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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325512

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 isspreading all over the world.The main symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough,fatigue, and myalgia. However, there are few reports onolfactoryand gustatory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To investigate the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, in Wuhan, China. Methods: : In this retrospective study,we collected 81 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, from February 2020 to March 2020, and analyzed the demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations (including olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions), laboratory findings,and comorbidities. Results: : A total of 81 confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolledin this study (38 males). The most prevalent symptoms include cough, myalgia, and loss of appetite. On admission, 25 (30.9%) of all patients reported either olfactory dysfunction (OD) or gustatory dysfunction (GD), and 7 (8.6%) reported both OD and GD. 13.6% and 25.9% of allpatients reported OD and GD, respectively. OD and GD were not associated with disease severity. Pearson correlation analysisidentified some factors are positively correlated with OD and GD, including headache or dizziness (r = 0.342, P = 0.002), dark urine (r = 0.256, P = 0.021), IgM titer (r = 0.305, P = 0.01), and diabetes (r = 0.275, P = 0.013). In 81.8% of the cases with OD and 28.6% of the cases with GD, the symptomslasted for at least 1 month after discharge.3.6% of inpatients without OD developed OD after discharge. Conclusion: OD and GDare common in COVID-19.These symptoms appear early during thecourse of disease, and may last for at least 1 month.The incidence of OD and GDisrelated to neurological manifestations, diabetics, and IgM titers.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324552

ABSTRACT

Background: With the widespread outbreak of novel coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19), more and more death cases were reported, however, limited data are available for the patients who died. We aimed to explore the clinial characteristics of deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia Methods: : We abstracted and analyzed epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 83 death cases with COVID-19 pneumonia in East hospital of Wuhan university Renmin hospital,between January 26, 2020, and February 28, 2020. Results: : Of the 83 deaths, none was the medical staff. The mean age was 71.8 years (SD 13.2;range, 34-97 years) and 53(63.9%) were male. The median from onset to admission was 10 days (IQR 7-14: range, 2-43 days), to death was 17days (IQR 14-21: range, 6-54 days). Most deaths (66[80%]) had underlying comorbid diseases, the most of which was hypertension [47(57%)]. The main initial symptoms of these 83 deaths were shortness of breath(98.8%), fever(94%) and myalgia or fatigue(90.4%). Laboratory analyses showed the lymphocytopenia in 69(83%) deaths, hypoalbuminemia in 77(93%) deaths, the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase in 79(95%) deaths, procalcitonin in 69(83%) deaths and C-reactive protein in 79(95%) deaths. All 83 patients received antiviral treatment, 81(97.6%) deaths received antibiotic therapy, and 54(65.1%) deaths received glucocorticoid therapy and 20(24.1%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Most of the deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia were elderly patients with underlying comorbid diseases, especially those over 70 years of age. The time of death was mostly 15-21 days after the onset of the disease. More care should be given to the elderly in the further prevention and control strategies of COVID-19.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4017-4024, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing high-quality training to residency students during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a goal of our institution. Since 2108, we began to take microlectures to students teaching. Microlectures are online presentations, and the microlecture teaching method has many advantages, such as a short teaching time, situational resource composition, diverse communication, strong pertinence and can attend microlectures from home. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the advantages of the microlecture teaching method on students in standardized residency training. METHODS: Students from our department were randomly divided into the traditional teaching group (control group) and the microlecture teaching group (observation group). The teaching duration for both groups was 3 months. All students were assessed on basic knowledge of the neurology before enrollment. After the teaching session, the students were assessed on teaching effect, theoretical operation, and clinical practice satisfaction. The students also evaluated the teachers, and the teachers evaluated the students. RESULTS: A total of 84 students participated in the study and were divided equally into the observation group (42 students) and the control group (42 students). The results showed that the rate of reaching the standard of teaching effect, achievement of theory and operation, satisfaction with clinical practice, the student's grades by teachers, and student satisfaction with teachers were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The microlecture teaching method can effectively improve the clinical teaching effect for neurology students and should be adopted in clinical teaching, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Teaching
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 695, 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the widespread outbreak of novel coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19), more and more death cases were reported, however, limited data are available for the patients who died. We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We abstracted and analyzed epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 83 death cases with COVID-19 pneumonia in East Hospital of Wuhan University Renmin Hospital, between January 26, 2020, and February 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 83 deaths, none was the medical staff. The mean age was 71.8 years (SD 13.2; range, 34-97 years) and 53(63.9%) were male. The median from onset to admission was 10 days (IQR 7-14: range, 2-43 days), to death was 17 days (IQR 14-21: range, 6-54 days). Most deaths (66[80%]) had underlying comorbid diseases, the most of which was hypertension [47(57%)]. The main initial symptoms of these 83 deaths were shortness of breath(98.8%), fever(94%), and myalgia or fatigue(90.4%). Laboratory analyses showed the lymphocytopenia in 69(83%) deaths, hypoalbuminemia in 77(93%) deaths, the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase in 79(95%) deaths, procalcitonin in 69(83%) deaths and C-reactive protein in 79(95%) deaths. All 83 patients received antiviral treatment, 81(97.6%) deaths received antibiotic therapy, 54(65.1%) deaths received glucocorticoid therapy, and 20(24.1%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Most of the deaths with COVID-19 pneumonia were elderly patients with underlying comorbid diseases, especially those over 70 years of age. The time of death after the onset of the disease was mostly 15-21 days. More care should be given to the elderly in further prevention and control strategies of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fatigue , Female , Fever/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 532, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739251

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of COVID-19, and explore the risk factors of deterioration and death of the disease. Methods: In this retrospective study, we collected data from 121 COVID-19 cases confirmed by RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 30, 2019, to March 23, 2020, and conducted statistical analysis. Results: A total of 121 patients were included in our study, the median age was 65 years (IQR, 55.0-71.5 years), and 54.5% cases were men. Among those cases, 52 (43.0%) cases progressed to severe, and 14 (11.6%) died. Overall, the most common manifestations were fever (78.5%) and respiratory symptoms (77.7%), while neurological symptoms were found in only 9.9% of the patients. 70.2% of all the cases had comorbidities, including hypertension (40.5%) and diabetes (20.7%). On admission, cases usually show elevated levels of neutrophils (27.3%), D-dimer (72.6%), Interleukin-6 (35.2%), Interleukin-10 (64.4%), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (82.6%), and lactate dehydrogenase (62.0%), and decreased levels of lymphocytes (66.9%), CD3 cells (67.2%), and CD4 cells (63.0%). The proportional hazard Cox models showed that the risk factors for severity progression and death included comorbidities (HR: 4.53, 95% CI: 1.78-11.55 and HR: 7.81, 95% CI: 1.02-59.86), leukocytosis (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05-1.22 and HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.42), neutrophilia (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.13 and HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46, and elevated LDH (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.12-1.15 and HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.10-1.12). Elevated D-dimer (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), IL-6 (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) and IL-10 levels (HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) were also risk factors for the progression of disease severity. Meanwhile, lymphopenia and wake immune responses [e.g., lower CD3, CD4, or CD19 counts (all HR < 1)] were associated with disease deterioration and death. Conclusions: Severe cases and death of COVID-19 are associated with older age, comorbidities, organ dysfunction, lymphopenia, high cytokines, and weak immune responses.

7.
Arch Pharm Res ; 43(8): 765-772, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692878

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, later named SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in China in December 2019 and subsequently widely identified in the United States, Japan, South Korea, France, India, and other countries. The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was called COVID-19. The high fatality and morbidity rates of COVID-19 make it the third largest global epidemic in this century. However, there are currently no approved antiviral drugs for the COVID-19 treatment. Recently, two old antimalarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, have been found to exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects both in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary clinical evidence suggests these drugs may have an effect on the treatment of COVID-19. Herein, we review the pharmacokinetics characteristics and antiviral effects of these drugs, in addition to their side effects and clinical evidence of their use for the COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
8.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(7): 506, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-246530

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic continues, with the number of infections and deaths increasing. The respiratory tract is the main route of transmission of the virus, and the majority of symptoms are respiratory relative. Until now, there has been no reports concerning the nervous system onset. We present a 2019-nCoV patient with the onset of simple dizziness, accompanied by dry throat, no fever, no cough, no headache, no mental abnormality, and no obvious abnormality in the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head. Meanwhile, chest computed tomography (CT) scans showed multiple small spot shadows and interstitial changes in the early stage, especially in the extrapulmonary zone. There was a development of multiple ground-glass shadows and infiltrative shadows in both lungs with mild pleural effusion. The nucleic acid gene detection was positive, and thus the diagnosis of 2019-nCoV was confirmed. At last, the prognosis was good after active treatment. After antiviral and anti-infective treatment, the symptoms recovered. We presume that 2019-nCoV can also manifest in the nervous system alone, and lung CT, which has relative specificity, should be used as a routine screening method.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 222(2): 183-188, 2020 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently emerged and caused the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. METHODS: We did a retrospective study and included COVID-19 patients admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between 1 February and 29 February 2020. Antibody assay was conducted to detect COVID-19 envelope protein E and nucleocapsid protein N antigen. RESULTS: One hundred twelve patients were recruited with symptoms of fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, and diarrhea. All patients underwent antibody tests. Fifty-eight (51.79%) were positive for both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), 7 (6.25%) were negative for both antibodies, 1 (0.89%) was positive for only IgM, and 46 (41.07%) were positive for only IgG. IgM antibody appeared within a week post-disease onset, lasted for 1 month, and gradually decreased, whereas IgG antibody was produced 10 days after infection and lasted for a longer time. However, no significant difference in levels of IgM and IgG antibodies between positive and negative patients of nucleic acid test after treatment was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that serological tests could be a powerful approach for the early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
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