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Microbiol Insights ; 15: 11786361221089736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799150

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). The impacts of COVID-19 have changed over the past year globally. There were 116 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in more than 220 countries, including 2.5 million deaths, as reported at the end of the first week of March 2021. Throughout this time, different variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged. In early March, the United States of America (USA) led in both confirmed cases and casualties, while India followed in the number of confirmed cases and Brazil in the number of deaths. Vaccines are available in the USA and worldwide to help combat COVID-19. The level of preparedness among multisectoral communities played a role in transmission rates; therefore, lessons learned from past outbreaks, alongside this pandemic, are crucial in establishing policies and regulations to reduce and/or prevent the spread. This narrative literature review provides an update on the global spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, and the current impact of the pandemic 1-year after the declaration, preparedness, and mitigation efforts since the outbreak.

2.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 4(1): 91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783053

ABSTRACT

In the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, varying degrees of clinical manifestations have been noticed in patients. Some patients who recovered from the infection developed long-term effects which have become of interest to the scientific and medical communities, as it relates to pathogenesis and the multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Long COVID (long-term or long-haul) is the collective term used to define recovered individuals of SARS-CoV-2 infection who have presented with persistent COVID symptoms, as well as the emergence of disorders and complications. Following the review of literature from major scientific databases, this paper investigated long COVID and the resulting post-sequela effects on survivors, regardless of initial disease severity. The clinical manifestations and multisystem complications of the disease specifically, cardiovascular, neurologic and psychologic, hematologic, pulmonary, dermatologic, and other ailments were discussed. Patients with chronic COVID-19 were found to experience heart thrombosis leading to myocardial infarction, inflammation, lung fibrosis, stroke, venous thromboembolism, arterial thromboembolism, "brain fog", general mood dysfunctions, dermatological issues, and fatigue. As the disease continues to progress and spread, and with the emergence of new variants the management of these persisting symptoms will pose a challenge for healthcare providers and medical systems in the next period of the pandemic. However, more information is needed about long COVID, particularly concerning certain patient populations, variability in follow-up times, the prevalence of comorbidities, and the evolution of the spread of infection. Thus, continued research needs to be conducted concerning the disease pathology to develop preventative measures and management strategies to treat long COVID.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 219, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834865

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion has been indicated as a promising therapy in the treatment for other emerging viral infections. However, the quality control of CP and individual variation in patients in different studies make it rather difficult to evaluate the efficacy and risk of CP therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to explore the potential efficacy of CP therapy, and to assess the possible factors associated with its efficacy. We enrolled eight critical or severe COVID-19 patients from four centers. Each patient was transfused with 200-400 mL of CP from seven recovered donors. The primary indicators for clinical efficacy assessment were the changes of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, and radiological image after CP transfusion. CP donors had a wide range of antibody levels measured by serology tests which were to some degree correlated with the neutralizing antibody (NAb) level. No adverse events were observed during and after CP transfusion. Following CP transfusion, six out of eight patients showed improved oxygen support status; chest CT indicated varying degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions in six patients within 8 days; the viral load was decreased to a negative level in five patients who had the previous viremia; other laboratory parameters also tended to improve, including increased lymphocyte counts, decreased C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and indicators for liver function. The clinical efficacy might be associated with CP transfusion time, transfused dose, and the NAb levels of CP. This study indicated that CP might be a potential therapy for severe patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load
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