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2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491325

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the main air pollutants, formed due to both natural and anthropogenic processes, which has a significant negative impact on human health. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted countries to take various measures, including social distancing or stay-at-home orders. This study analyzes the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on nitrogen dioxide (NO2) changes in Central Asian countries. Data from TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, as well as meteorological data, make it possible to assess changes in NO2 concentration in countries and major cities in the region. In particular, the obtained satellite data show a decreased tropospheric column of NO2. Its decrease during the lockdown (March 19-April 14) ranged from - 5.1% (Tajikistan) to - 11.6% (Turkmenistan). Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that limitations in anthropogenic activities have led to improvements in air quality. The possible influence of meteorology is not assessed in this study, and the implied uncertainties cannot be quantified. In this way, the level of air pollution is expected to decrease as long as partial or complete lockdown continues.

3.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291208

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 triggered by SARS-CoV-2 has become a common problem faced by people all over the world. With the development of bioinformatics and the breakthrough progress of gene technologies. It is a challenging topic to use genomic datasets for SARS-CoV-2 research. In this paper, a 3D visualization method is pro-posed to show the A9 module of the metagenomic analysis system MAS. Seven coronaviruses of genera were illustrated and briefly analyzed. Comparing the visualization results, various SARS-CoV-2 genomes were represented as 2D and 3D maps under different conditions. Through related specific projections, the characteristics of the coronavirus can be observed intuitively from the projection results to provide an effective viewpoint for studying viral genomes.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1063, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence of glucocorticoids on viral clearance delay of COVID-19 patients is not clear. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov from 2019 to April 20, 2021. We mainly pooled the risk ratios (RRs) and mean difference (MD) for viral clearance delay and did subgroup analyses by the severity of illness and doses of glucocorticoids. RESULTS: 38 studies with a total of 9572 patients were identified. Glucocorticoids treatment was associated with delayed viral clearance in COVID-19 patients (adjusted RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.80, I2 = 52%), based on moderate-quality evidence. In subgroup analyses, risk of viral clearance delay was significant both for COVID-19 patients being mild or moderate ill (adjusted RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.57, I2 = 48%), and for patients of being severe or critical ill (adjusted RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.07, I2 = 0%); however, this risk significantly increased for patients taking high doses (unadjusted RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.18; MD 7.19, 95% CI 2.78 to 11.61) or medium doses (adjusted RR 1.86, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.62, I2 = 45%; MD 3.98, 95% CI 3.07 to 4.88, I2 = 4%), rather those taking low doses (adjusted RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.02, I2 = 59%; MD 1.46, 95% CI -0.79 to 3.70, I2 = 82%). CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoids treatment delayed viral clearance in COVID-19 patients of taking high doses or medium doses, rather in those of taking low doses of glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Shock ; 56(2): 215-228, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The response to glucocorticoids treatment may be different between coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from 2002 to October 7, 2020. We used fixed-effects and random-effects models to compute the risk ratio of death in the group receiving glucocorticoids treatment and the control group for COVID-19 and SARS, respectively. RESULTS: Ten trials and 71 observational studies, with a total of 45,935 patients, were identified. Glucocorticoids treatment was associated with decreased all-cause mortality both in COVID-19 (risk ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.94; I2 = 26%) and SARS (0.48; 0.29-0.79; 10%), based on high-quality evidence, as well as decreased all-cause mortality-including composite outcome of COVID-19 (0.89; 0.82-0.98; 0%). In subgroup analyses, all-cause mortality was significantly lower among COVID-19 patients being accompanied by severe ARDS but not mild ARDS, taking low-dose or pulse glucocorticoids, being critically severe but not only severe, being of critical severity and old but not young, being of critical severity and men but not women, non-early taking glucocorticoids, taking dexamethasone or methylprednisolone, and with the increased inflammatory state; but for SARS, lower mortality was observed among those who were taking medium-high dose glucocorticoids, being severe or critically severe, early taking glucocorticoids, and taking methylprednisolone or prednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoids treatment reduced mortality in COVID-19 and SARS patients of critical severity; however, different curative effects existed between the two diseases among subpopulations, mainly regarding sex- and age-specific effects, optimal doses, and use timing of glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Global Health , Humans , Survival Rate/trends
7.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(2): 389-397, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807039

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore special coagulation characteristics and anticoagulation management in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-assisted patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective observation of a series of patients. PARTICIPANTS: Laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 patients who received venovenous ECMO support from January 20-May 20, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: This study analyzed the anticoagulation management and monitoring strategies, bleeding complications, and thrombotic events during ECMO support. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eight of 667 confirmed COVID-19 patients received venovenous ECMO and had an elevated D-dimer level before and during ECMO support. An ECMO circuit pack (oxygenator and tubing) was replaced a total of 13 times in all 8 patients, and coagulation-related complications included oxygenator thrombosis (7/8), tracheal hemorrhage (5/8), oronasal hemorrhage (3/8), thoracic hemorrhage (3/8), bleeding at puncture sites (4/8), and cannulation site hemorrhage (2/8). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability and secondary hyperfibrinolysis during ECMO support in COVID-19 patients are common and possibly increase the propensity for thrombotic events and failure of the oxygenator. Currently, there is not enough evidence to support a more aggressive anticoagulation strategy.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Trachea/injuries
9.
ASAIO J ; 66(5): 475-481, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-142784

ABSTRACT

Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cannot be adequately managed with mechanical ventilation alone. The role and outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the management of COVID-19 is currently unclear. Eight COVID-19 patients have received ECMO support in Shanghai with seven with venovenous (VV) ECMO support and one veno arterial (VA) ECMO during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As of March 25, 2020, four patients died (50% mortality), three patients (37.5%) were successfully weaned off ECMO after 22, 40, and 47 days support, respectively, but remain on mechanical ventilation. One patient is still on VV ECMO with mechanical ventilation. The partial pressure of oxygen/fractional of inspired oxygen ratio before ECMO initiation was between 54 and 76, and all were well below 100. The duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO ranged from 4 to 21 days. Except the one emergent VA ECMO during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, other patients were on ECMO support for between 18 and 47 days. In conclusion, ensuring effective, timely, and safe ECMO support in COVID-19 is key to improving clinical outcomes. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support might be an integral part of the critical care provided for COVID-19 patients in centers with advanced ECMO expertise.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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