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1.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 64: e31, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841209

ABSTRACT

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has contributed to a new increment in cases across the globe. We conducted a prospective follow-up of COVID-19 cases to explore the recurrence and potential propagation risk of the Delta variant and discuss potential explanations for the infection recurrence. A prospective, non-interventional follow-up of discharged patients who had SARS-CoV-2 infections by the Delta variant in Guangdong, China, from May 2021 to June 2021 was conducted. The subjects were asked to complete a physical health examination and undergo nucleic acid testing and antibody detection for the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. In total, 20.33% (25/123) of patients exhibited recurrent positive results after discharge. All patients with infection recurrence were asymptomatic and showed no abnormalities in the pulmonary computed tomography. The time from discharge to the recurrent positive testing was usually between 1-33 days, with a mean time of 9.36 days. The cycle threshold from the real-time polymerase chain reaction assay that detected the recurrence of positivity ranged from 27.48 to 39.00, with an average of 35.30. The proportion of vaccination in the non-recurrent group was higher than that in the recurrently positive group (26% vs. 4%; χ2 = 7.902; P < 0.05). Two months after discharge, the most common symptom was hair loss and 59.6% of patients had no long-term symptoms at all. It is possible for the Delta variant SARS-CoV-2 patients after discharge to show recurrent positive results of nucleic acid detection; however, there is a low risk of continuous community transmission. Both, the physical and mental quality of life of discharged patients were significantly affected. Our results suggest that it makes sense to implement mass vaccination against the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , China/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331581

ABSTRACT

Some patients retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 following negative testing results and discharge. However, the potential risk factors associated with redetectable positive test results in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19 have not been well estimated. A total of 745 discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled between January 30, 2020, and September 9, 2020, in Guangzhou, China. Data on the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, drug therapy, RT-PCR testing, and contact modes to close contacts were collected. Patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (positive retest patients) were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. The repositive rate in different settings was calculated. Among 745 discharged patients, 157 (21.1%;95% CI, 18.2% to 24.0%) retested positive, of which 55 (35.0%) were asymptomatic, 15 (9.6%) had mild symptoms, 83 (52.9%) had moderate symptoms and 4 (2.6%) had severe symptoms at the first admission. The median time from discharge to repositivity was 8.0 days (IQR, 8.0 to 14.0 days). Most positive retest patients were without clinical symptoms, and lymphocyte cell counts were higher than before being discharged. The likelihood of repositive testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly higher among patients who were younger age (OR, 3.88;95% CI, 1.74 to 8.66, 0 to 17 years old), had asymptomatic severity (OR, 4.36;95% CI, 1.47 to 12.95) and did not have clinical symptoms (OR, 1.89;95% CI, 1.32 to 2.70, without fever). We found that the positive retest rate of COVID-19 was relatively high, and these patients tested positive again with a median of 8.0 to 14.0 days after discharge. Positive retest results were mainly observed in young patients without severe clinical symptoms. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients could carry viral fragments for a long time, and effective management, such as a prolonged quarantine phase for discharged patients, is necessary.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325219

ABSTRACT

In the middle of March, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection a global pandemic. While China experienced a dramatic decline in daily growth rate of COVID-19, multiple importations of new cases from other countries and their related local infections caused a rapid rise. Between March 12 and April 15, we collected nasopharyngeal samples from 109 imported cases from 25 countries and 69 local cases in Guangzhou, China. In order to characterize the transmission patterns and genetic evolution of this virus among different populations, we sequenced the genome of SARS-CoV-2. The imported viral strains were assigned to lineages distributed in Europe (33.0%), America (17.4%), Africa (25.7%), or Southeast/West Asia (23.9%). Importantly, 10 imported cases from Africa formed two novel sub-lineages not identified in global tree previously. A detailed analysis showed that the imported viral strains from Philippines and Pakistan were closely related and within the same sub-lineage, whereas Ethiopia had varied lineages in the African phylogenetic tree. In spite of the diversity of imported SARS-CoV-2, 60 of 69 local infections could be traced back to two specific small lineages imported from Africa. A combined genetic and epidemiological analysis revealed a high-resolution transmission network of the imported SARS-CoV-2 in local communities, which might help inform the public health response and genomic surveillance in other cities and regions. Finally, we observed in-frame deletions on seven loci of SARS-CoV-2 genome, some of which were intra-host mutations, and they exhibited no enrichment on the S protein. Our findings provide new insight into the viral phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and beta coronavirus.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313360

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been seen in many counties where outbreaks appear to be leveling off. While China experienced a dramatic decline of COVID-19 at the outset of 2020, regional outbreaks continuously emerged in recent months. In Guangzhou, a small outbreak emerged in March and April involving less than 100 residents, and a comprehensive and near-real-time genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted. When confirmed cases among overseas travelers increased, public health authorities enhanced measures as shifting self-quarantine to central quarantine and SARS-CoV-2 testing for all overseas travelers. From 109 imported cases we found diverse viral variants distributing in the global viral phylogeny, which were usually shared within households but not among passengers on the same flight. Nonetheless, local transmission was predominately attributed to two specific variants imported from Africa, including the local cases who reported no direct/indirect contact with imported cases. The introducing events of the virus were identified or deduced before enhanced measures were taken. These results show that the interventions are effective in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and also rule out the possibility of cryptic transmission of viral variants from the first wave in January and February. Moreover, we found that intra-host viral diversity was usually different between close contacts, implying a transmission bottleneck of SARS-CoV-2. Our study provides evidence and emphasizes the importance of controls for oversea travelers in the context of the pandemic, and exemplifies how viral genomic data facilitates COVID-19 surveillance and prevention.Funding: This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31870079, 91953122, 31871326), National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2017ZX10103011, 2018ZX10305410, 2018ZX10201001), Guangdong Provincial Novel Coronavirus Scientific and Technological Project (2020111107001), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2020A1515010776 and 2020B1515020057) and the Beijing Nova Program (Z181100006218114 and Z181100006218110) to M.N. and P.L..Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Guangzhou (GZCDC-ECHR-2020P0002). Written informed consent was obtained from patients about the surveillance and data related to disease control and further analysis. All information regarding individual persons has been anonymized in this study.

5.
Frontiers in public health ; 9, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652076

ABSTRACT

Background: There has been a significant decline in the morbidity of almost all infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, while the incidence of norovirus-related acute gastroenteritis declined in Guangzhou, China during the initial period of the pandemic, incidence increased significantly once the new school year began in September 2020. Methods: Norovirus-related acute gastroenteritis clusters and outbreaks were assessed in Guangzhou from 2015 to 2020. Medians and interquartile ranges were compared between groups using the Mann–Whitney U-test, and attack rates were calculated. Results: While 78,579 cases of infectious diarrhea were reported from 2015 to 2019, with an average of 15,716 cases per year, only 12,065 cases of infectious diarrhea were reported in 2020. The numbers of sporadic cases and outbreaks reported from January to August 2020 were lower than the average numbers reported during the same time period each year from 2015 to 2019 but began to increase in September 2020. The number of cases in each reported cluster ranged from 10 to 70 in 2020, with a total of 1,280 cases and an average attack rate of 5.85%. The median number of reported cases, the cumulative number of cases, and the attack rate were higher than the average number reported each year from 2015 to 2019. The intervention time in 2020 was also higher than the average intervention time reported during 2015–2019. The main norovirus genotypes circulating in Guangzhou during 2015–2020 included genogroup 2 type 2 (GII.2) (n = 79, 26.69%), GII.17 (n = 36, 12.16%), GII.3 (n = 27, 9.12%), GII.6 (n = 8, 2.7%), GII.4 Sydney_2012 (n = 7, 2.36%), and GII.4 (n = 6, 2.03%). Conclusions: Our findings illustrate the importance of maintaining epidemiological surveillance for viral gastroenteritis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Local disease prevention and control institutions need to devote sufficient human resources to control norovirus clusters.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(48): e27846, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583962

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has caused a worldwide pandemic. Control measures differ among countries and have a varying degree of effectiveness, which requires assessment. To evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Guangzhou by 3 periods according to interventions: January 7 to 22 (no intervention), January 23 to February 23 (implemented intensive interventions), and February 24 to May 17 (the normalization mode of COVID-19 prevention and control).We collected the information of 745 COVID-19 patients and their close contacts as well as control measures in Guangzhou from January 7 to May 17, 2020. We estimated the epidemiological characteristics, disease spectrum of COVID-19 cases, key time-to-event intervals, and effective reproduction number over the 3 periods. The basic reproduction number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was also calculated over period 1.Approximately 45.8%, 49.8%, and 4.4% of cases from close contacts were asymptomatic, symptomatic, and severe, respectively. The median incubation period was 5.3 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 1.5-18.4 days) and the median serial interval fitted with gamma distribution was 5.1 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 0.8-15.9 days). The estimated median of onset-to-quarantined time in Period 1 to 3 were 7.5, 3.4, and 2.9 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 2.1-14.2, 3.9-14.7, and 6.0-20.0 days) respectively and the median of onset-to-confirmation time in period 1 to 3 were 8.9, 4.9 and 2.4 days (the percentiles of 2.5-97.5, 2.6-16.6, 0.9-14.6, and 0.5-11.8 days). In period 1, the reproduction number was 0.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.4) and fluctuated below 1.0 before January 22 except for January 14. The effective reproduction number gradually decreased in the period 2 with the lowest point of 0.1 on February 20, then increased again since March 27 and reach a spike of 1.8 on April 12. The number decreased to below 1.0 after April 17 and decreased further to <0.2 after May 7 in the period 3.Under prospective dynamic observation, close contacts turned into infected cases could provide a spectrum of COVID-19 cases from real-world settings. The lockdown of Wuhan and closed-loop management of people arriving Guangzhou were effective in halting the spread of the COVID-19 cases to Guangzhou. The spread of COVID-19 was successfully controlled in Guangzhou by social distancing, wearing a face mask, handwashing, disinfection in key places, mass testing, extensive contact tracing, and strict quarantine of close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Public Health , Young Adult
8.
Journal of Travel Medicine ; 27(8), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1410186

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 is a global public health emergency that has been caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Since it has a higher number of cases than SARS, it is considered a more infectious disease. The prevalence of COVID-19 in air passengers increases when the pandemic is over. Due to the rapid urbanization and the establishment of a transportation hub in China, the number of COVID-19 cases in Guangzhou has been reduced to low levels since early 2020. However, the resurgence risk remains significant. This study aims to provide an overview of the policies and control measures related to the entry of COVID-19 cases from abroad. After the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Guangdong was widely publicized, the local government issued a series of measures to contain its spread. All travellers and residents who entered the city after passing through immigration checkpoints were required to submit a RT-PCR test. From March to July 2020, a total of 268 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in China. Most of the imported cases were male and were engaged in commercial activities. The majority of the cases originated from Europe and Asia. Out of the 85 imported cases identified, 73.5% were detected during the customs inspection and 19.0% were under centralized quarantine. The remaining cases were confirmed during a consultation with a healthcare professional. Twenty-four samples were collected from the living areas of 12 imported cases, which indicated that SARS-CoV-2 was prevalent in these areas. The majority of the positive samples were from household objects such as door handle, sink, and remote control.

9.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 95:345-346, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409673

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now become a pandemic threat to the whole world. At the same time, influenza virus has been active, with influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 sharing the same transmission routes. This article aims to alert clinicians of the presence of co-infection with these two viruses and to describe the effect of the measures taken to fight COVID-19 on influenza prevention and control.

10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1751-1759, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393119

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against the Delta variant, which has been associated with greater transmissibility and virulence, remains unclear. We conducted a test-negative case-control study to explore the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in real-world settings. We recruited participants aged 18-59 years who consisted of SARS-CoV-2 test-positive cases (n = 74) and test-negative controls (n = 292) during the outbreak of the Delta variant in May 2021 in Guangzhou city, China. Vaccination status was compared to estimate The VE of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccines. A single dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine yielded the VE of only 13.8%. After adjusting for age and sex, the overall VE for two-dose vaccination was 59.0% (95% confidence interval: 16.0% to 81.6%) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 70.2% (95% confidence interval: 29.6-89.3%) against moderate COVID-19 and 100% against severe COVID-19 which might be overestimated due to the small sample size. The VE of two-dose vaccination against COVID-19 reached 72.5% among participants aged 40-59 years, and was higher in females than in males against COVID-19 and moderate diseases. While single dose vaccination was not sufficiently protective, the two-dose dosing scheme of the inactivated vaccines was effective against the Delta variant infection in real-world settings, with the estimated efficacy exceeding the World Health Organization minimal threshold of 50%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , China , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Genetic Variation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/standards , Young Adult
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 684101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332124

ABSTRACT

Some patients retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 following negative testing results and discharge. However, the potential risk factors associated with redetectable positive testing results in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19 have not been well-estimated. A total of 745 discharged patients were enrolled between January 30, 2020, and September 9, 2020, in Guangzhou, China. Data on the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, drug therapy, RT-PCR testing, and contact modes to close contacts were collected. Patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. The repositive rate in different settings was calculated. Among 745 discharged patients, 157 (21.1%; 95% CI, 18.2-24.0%) tested repositive and the repositive rate was 16.8% (95% CI, 14.1-24.0%) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 9.7% (95% CI, 7.0-12.5%) for anal swabs. Among them, 55 (35.0%) were asymptomatic, 15 (9.6%) had mild symptoms, 83 (52.9%) had moderate symptoms, and 4 (2.6%) had severe symptoms at the first admission. The days from discharge to repositivity was 8.0 (IQR, 8.0-14.0). Most repositive patients were without clinical symptoms, and lymphocyte cell counts were higher than before being discharged. The likelihood of repositive testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly higher among patients who were of younger age (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.74-8.66, 0-17 years old), had asymptomatic severity (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.47-12.95), and did not have clinical symptoms (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.32-2.70, without fever). No other positive patients emerged within the families or close contacts of repositive patients. Our findings support prolonged but intermittent viral shedding as the probable cause for this phenomenon; we need to familiarize with the possibility that the virus will remain endemic.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 622677, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247938

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak in China has created multiple stressors that threaten individuals' mental health, especially among public health workers (PHW) who are devoted to COVID-19 control and prevention work. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of mental help-seeking and associated factors among PHW using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (BMHSU). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 9,475 PHW in five provinces across China between February 18 and March 1, 2020. The subsample data of those who reported probable mental health problems were analyzed for this report (n = 3,417). Logistic and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of predisposing, enabling, need, and COVID-19 contextual factors with mental health help-seeking. Results: Only 12.7% of PHW reported professional mental help-seeking during the COVID-19 outbreak. PHW who were older, had more days of overnight work, received psychological training, perceived a higher level of support from the society, had depression and anxiety were more likely to report mental help-seeking (ORm range: 1.02-1.73, all p < 0.05) while those worked in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were less likely to seek help (ORm = 0.57, p < 0.01). The belief that mental health issues were not the priority (64.4%), lack of time (56.4%), and shortage of psychologists (32.7%) were the most frequently endorsed reasons for not seeking help. Conclusions: The application of BMHSU confirmed associations between some factors and PHW's mental health help-seeking. Effective interventions are warranted to promote mental health help-seeking of PHW to ameliorate the negative impact of mental illness and facilitate personal recovery and routine work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(8): e0007921, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218187

ABSTRACT

While China experienced a peak and decline in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases at the start of 2020, regional outbreaks continuously emerged in subsequent months. Resurgences of COVID-19 have also been observed in many other countries. In Guangzhou, China, a small outbreak, involving less than 100 residents, emerged in March and April 2020, and comprehensive and near-real-time genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted. When the numbers of confirmed cases among overseas travelers increased, public health measures were enhanced by shifting from self-quarantine to central quarantine and SARS-CoV-2 testing for all overseas travelers. In an analysis of 109 imported cases, we found diverse viral variants distributed in the global viral phylogeny, which were frequently shared within households but not among passengers on the same flight. In contrast to the viral diversity of imported cases, local transmission was predominately attributed to two specific variants imported from Africa, including local cases that reported no direct or indirect contact with imported cases. The introduction events of the virus were identified or deduced before the enhanced measures were taken. These results show the interventions were effective in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and they rule out the possibility of cryptic transmission of viral variants from the first wave in January and February 2020. Our study provides evidence and emphasizes the importance of controls for overseas travelers in the context of the pandemic and exemplifies how viral genomic data can facilitate COVID-19 surveillance and inform public health mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Africa , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 395-401, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065176

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the risk of infection of children with that of adults and to explore risk factors of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) by following up close contacts of COVID-19 patients. METHOD: The retrospective cohort study was performed among close contacts of index cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in Guangzhou, China. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and exposure information were extracted. Logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the risk factors. The restricted cubic spline was conducted to examine to the dose-response relationship between age and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The secondary attack rate (SAR) was 4.4% in 1,344 close contacts. The group of household contacts (17.2%) had the highest SAR. The rare-frequency contact (p < 0.001) and moderate-frequency contact (p < 0.001) were associated with lower risk of infection. Exposure to index cases with dry cough symptoms was associated with infection in close contacts (p = 0.004). Compared with children, adults had a significantly increased risk of infection (p = 0.014). There is a linear positive correlation between age and infection (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Children are probably less susceptible to COVID-19. Close contacts with frequent contact with patients and those exposed to patients with cough symptoms are associated with an increased risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Adult , Age Factors , Child , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Epidemics , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 246: 118083, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nine COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease, 2019) cases were observed in one community in Guangzhou. All the cases lived in three vertically aligned units of one building sharing the same piping system, which provided one unique opportunity to examine the transmission mode of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We interviewed the cases on the history of travelling and close contact with the index patients. Respiratory samples from all the cases were collected for viral phylogenetic analyses. A simulation experiment in the building and a parallel control experiment in a similar building were then conducted to investigate the possibility of transmission through air. RESULTS: Index patients living in Apartment 15-b had a travelling history in Wuhan, and four cases who lived in Apartment 25-b and 27-b were subsequently diagnosed. Phylogenetic analyses showed that virus of all the patients were from the same strain of the virus. No close contacts between the index cases and other families indicated that the transmission might not occur through droplet and close contacts. Airflow detection and simulation experiment revealed that flushing the toilets could increase the speed of airflow in the pipes and transmitted the airflow from Apartment 15-b to 25-b and 27-b. Reduced exhaust flow rates in the infected building might have contributed to the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak of COVID-19 in this community could be largely explained by the transmission through air, and future efforts to prevent the infection should take the possibility of transmission through air into consideration. A disconnected drain pipe and exhaust pipe for toilet should be considered in the architectural design to help prevent possible virus spreading through the air.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1202, 2020 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 2 months have passed since the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first emerged in Wuhan, China. With the migration of people, the epidemic has rapidly spread within China and throughout the world. Due to the severity of the epidemic, undiscovered transmission of COVID-19 deserves further investigation. The aim of our study hypothesized possible modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and how the virus may have spread between two family clusters within a residential building in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we monitored and traced confirmed patients and their close contacts from January 11 to February 5, 2020 in Guangzhou, China, including 2 family cluster cases and 61 residents within one residential building. The environmental samples of the building and the throat swabs from the patients and from their related individuals were collected for SARS-CoV-2 and tested with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relevant information was collected and reported using big data tools. RESULTS: There were two notable family cluster cases in Guangzhou, which included 3 confirmed patients (family No.1: patient A, B, C) and 2 confirmed patients (family No.2: patient D, E), respectively. None of patients had contact with other confirmed patients before the onset of symptoms, and only patient A and patient B made a short stop in Wuhan by train. Home environment inspection results showed that the door handle of family No.1 was positive of SARS-CoV-2. The close contacts of the 5 patients all tested negative of SARS-CoV-2 and in good health, and therefore were released after the official medical observation period of 14-days. Finally, according to the traceability investigation through applying big data analysis, we found an epidemiological association between family No.1 and family No.2, in which patient D (family No.2) was infected through touching an elevator button contaminated by snot with virus from patient A (family No.1) on the same day. CONCLUSIONS: Contaminants with virus from confirmed patients can pollute the environment of public places, and the virus can survive on the surface of objects for a short period of time. Therefore, in addition to the conventional droplet transmission, there is also indirect contact transmission such as snot-oral transmission that plays a crucial role in community spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(10): 1141-1150, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of June 8, 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases had reached more than 7 million with over 400 000 deaths. The household transmissibility of the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 among household and non-household close contacts in Guangzhou, China, using a statistical transmission model. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we used a comprehensive contact tracing dataset from the Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate the secondary attack rate of COVID-19 (defined as the probability that an infected individual will transmit the disease to a susceptible individual) among household and non-household contacts, using a statistical transmission model. We considered two alternative definitions of household contacts in the analysis: individuals who were either family members or close relatives, such as parents and parents-in-law, regardless of residential address, and individuals living at the same address regardless of relationship. We assessed the demographic determinants of transmissibility and the infectivity of COVID-19 cases during their incubation period. FINDINGS: Between Jan 7, 2020, and Feb 18, 2020, we traced 195 unrelated close contact groups (215 primary cases, 134 secondary or tertiary cases, and 1964 uninfected close contacts). By identifying households from these groups, assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days, a maximum infectious period of 13 days, and no case isolation, the estimated secondary attack rate among household contacts was 12·4% (95% CI 9·8-15·4) when household contacts were defined on the basis of close relatives and 17·1% (13·3-21·8) when household contacts were defined on the basis of residential address. Compared with the oldest age group (≥60 years), the risk of household infection was lower in the youngest age group (<20 years; odds ratio [OR] 0·23 [95% CI 0·11-0·46]) and among adults aged 20-59 years (OR 0·64 [95% CI 0·43-0·97]). Our results suggest greater infectivity during the incubation period than during the symptomatic period, although differences were not statistically significant (OR 0·61 [95% CI 0·27-1·38]). The estimated local reproductive number (R) based on observed contact frequencies of primary cases was 0·5 (95% CI 0·41-0·62) in Guangzhou. The projected local R, had there been no isolation of cases or quarantine of their contacts, was 0·6 (95% CI 0·49-0·74) when household was defined on the basis of close relatives. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible in households than SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Older individuals (aged ≥60 years) are the most susceptible to household transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to case finding and isolation, timely tracing and quarantine of close contacts should be implemented to prevent onward transmission during the viral incubation period. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Science and Technology Plan Project of Guangzhou, Project for Key Medicine Discipline Construction of Guangzhou Municipality, Key Research and Development Program of China.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Characteristics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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