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1.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 37(12):1102-1107, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1818312

ABSTRACT

Comparing the accuracy of antibody detection reagents which based on different principles by the diagnosis of suspected cases of new crown, propose an efficient screening plan for suspected cases, and further provide a scientific basis for establishing a clinical screening path for high-risk populations. For 76 suspected cases of COVID-19 that were transferred to designated hospitals for isolation and observation due to the initial IgM antibody test, nasopharyngeal swab nucleic acid tests, serum trace virus neutralizing antibodies and three commercially available antibody test reagents with different principles were tested, combined with lung CT and the examination and clinical symptoms or other information, comprehensively judge the diagnosis or exclusion of the new crown, and compare the three kinds of serological antibody detection reagents with the clinical judgment results to compare the detection rates of the three detection methods. Through comprehensive judgment, 3 suspected cases are confirmed cases, and 73 suspected cases are excluded cases. Compared with the clinical diagnosis/exclusion results, among the three serological antibody detection methods, the chemiluminescence total antibody kit detect positive for all the 9 serums collected from the 3 confirmed cases in different time points, the detection specificity is 97.26% for 73 excluded cases, it's significantly higher than that of the chemiluminescence method IgM/IgG and the colloidal gold method IgM/IgG Separate testing (the specificity is 73.97% on the first day of admission). The chemiluminescence method for the detection of total antibodies to the 2019-nCoV has high sensitivity and high specificity, and can be used for preliminary screening of antibody detection in suspected cases. For the screening of target populations, the 2019-nCoV nucleic acid test should be performed first. If the nucleic acid test is negative, the screening path with the detection of serum total antibodies as the main indicator should be adopted.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795250

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant extensively escape neutralizing antibodies by vaccines or infection. We assessed serum neutralizing activity in sera from Delta infection following vaccination and Delta infection only against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 (WA1), Beta, Delta, and Omicron. Sera from Delta infection only could neutralize WA1 and Delta but nearly completely lost capacity to neutralize Beta and Omicron. However, Delta infection following vaccination resulted in a significant increase of serum neutralizing activity against WA1, Beta, and Omicron. This study demonstrates that breakthrough infection of Delta substantially induced high potency humoral immune response against the Omicron variant and other emerged variants.

3.
Cells ; 11(8):1274, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1785539

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RBDCoV2) has a higher binding affinity to the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) than the SARS-CoV RBD (RBDCoV). Here, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, binding free energy (BFE) calculations, and interface residue contact network (IRCN) analysis to explore the mechanistic origin of different ACE2-binding affinities of the two RBDs. The results demonstrate that, when compared to the RBDCoV2-ACE2 complex, RBDCoV-ACE2 features enhanced dynamicsand inter-protein positional movements and increased conformational entropy and conformational diversity. Although the inter-protein electrostatic attractive interactions are the primary determinant for the high ACE2-binding affinities of both RBDs, the significantly enhanced electrostatic attractive interactions between ACE2 and RBDCoV2 determine the higher ACE2-binding affinity of RBDCoV2 than of RBDCoV. Comprehensive comparative analyses of the residue BFE components and IRCNs between the two complexes reveal that it is the residue changes at the RBD interface that lead to the overall stronger inter-protein electrostatic attractive force in RBDCoV2-ACE2, which not only tightens the interface packing and suppresses the dynamics of RBDCoV2-ACE2, but also enhances the ACE2-binding affinity of RBDCoV2. Since the RBD residue changes involving gain/loss of the positively/negatively charged residues can greatly enhance the binding affinity, special attention should be paid to the SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying such mutations, particularly those near or at the binding interfaces with the potential to form hydrogen bonds and/or salt bridges with ACE2.

4.
Natural Gas Industry B ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1773662

ABSTRACT

China's shale gas production in 2020 exceeds 200 × 108 m³, which creates a miracle in the history of natural gas development in China. The Sichuan Basin has already been and will be the main battlefield of shale gas exploration and development in China. In order to further promote the large-scale efficient development of shale gas in China, under the new situation of global COVID-19 spread and domestic “carbon peak and carbon neutrality” goal, this paper analyzes the progress and challenges of shale gas exploration and development in the Sichuan Basin from four aspects, including resource exploration, gas reservoir engineering, drilling and production engineering and industry regulation, and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions for achieving large-scale efficient development of shale gas. The following research results are obtained: First, the large-scale efficient development of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin has to take the sustainable and stable production of middle–shallow shale gas and the large-scale productivity construction of deep shale gas as the base. Second, compared with the shale gas exploration and development in the North America, the Sichuan Basin has its own characteristics in terms of geographical setting, geological condition, drilling and production technology and industry regulation, which makes it difficult to copy the development pattern of large scale, high density and continuous well deployment from the North America, so it is necessary to adopt the strategy of “high production with few wells”. On the one hand, continue to apply the geology and engineering integration technology to carry out “integrated research, integrated design, integrated implementation and integrated iteration” in the whole life cycle of shale gas well;and on the other hand, carry out problem-oriented continuous researches from the aspects of geological evaluation, development policy, engineering technology and industry regulation, so as to improve geological evaluation theory and technology, innovate gas reservoir engineering theory and method, research and develop engineering technology for cost reduction and efficiency improvement, improve shale gas industry regulation, and form a new pattern of collaborative promotion of technical and non-technical elements. In conclusion, the research results provide important reference and guidance for the large-scale efficient development of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin and even the whole country.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323666

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. Systematic analysis of lung cancer survivors at molecular and clinical levels is warranted to understand the disease course and clinical characteristics. We performed a retrospective study of 65 patients with COVID-19 from Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, of which 13 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer. Duringtreatment, lung cancer survivors infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 had a shorter median time from symptom onset to hospitalization ( P =0.016) and longer clinical symptom remission time ( P =0.020) than non-cancer individuals. No differences were observed among indicators such as time from symptom onset to hospitalization and symptom remission time between long-term and short-term survivors. The expression of ACE2 ( P =0.013) and TMPRSS2 ( P <0.001) was elevated in lung cancer survivors as compared with that in non-cancer individuals.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315884

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated. Methods: Data on confirmed patients, with a final outcome reported as of 29 March 2020, were obtained from official websites and other internet sources. The hospitalized CFR (HCFR) was estimated, epidemiological features described, and risk factors for a fatal outcome identified. Findings: The overall CFR in China was estimated to be 4.6% (95% CI 4.5%-4.8%). It increased with age and was higher in males than females. The highest CFR observed was in male patients ≥70 years old. Although the outcome of infection is generally worse for males, this adverse effect from male sex decreased as people get old. Differential age/sex CFR patterns across geographical regions were found: the age effect on CFR was greater in other provinces outside Hubei than in Wuhan. An effect of longer interval from symptom onset to admission was only observed outside Hubei, not in Wuhan. By performing multivariate analysis and survival analysis, the higher CFR was associated with older age, and male sex. Only in regions outside Hubei, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, were associated with higher CFR. Interpretation: This up-to-date and comprehensive picture of COVID-19 CFR and its drivers will help healthcare givers target limited medical resources to patients with high risk of fatality.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315631

ABSTRACT

Background: 2019 Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may cause critical illness including severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our purpose is to was to analyze the radiological features of COVID-19 pneumonia and its association with clinical severity. Methods This retrospective study included 212 patients (122 males, Mean age, 45.6 ± 12.8 years) from 10 hospitals. Chest CT, chest X-ray (CXR), clinical and laboratory data at admission and follow-up CT were collected. Chest CT and CXR were reviewed and CT score of the involved lung was calculated. Results 94.3% patients had pneumonia on the baseline CT at admission. The most CT findings were as follows: GGO (140/200), GGO with consolidation (38/200) and consolidation (16/200) most involving the lower lobes with a predilection for the peripheral aspects. The CT score negatively correlated with Lymphocyte count while it positively correlated with C-reactive protein. ROC curve showed an optimal cutoff value of the CT score of 15 had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 96.5% for the prediction of severe status. Series CT showed GGO or consolidation gradually reduced in 52 patients while 6 patients had reticular opacities. 14 patients showed the normal CXR while GGO were found on CT. Conclusion COVID-19 pneumonia manifests as focal, multifocal ground-glass opacities with/without consolidations. Higher CT score correlated severe clinical status. CXR is yet insufficient for evaluation of COVID-19 pneumonia.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328758

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been rampantly threatening much more people life, thus timely and precise countermeasures against SARS-COV-2 were a matter of urgency. Here, integrated bio-information analyse were used for deeply understanding the process of SARS-COV-2 infection. And it was demonstrated that pathways related to antivirus response, innate immune response, and type 1 interferon pathways were dominantly enriched in Covid-19, while neutrophil degranulation, inflammatory reaction and Covid-19 adverse outcome were also assigned significance. PPI network revealed that type 1 interferon pathways related genes ranked as the hub genes in Covid-19, and among these genes OASL, IFIT1,IFIT2,IFIT3 might be typically drug targeted, which was demonstrated by the cerna network and drug interaction network. Our research in the end meant to fundamentally achieve recommended strategies to benefit people suffering from SARS-COV-2 infection.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327447

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mediates viral entry into host cells through binding to the cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 RBD (RBD CoV2 ) has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than its highly homologous SARS-CoV RBD (RBD CoV ), for which the mechanistic reasons still remain to be elucidated. Here, we used the multiple-replica molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) binding free energy calculations, and interface residue contact network (IRCN) analysis approach to explore the mechanistic origin of different ACE2 binding affinities of these two RBDs. The results demonstrate that, when compared to the RBD CoV2 -ACE2 complex, the RBD CoV -ACE2 complex features the enhanced overall structural fluctuations and inter-protein positional movements and increased conformational entropy and diversity. The inter-protein electrostatic attractive interactions are a dominant force in determining the high ACE2 affinities of both RBDs, while the significantly strengthened electrostatic forces of attraction of ACE2 to RBD CoV2 determine the higher ACE2 binding affinity of RBD CoV2 than of RBD CoV . Comprehensive comparative analyses of the residue binding free energy components and IRCNs reveal that, although any RBD residue substitution involved in the charge change can significantly impact the inter-protein electrostatic interaction strength, it is the substitutions at the RBD interface that lead to the overall stronger electrostatic attractive force of RBD CoV2 -ACE2, which in turn not only tightens the interface packing and suppresses the dynamics of RBD CoV2 -ACE2, but also enhances the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD CoV2 compared to that of RBD CoV . Since the RBD residue substitutions involving gain/loss of the positively/negatively charged residues, in particular those near/at the binding interfaces with the potential to form hydrogen bonds and/or salt bridges with ACE2, can greatly enhance the ACE2 binding affinity, the SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying such mutations should be paid special attention to.

10.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 28(1): e13034, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583544

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to describe the experiences of nurses and other health care workers who were infected with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: An empirical phenomenological approach was used. Sixteen participants were recruited in Wuhan using purposive and snowball sampling. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted by telephone in February 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed following Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: Two themes emerged: (1) Intense emotional distress since becoming infected. Participants were fearful of spreading the virus to family and overwhelmed by a lack of information, experienced uncertainty and worried about treatment, felt lonely during isolation and reported moral distress about inadequate health care staffing. (2) Coping strategies were needed. They tried their best to address negative psychological reactions using their professional knowledge and gaining support from others and community resources. CONCLUSIONS: Preparedness for catastrophic events and providing timely and accurate information are major considerations in government policy development, related to pandemics and adequacy of health care personnel. Mental health resources and support, both short- and long-term should be anticipated for health care providers to alleviate their fear and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2239, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients with long incubation period were reported in clinical practice and tracing of close contacts, but their epidemiological or clinical features remained vague. METHODS: We analyzed 11,425 COVID-19 cases reported between January-August, 2020 in China. The accelerated failure time model, Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to investigate the determinants of prolonged incubation period, as well as their association with clinical severity and transmissibility, respectively. RESULT: Among local cases, 268 (10.2%) had a prolonged incubation period of > 14 days, which was more frequently seen among elderly patients, those residing in South China, with disease onset after Level I response measures administration, or being exposed in public places. Patients with prolonged incubation period had lower risk of severe illness (ORadjusted = 0.386, 95% CI: 0.203-0.677). A reduced transmissibility was observed for the primary patients with prolonged incubation period (50.4, 95% CI: 32.3-78.6%) than those with an incubation period of ≤14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence supporting a prolonged incubation period that exceeded 2 weeks in over 10% for COVID-19. Longer monitoring periods than 14 days for quarantine or persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2 should be justified in extreme cases, especially for those elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 130, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551216

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still spread and has made a severe public health threat around the world. To improve disease progression, emerging Chinese herbal compounds were used in clinical practice and some agents have proven beneficial in treating COVID-19. Here, the relevant literature from basic researches to clinical application were identified and comprehensively assessed. A variety of Chinese herbal compounds have been reported to be effective in improving symptoms and outcomes in patients with COVID-19, particularly together with routine treatment strategy. The pharmacological activities were mainly attributed to the relief of clinical symptoms, inhibition of cytokine storm, and improvement of organ function. Besides, the development of novel antiviral drugs from medicinal herbs were further discussed. The updated laboratory and clinical studies provided the evidence of Chinese herbal compounds such as Lianhua Qingwen prescription, Shufeng Jiedu prescription, and Qingfei Paidu Tang for the relief of COVID-19. However, both of the randomized controlled trials and real world researches need to be done for supporting the evidence including the efficacy and safety in fighting COVID-19.

13.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 834-844, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515719

ABSTRACT

Understanding the zoonotic origin and evolution history of SARS-CoV-2 will provide critical insights for alerting and preventing future outbreaks. A significant gap remains for the possible role of pangolins as a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 related coronaviruses (SC2r-CoVs). Here, we screened SC2r-CoVs in 172 samples from 163 pangolin individuals of four species, and detected positive signals in muscles of four Manis javanica and, for the first time, one M. pentadactyla. Phylogeographic analysis of pangolin mitochondrial DNA traced their origins from Southeast Asia. Using in-solution hybridization capture sequencing, we assembled a partial pangolin SC2r-CoV (pangolin-CoV) genome sequence of 22 895 bp (MP20) from the M. pentadactyla sample. Phylogenetic analyses revealed MP20 was very closely related to pangolin-CoVs that were identified in M. javanica seized by Guangxi Customs. A genetic contribution of bat coronavirus to pangolin-CoVs via recombination was indicated. Our analysis revealed that the genetic diversity of pangolin-CoVs is substantially higher than previously anticipated. Given the potential infectivity of pangolin-CoVs, the high genetic diversity of pangolin-CoVs alerts the ecological risk of zoonotic evolution and transmission of pathogenic SC2r-CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292322

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented severe challenges to emergency practice of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, poor evidence was shown on ACS in a non-hot-spot region. We sought to clarify the influence of the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic on emergency ACS from a non-epicenter region. Methods: : This retrospective multicenter study was conducted in emergency ACS patients during the pandemic (from 2020-01-23 to 2020-03-29) and the ones during the same period in 2019. Clinical characteristics, timeline parameters and treatment strategies were compared between different groups. Association of the pandemic with non-invasive therapy was further assessed. Results: : Compared with 2019, ACS had a drop in admission (267 cases vs. 475 cases) and invasive therapy (140 cases vs. 318 cases). Also, process delays were detected including the period from symptom onset to first medical contact (S-to-FMC, 5h vs. 2.5h), the period from FMC to electrocardiogram (ECG) completed (8min vs. 4min) and the period from FMC to dual antiplatelet therapy (FMC-to-DAPT, 25min vs. 19min). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) decreased by 54.9% in STEMI and early invasive therapy decreased by 59.2% in NSTE-ACS. The proportion of invasive therapy in NSTE-ACS decreased more than in STEMI (16.9% vs. 10.1%) with longer process delay. The pandemic was associated with increased non-PPCI in STEMI (OR=1.707, 95%CI 1.082-2.692, P=0.021) and elevated medication in NSTE-ACS (OR=2.029, 95%CI 1.268-3.247, P=0.003), respectively. Conclusion: Even in a non-epicenter region, the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant reduction of invasive therapy and evident process delays in emergency ACS.

15.
Agronomy ; 11(10):2044-2044, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1497194

ABSTRACT

The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is an invasive migratory pest that prefers to feed on crops of the Gramineae family such as maize and wheat. It has been recorded in different locations in China since its invasion in 2019. To assess its effect on different wheat tissues and to provide a risk evaluation for wheat fields, FAW larvae were reared on the wheat seedling (WS), spike (SPK), peduncle (PDC), flag leaf blade (F-b), and blade of the first leaf under flag (F-1b). The population parameters were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table method. The results showed that the FAW achieved successful development on all the substrates, although those fed on F-1b grew the slowest, had the smallest pupal weight, and deposited the fewest eggs. The larval survival rates of those fed on WS, SPK, and PDC were more than 80%, while for F-b and F-1b they were 56.58% and 32.03%, respectively. Feeding on leaf blades also resulted in lower fertility, reproductive capacity, life expectancy, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase. These results indicated that feeding on WS, SPK, and PDC were more beneficial for development compared to F-b and F-1b alone. However, leaf blades alone can still support the full FAW lifecycle and thus could play an important role in nutrition, especially when quantities of the preferred host tissues are not sufficient. These results provide guidance for assessing the FAW risk in China. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Agronomy is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 79: 114-121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic which may compromise the management of vascular emergencies. An uncompromised treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) during such a health crisis represents a challenge. This study aimed to demonstrate the treatment outcomes of rAAA and the perioperative prevention of cross-infection under the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In cases of rAAA during the pandemic, a perioperative workflow was applied to expedite coronavirus testing and avoid pre-operative delay, combined with a strategy for preventing cross-infection. Data of rAAA treated in 11 vascular centers between January-March 2020 collected retrospectively were compared to the corresponding period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Eight, 12, and 14 rAAA patients were treated in 11 centers in January-March 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. An increased portion were treated at local hospitals with a comparable outcome compared with large centers in Guangzhou. With EVAR-first strategy, 85.7% patients with rAAA in 2020 underwent endovascular repair, similar to that in 2018 and 2019. The surgical outcomes during the pandemic were not inferior to that in 2018 and 2019. The average length of ICU stay was 1.8 ± 3.4 days in 2020, tending to be shorter than that in 2018 and 2019, whereas the length of hospital stay was similar among 3 years. The in-hospital mortality of 2018, 2019, and 2020 was 37.5%, 25.0%, and 14.3%, respectively. Three patients undergoing emergent surgeries were suspected of COVID-19, though turned out to be negative after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience for emergency management of rAAA and infection prevention for healthcare providers is effective in optimizing emergent surgical outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Rupture/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Aortic Rupture/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Workflow
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
18.
Integr Med Res ; 10(4): 100778, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 180 million infections and 3.9 million deaths. To date, emerging clinical evidence has shown the synergetic benefits of Chinese herbal injections in treating this contagious respiratory disease. This review aims to summarize and analyze the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal injections in the therapy of COVID-19. METHODS: The literature from 3 electronic databases, PubMed, CNKI, and Web of Science, were searched using the search terms "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "traditional Chinese medicine", "herb", "herbal", and "injection". Then the identified articles were comprehensively evaluated. RESULTS: Limited data demonstrated that Chinese herbal injections could significantly improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients, especially in combination with conventional treatment strategies. The benefits of which were mainly associated with the relief of symptoms, prevention of secondary infection, regulation of inflammation and immune function. There was also evidence showing the inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Nevertheless, available real-world data suggested the increased risk of adverse event. Furthermore, the defects of existing researches and the insights for discovering novel antiviral drugs were prospectively discussed. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based advances revealed that Chinese herbal injections such as XueBiJing injection and ShenMai injection, exerted potent effects against COVID-19. Further laboratory researches and clinical evaluation are needed to gather scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety.

19.
International Journal of Epidemiology ; 50:1-1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1429233

ABSTRACT

Background Many countries are assessing their capacity of intensive care (IC) after COVID-19 outbreak due to massively increase in the utilisation. This work analysed the utilisation of IC in New Zealand (NZ) between 2010 and 2020, as a base to predict and plan the health service in the future. Methods Inpatient events from NZ national data collection and datasets from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society were matched to generate a relatively comprehensive IC dataset for patients cared in NZ. Results Over the period, around 182,000 IC inpatient events with associated 12.1 million IC hours were identified. For NZ patients, age-standardised rate was 328 events or 905 IC bed days per 100,000 population. The age-standardised rates were significantly higher in Maori and Pacific, and significantly lower in Asian population. The absolute IC events and IC hours significantly increased over the period, with a slope of 390 IC events or 29,000 IC hours per year. Significant increase in IC hours over the period were found in the diagnostic categories of injuries, cardiovascular diseases, neurological conditions and lower respiratory infections;or patients cared by health specialties of cardiothoracic surgery, general surgery, orthopaedic surgery and respiratory medicine. Conclusions The IC utilisation are different in population subgroups. Trends and volumes of IC utilisation in different clinical diagnoses and health specialties were quantified. Key messages With population projection, these results provide evidence to predict IC capacity demand and to design IC services (e.g. health specialties, IC beds and investment needed) in the future. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Epidemiology is the property of Oxford University Press / USA and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

20.
International Journal of Epidemiology ; 50:1-2, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1416136
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