-TP), cytomegalovirus CMV-IgM, cytomegalovirus CMV-IgG; only during the screening period and follow-up period D90 ± 3. 2.7 Immunological testing: Collect peripheral blood to detect the phenotype of T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, natural killer cell, Macrophage and neutrophil by using flow cytometry. Collect peripheral blood to detect the gene profile of mononuclear cells by using single-cell analyses. Collect peripheral blood serum to detect various immunoglobulin changes: IgA, IgG, IgM, total IgE; Collect peripheral blood serum to explore the changes of cytokines, Th1 cytokines (IL-1 ß, IL-2, TNF-a, ITN-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL -10). 2.8 Pregnancy test: blood ß-HCG, female subjects before menopause are examined during the screening period and follow-up period D90 ± 3. 2.9 Urine routine: color, clarity, urine sugar, bilirubin, ketone bodies, specific gravity, pH, urobilinogen, nitrite, protein, occult blood, leukocyte enzymes, red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, non-squamous epithelial cells , Transparent cast, pathological cast, crystal, fungus; 2.10 Stool Routine: color, traits, white blood cells, red blood cells, fat globules, eggs of parasites, fungi, occult blood (chemical method), occult blood (immune method), transferrin (2h ± 30min after the injection and not detected after discharge). RANDOMIZATION: Block randomization method will be applied by computer to allocate the participants into experimental and control groups. The random ratio is 1:1. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, outcomes assessors and investigators (including personnel in laboratory and imaging department who issue the sample report or image observations) will be blinded. Injections of cell suspension and saline will be coded in accordance with the patient's randomisation group. The blind strategy is kept by an investigator who does not deliver the medical care or assess primary outcome results. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Twenty participants will be randomized to the experimental and control groups (10 per group). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version number, hDPSC-CoVID-2019-02-2020 Version 2.0, March 13, 2020. Patients screening commenced on 16th April and an estimated date of the recruitment of the final participants will be around end of July. . TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration: World Health Organization Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000031319; March 27,2020. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04336254; April 7, 2020 Other Study ID Numbers: hDPSC-CoVID-2019-02-2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dental Pulp/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Transplantation, Homologous , Young Adult
11.
Respir Med ; 167: 105951, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-35125

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have clinical characteristics, such as chest tightness and dyspnea. Continuous, unresolved dyspnea often indicates the progression of lung lesions. The mechanism that underlies the chest distress and dyspnea in patients with COVID-19 is still unclear. Chest CT has a higher sensitivity and can play an essential role in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. However, our clinical observations showed that although some patients had significant chest distress and dyspnea, the lesions that were observed in the lungs during computed tomography were milder and not completely consistent with clinical symptoms. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, laboratory test results, and imaging findings of these patients. We found that extensive inflammation of the bilateral and respiratory bronchioles in patients with COVID-19 due to excessive activation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemotactic aggregation of T-lymphocytes at the site of inflammation are possible mechanisms underlying chest distress and dyspnea in patients with COVID-19. Short-time and lose-dose use of corticosteroid may be helpful to treat chest tightness and dyspnea in mild COVID-19 patients. Through this study, we aimed to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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