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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940094

ABSTRACT

Background Meteorological factors have been proven to affect pathogens;both the transmission routes and other intermediate. Many studies have worked on assessing how those meteorological factors would influence the transmissibility of COVID-19. In this study, we used generalized estimating equations to evaluate the impact of meteorological factors on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by using three outcome variables, which are transmissibility, incidence rate, and the number of reported cases. Methods In this study, the data on the daily number of new cases and deaths of COVID-19 in 30 provinces and cities nationwide were obtained from the provincial and municipal health committees, while the data from 682 conventional weather stations in the selected provinces and cities were obtained from the website of the China Meteorological Administration. We built a Susceptible-Exposed-Symptomatic-Asymptomatic-Recovered/Removed (SEIAR) model to fit the data, then we calculated the transmissibility of COVID-19 using an indicator of the effective reproduction number (Reff). To quantify the different impacts of meteorological factors on several outcome variables including transmissibility, incidence rate, and the number of reported cases of COVID-19, we collected panel data and used generalized estimating equations. We also explored whether there is a lag effect and the different times of meteorological factors on the three outcome variables. Results Precipitation and wind speed had a negative effect on transmissibility, incidence rate, and the number of reported cases, while humidity had a positive effect on them. The higher the temperature, the lower the transmissibility. The temperature had a lag effect on the incidence rate, while the remaining five meteorological factors had immediate and lag effects on the incidence rate and the number of reported cases. Conclusion Meteorological factors had similar effects on incidence rate and number of reported cases, but different effects on transmissibility. Temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, sunshine hours, and wind speed had immediate and lag effects on transmissibility, but with different lag times. An increase in temperature may first cause a decrease in virus transmissibility and then lead to a decrease in incidence rate. Also, the mechanism of the role of meteorological factors in the process of transmissibility to incidence rate needs to be further explored.

2.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 958-965, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI), a rare adverse event, cannot be ignored as millions of doses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of post-vaccine AKI reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). METHODS: After data mapping from December 2020 to June 2021, we summarized demographic and clinical features and outcomes of reported cases from three vaccines (Pfizer-BNT, MODERNA, and JANSSEN). The Bayesian and nonproportional analyses explored the correlations between COVID-19 vaccines and AKI. RESULTS: We identified 1133 AKI cases. Pfizer-BNT appeared to have a stronger AKI correlation than MODERNA and JANSSEN, based on the highest reporting odds ratio (ROR = 2.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.97, 2.36). We observed the differences in ages, comorbidities, current illnesses, post-vaccine AKI causes, and time to AKI onset (all p<.05) among three vaccines. Most patients are elderly, with the highest age in MODERNA (68.41 years) and lowest in JANSSEN (59.75 years). Comorbidities were noticed in 58.83% of the cases and active infections in over 20% of cases. The leading cause of post-vaccine AKI was volume depletion (40.78%), followed by sepsis (11.74%). Patients in Pfizer-BNT had the worst outcome with 19.78% deaths, following 17.78% in MODERNA and 12.36% in JANSSEN (p = .217). The proportion of patients on dialysis was higher in JANSSEN than in Pfizer-BNT and MODERNA (14.61% vs. 6.54%, 10.62%, p = .008). CONCLUSION: AKI could occur after the COVID-19 vaccines, predominantly in elderly patients. However, the causality needs further identification.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Vaccines/adverse effects
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 878081, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875437

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on allergic reactions after the administration of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines are limited. Our aim is to analyze reports of allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccine administration. Methods: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System database was searched for reported allergic reactions after the administration of any of the COVID-19 vaccines from December 2020 to June 2021. After data mapping, the demographic and clinical characteristics of the reported cases were analyzed. Potential factors associated with anaphylaxis were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: In total, 14,611 cases were reported. Most cases of allergic reactions comprised women (84.6%) and occurred after the first dose of the vaccine (63.6%). Patients who experienced anaphylaxis were younger (mean age 45.11 ± 5.6 vs. 47.01 ± 6.3 years, P < 0.001) and had a higher prevalence of a history of allergies, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis than those who did not (P < 0.05). A history of allergies (odds ratio (OR) 1.632, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.467-1.816, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 1.908, 95%CI 1.677-2.172, P < 0.001), and anaphylaxis (OR 7.164, 95%CI 3.504-14.646, P < 0.001) were potential risk factors for anaphylaxis. Among the 8,232 patients with reported outcomes, 16 died. Conclusions: Female predominance in allergic reaction cases after the receipt of COVID-19 vaccines was observed. Previous histories of allergies, asthma, or anaphylaxis were risk factors for anaphylaxis post-vaccination. People with these risk factors should be monitored more strictly after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Asthma , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820443

ABSTRACT

The administration of COVID-19 vaccines has become increasingly essential to curb the pandemic. However, adverse events of acute kidney injury (AKI) emerge rapidly as the COVID-19 vaccination promotes. To investigate the intervenable risk factors of AKI, we searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System database and recorded adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccines from Dec 2020 to Jun 2021. We included 1149 AKI cases, of which 627 (54.6%) cases were reported following the Pfizer-BNT COVID-19 vaccine, and 433 (37.7%) were reported after the Moderna vaccine. A univariate analysis revealed that coexisting active illnesses (infections, uncontrolled hypertension, heart failure, etc.) have an unfavorable prognosis, with an increased risk of death (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.70-3.25, p < 0.001). The other risk factors included older age and past disease histories. An adjusted regression analysis proved that coexisting active illnesses worsen AKI prognosis after COVID-19 vaccination, with a higher mortality risk (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.25, p < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, we stratified different variables, and none revealed a significant effect modification on the association between coexisting active illnesses and AKI-associated death after vaccination (p-interaction >0.05). We found that coexisting active illnesses could complicate AKI after vaccines, but the potential causal relationship needed further investigation.

5.
Global Mental Health ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1758035

ABSTRACT

Background Risk perception among nurses after the COVID-19 pandemic is a crucial factor affecting their attitudes and willingness to work in clinics. Those with poor psychological status could perceive risks sensitively as fears or threats that are discouraging. This article aimed to determine whether psychological outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and insomnia, following the COVID-19 pandemic were differentially related to the risk perceptions of nurses working in clinics and increased perceived risk. Method The participants were 668 nurse clinicians from five local hospitals. Risk perceptions and psychological outcomes were measured by adapted questionnaires via the Internet. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified subgroups of individuals who showed similar profiles regarding the perceived risks in nursing. Multinomial regression and probit regression were used to examine the extent to which sociodemographic and psychological outcomes predicted class membership. Results LPA revealed four classes: groups with low-, mild-, moderate-, and high-level risk perceptions. Membership of the high-level risk perception class was predicted by the severity of psychological outcomes. Anxiety significantly accounted for a moderate increase in risk perceptions, while the symptoms of insomnia, depression, and PTSD accelerated the increase to the high level of risk perception class. Conclusions By classifying groups of nurse clinicians sharing similar profiles regarding risk perceptions and then exploring associated predictors, this study shows the psychological outcomes after COVID-19 significantly impacted pandemic-associated risk perceptions and suggests intervening in nurses' psychological outcomes while simultaneously focusing on work-related worries is important following the outbreak of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325089

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: : The potential therapeutic effects of protease inhibitors (PIs), such as lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir, on COVID-19 are being tested in clinical trials. Although acute pancreatitis (AP) has been reported in patients treated with PIs, there have been few real-world studies comparing the occurrence and characteristics of AP after different PI regimens. Methods: Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were utilized for data mining of the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database for suspected adverse events involving AP after PI from January 2004 to December 2019. The times to onset and fatality rates of AP following different PI regimens were also compared. Results: Based on 33,832 reports related to PIs, 285 cases (0.84% of total adverse drug reactions, ADRs) were associated with AP;in these reports, the number of AP cases reported for the top five PIs was as follows: ritonavir/dasabuvir/ombitasvir/paritaprevir, 64 (22.46%);ritonavir, 54 (18.95%);atazanavir, 52 (18.25%);lopinavir/ritonavir, 48 (16.84%);and darunavir, 26 (9.12%). Twelve out of the 15 studied PIs, including lopinavir/ritonavir, darunavir and nelfinavir, which are potential therapeutics for COVID-19, were associated with AP. Of all the reported adverse events involving AP related to PIs, 64.56% occurred in men, which was a much higher proportion than what was observed in women (28.42%). The median time to onset of AP was 103 (IQR: 26-408) days after the initiation of PI treatment. Patients treated with ritonavir/dasabuvir/ombitasvir/paritaprevir appeared to have an earlier onset of AP than those receiving atazanavir (31 [IQR: 17–68.25] days vs 187.5 [IQR: 80.5–556.5] days, p=0.0379) or ritonavir (31 [IQR: 17–68.25] days vs 177 [IQR: 56–539] days, p=0.0371). Compared with AP cases induced by all studied PIs, which had a fatality rate of 14.02%, AP cases associated with ritonavir (18.87%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (22.73%) appeared to be associated with a higher risk of death. Conclusions: Analysis of the FAERS data provides a more precise understanding of the occurrence and characteristics of AP after different PI regimens. Signals for AP associated with various PI regimens have been detected. The findings support continued surveillance, risk factor identification, and comparative studies.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323697

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, has spread worldwide and poses a great threat to human health. Among COVID-19 patients, those with hypertension have been reported to have higher morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of COVID-19 with hypertension. Methods: : A total of 188 COVID-19 patients were studied from January to March 2020. The epidemiology, clinical features, and laboratory data of hypertensive patients with COVID-19 were collected, retrospectively analyzed, and compared with a normotensive group. The use of anti-hypertensive drugs, general treatment, and clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients were also analyzed. Results: : The median ages in hypertensive patients with mild and severe COVID-19 were both significantly greater than the median age in the normotensive group. But there was no significant gender difference between the hypertensive and normotensive groups. All patients had lived in the Wuhan area. Common symptoms of all of the patients included fever, cough, and fatigue. Chest CT scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all of the patients. All (98 [100%]) of the hypertensive patients received antiviral therapy (Arbidol was used alone or in combination with Ribavirin), antibiotic therapy (85 [86.7%]), and corticosteroids (31 [31.6%]). It has been suggested that the combination of Arbidol and Ribavirin as initial therapy for hypertensive patients with COVID-19 is effective and safe. There were no significant differences in laboratory data between the mild cases in the hypertensive and the normotensive groups. In the severe cases, the hypertensive patients had higher plasma levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the hypertensive patients who were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) had no statistically significant differences between the mild and severe groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the hypertensive patients who were treated with ACEI/ARB did not have an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. Arbidol and Ribavirin played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Hypertensive patients with severe viral pneumonia had stronger inflammatory responses than non-hypertensive patients.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318101

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic was preceded by an ongoing overdose crisis and linked to escalating drug overdose deaths in British Columbia (BC). At the outset of these dual public health emergencies, the BC government announced interim Risk Mitigation Guidance (RMG) that permitted prescribing medication alternatives to substances, including opioids, alcohol, stimulants, and benzodiazepines, an intervention sometimes referred to as ‘Safe Supply’. This protocol outlines the approach for a study of the implementation of RMG and its impacts on COVID-19 infection, drug-related and systemic harms, continuity of care for people with substance use disorder, as well as their behavioural, psychosocial, and well-being outcomes.MethodsWe conduct a parallel mixed-method study that involves both analysis of population-level administrative health data and primary data collection, including a 10-week longitudinal observational study (target n=200), a cross-sectional survey (target n=200), and qualitative interviews (target n=60). We have implemented a participatory approach to this evaluation, partnering with people with lived or living experience of substance use, as well as researchers and public health decision-makers across the province. Linked population-level administrative databases will analyze data from a cohort of BC residents with an indication of substance use disorder between 1996 and 2000. We will conduct a high-dimensional propensity score matching and marginal structural modeling to construct a control group and assess the impact of RMG dispensation receipt on a collaboratively-determined set of primary and secondary outcomes.DiscussionThis study constitutes the first formal evaluation of a province-wide program providing regulated pharmaceutical alternatives to the toxic drug supply. The study features an integrated knowledge translation approach, including communications with people with lived/living experience of substance use and consortium meetings with various stakeholders. Supported by the unique research context in BC, our selected mixed method study design will provide an exceptionally strong evidence base to judge not only the impact of the initial implementation of RMG, but also critical evidence on the implementation of the program, which can be used to adapt its future iterations if deemed successful.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315496

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes an immense disease burden. Only drugs or vaccines can eliminate the virus. Methods: We adopted our age-specific transmission model by susceptible-exposed-infectious -critically ill-asymptomatic-removed (SEICAR) model. Effects of different drug types were simulated by changing transmission rate (β), critical case fatality rate (fc), and disease duration of each age group. Evaluation indexes were based on outbreak duration(OD), cumulative number of cases(CNC), total attack rate(TAR), peak date(PD), number of peak cases(NPC), and case fatality rate(f). Findings: When without intervention, changing in β and disease duration, as the age increased, OD decreased, TAR increased, PD advanced, CCN and NPC initially increased and then decreased, while f decreased first and then increased. When disease duration and β remained unchanged, changing fc did not affect the epidemic. All age groups had 40% shorter disease duration but unchanged fc, while β was reduced by 60%, which reduced TAR of group 1 (≤14 years) from 2·35% to 0·09%;f of group 4 (≥65 years) was reduced from 1·04% to 0·05%. Interpretation: Drugs had different age-dependent effects. If a drug can control the disease duration or β of all age groups, younger people would have the fastest transmission control and seniors will have the best improvement in disease severity. Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-005834);the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province (No: 2020Y0002), and the Xiamen New Coronavirus Prevention and Control Emergency Tackling Special Topic Program (No: 3502Z2020YJ03).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

10.
Epidemiology and infection ; 149, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609638

ABSTRACT

The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.

11.
Build Environ ; 213: 108864, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664710

ABSTRACT

Portable air cleaners (PACs) can remove airborne SARS-CoV-2 exhaled by COVID-19 infectors indoor. However, effectively locating PAC to reduce the infection risk is still poorly understood. Here, we propose a simple model by regressing an equation of seven similarity criteria based on CFD-modeled results of a scenario matrix of 128 cases for office rooms. The model can calculate the mean droplet nucleus concentration with very low computing costs. Combining this model with the Wells-Riley equation, we estimate the airborne infection risk when a PAC is located in different positions. The two similarity criteria, B p + and G p + , are critical for characterizing the effect of the position and airflow rate of PAC on the infection risk. An infection probability of less than 10% requires B p   +  to be larger than 144 and G p   +  to be larger than 0.001. These criteria imply that locating PAC in the center of the room is optimal under the premise that the airflow rate of PAC is greater than a certain level. The model provides an easy-to-use approach for real-time risk control strategy decisions. Furthermore, the placement strategies offer timely guidelines for precautions against the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic and common infectious respiratory diseases.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(4): 1498-1502, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586041

ABSTRACT

Several applications in health diagnostics, food, safety, and environmental monitoring require rapid, simple, selective, and quantitatively accurate viral load monitoring. Here, we introduce the first label-free biosensing method that rapidly detects and quantifies intact virus in human saliva with single-virion resolution. Using pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 as a representative target, we immobilize aptamers with the ability to differentiate active from inactive virions on a photonic crystal, where the virions are captured through affinity with the spike protein displayed on the outer surface. Once captured, the intrinsic scattering of the virions is amplified and detected through interferometric imaging. Our approach analyzes the motion trajectory of each captured virion, enabling highly selective recognition against nontarget virions, while providing a limit of detection of 1 × 103 copies/mL at room temperature. The approach offers an alternative to enzymatic amplification assays for point-of-collection diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , DNA/chemistry , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Humans , Limit of Detection , Microscopy/methods , Optics and Photonics/instrumentation , Optics and Photonics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Saliva/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
13.
Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci ; 26(1): 100966, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520806

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed fundamental limitations in the current model for infectious disease diagnosis and serology, based upon complex assay workflows, laboratory-based instrumentation, and expensive materials for managing samples and reagents. The lengthy time delays required to obtain test results, the high cost of gold-standard PCR tests, and poor sensitivity of rapid point-of-care tests contributed directly to society's inability to efficiently identify COVID-19-positive individuals for quarantine, which in turn continues to impact return to normal activities throughout the economy. Over the past year, enormous resources have been invested to develop more effective rapid tests and laboratory tests with greater throughput, yet the vast majority of engineering and chemistry approaches are merely incremental improvements to existing methods for nucleic acid amplification, lateral flow test strips, and enzymatic amplification assays for protein-based biomarkers. Meanwhile, widespread commercial availability of new test kits continues to be hampered by the cost and time required to develop single-use disposable microfluidic plastic cartridges manufactured by injection molding. Through development of novel technologies for sensitive, selective, rapid, and robust viral detection and more efficient approaches for scalable manufacturing of microfluidic devices, we can be much better prepared for future management of infectious pathogen outbreaks. Here, we describe how photonic metamaterials, graphene nanomaterials, designer DNA nanostructures, and polymers amenable to scalable additive manufacturing are being applied towards overcoming the fundamental limitations of currently dominant COVID-19 diagnostic approaches. In this paper, we review how several distinct classes of nanomaterials and nanochemistry enable simple assay workflows, high sensitivity, inexpensive instrumentation, point-of-care sample-to-answer virus diagnosis, and rapidly scaled manufacturing.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(11): 6956-6967, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521681

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak provides a "controlled experiment" to investigate the response of aerosol pollution to the reduction of anthropogenic activities. Here we explore the chemical characteristics, variations, and emission sources of organic aerosol (OA) based on the observation of air pollutants and combination of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis in Beijing in early 2020. By eliminating the impacts of atmospheric boundary layer and the Spring Festival, we found that the lockdown effectively reduced cooking-related OA (COA) but influenced fossil fuel combustion OA (FFOA) very little. In contrast, both secondary OA (SOA) and O3 formation was enhanced significantly after lockdown: less-oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA, 37% in OA) was probably an aged product from fossil fuel and biomass burning emission with aqueous chemistry being an important formation pathway, while more-oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA, 41% in OA) was affected by regional transport of air pollutants and related with both aqueous and photochemical processes. Combining FFOA and LO-OOA, more than 50% of OA pollution was attributed to combustion activities during the whole observation period. Our findings highlight that fossil fuel/biomass combustion are still the largest sources of OA pollution, and only controlling traffic and cooking emissions cannot efficiently eliminate the heavy air pollution in winter Beijing.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Anthropogenic Effects , Beijing , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Fossil Fuels/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
15.
Environ Int ; 158: 106918, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambient and household air pollution are found to lead to premature deaths from all-cause or cause-specific death. The national lockdown measures in China during COVID-19 were found to lead to abrupt changes in ambient surface air quality, but indoor air quality changes were neglected. In this study, we aim to investigate the impacts of lockdown measures on both ambient and household air pollution as well as the short-term health effects of air pollution changes. METHODS: In this study, an up-to-date emission inventory from January to March 2020 in China was developed based on air quality observations in combination with emission-concentration response functions derived from chemical transport modeling. These emission inventories, together with the emissions data from 2017 to 2019, were fed into the state-of-the-art regional chemistry transport model to simulate the air quality in the North China Plain. A hypothetical scenario assuming no lockdown effects in 2020 was also performed to determine the effects of the lockdown on air quality in 2020. A difference-to-difference approach was adopted to isolate the effects on air quality due to meteorological conditions and long-term decreasing emission trends by comparing the PM2.5 changes during lockdown to those before lockdown in 2020 and in previous years (2017-2019). The short-term premature mortality changes from both ambient and household PM2.5 changes were quantified based on two recent epidemiological studies, with uncertainty of urban and rural population migration considerations. FINDINGS: The national lockdown measures during COVID-19 led to a reduction of 5.1 µg m-3 in ambient PM2.5 across the North China Plain (NCP) from January 25th to March 5th compared with the hypothetical simulation with no lockdown measures. However, a difference-to-difference method showed that the daily domain average PM2.5 in the NCP decreased by 9.7 µg m-3 between lockdown periods before lockdown in 2020, while it decreased by 7.9 µg m-3 during the same periods for the previous three-year average from 2017 to 2019, demonstrating that lockdown measures may only have caused a 1.8 µg m-3 decrease in the NCP. We then found that the integrated population-weighted PM2.5, including both ambient and indoor PM2.5 exposure, increased by 5.1 µg m-3 during the lockdown periods compared to the hypothetical scenario, leading to additional premature deaths of 609 (95% CI: 415-775) to 2,860 (95% CI: 1,436-4,273) in the short term, depending on the relative risk chosen from the epidemiological studies. INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that lockdown measures in China led to abrupt reductions in ambient PM2.5 concentration but also led to significant increases in indoor PM2.5 exposure due to confined indoor activities and increased usages of household fuel for cooking and heating. We estimated that hundreds of premature deaths were added as a combination of decreased ambient PM2.5 and increased household PM2.5. Our findings suggest that the reduction in ambient PM2.5 was negated by increased exposure to household air pollution, resulting in an overall increase in integrated population weighted exposure. Although lockdown measures were instrumental in reducing the exposure to pollution concentration in cities, rural areas bore the brunt, mainly due to the use of dirty solid fuels, increased population density due to the large-scale migration of people from urban to rural areas during the Chinese New Year and long exposure time to HAP due to restrictions in outdoor movement.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Build Environ ; 177: 106918, 2020 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385185
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048353, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263924

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic was preceded by an ongoing overdose crisis and linked to escalating drug overdose deaths in British Columbia (BC). At the outset of these dual public health emergencies, the BC government announced interim Risk Mitigation Guidance (RMG) that permitted prescribing medication alternatives to substances, including opioids, alcohol, stimulants and benzodiazepines, an intervention sometimes referred to as 'safe supply'. This protocol outlines the approach for a study of the implementation of RMG and its impacts on COVID-19 infection, drug-related and systemic harms, continuity of care for people with substance use disorder (SUD), as well as their behavioural, psychosocial and well-being outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We conducted a parallel mixed-method study that involved both analysis of population-level administrative health data and primary data collection, including a 10-week longitudinal observational study (target n=200), a cross-sectional survey (target n=200) and qualitative interviews (target n=60). We implemented a participatory approach to this evaluation, partnering with people with lived or living expertise of drug use, and researchers and public health decision-makers across the province. Linked population-level administrative databases will analyse data from a cohort of BC residents with an indication of SUD between 1996 and 2020. We will execute high-dimensional propensity score matching and marginal structural modelling to construct a control group and to assess the impact of RMG dispensation receipt on a collaboratively determined set of primary and secondary outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study activities were developed to adhere to the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, recommended COVID-19 research practices, and guided by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Calls to Action for public health, data governance and research ethics related to Indigenous people. Results will be disseminated incrementally, on an ongoing basis, through the consortium established for this study, then published in peer-reviewed journals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Substance-Related Disorders , British Columbia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 21(11):8693-8708, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1262651

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), California issued statewide stay-at-home orders, bringing about abrupt and dramatic reductions in air pollutant emissions. This crisis offers us an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions in terms of air quality. Here we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in combination with surface observations to study the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on air quality in southern California. Based on activity level statistics and satellite observations, we estimate the sectoral emission changes during the lockdown. Due to the reduced emissions, the population-weighted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decrease by 15 % in southern California. The emission reductions contribute 68 % of the PM2.5 concentration decrease before and after the lockdown, while meteorology variations contribute the remaining 32 %. Among all chemical compositions, the PM2.5 concentration decrease due to emission reductions is dominated by nitrate and primary components. For O3 concentrations, the emission reductions cause a decrease in rural areas but an increase in urban areas;the increase can be offset by a 70 % emission reduction in anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These findings suggest that a strengthened control on primary PM2.5 emissions and a well-balanced control on nitrogen oxides and VOC emissions are needed to effectively and sustainably alleviate PM2.5 and O3 pollution in southern California.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669010, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259345

ABSTRACT

Background: The prophylactic vaccination of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is the first large-scale application of this kind in the human world. Over 1.8 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine had been administered in the US until December 2020, and around 0.2% submitted AE reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). This study aimed to evaluate the AEs following immunization (AEFIs) and analyze the potential associations based on the information from the VAERS database. Methods: We searched the VAERS database recorded AEFIs after COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020. After data mapping, we summarized demographic and clinical features of reported cases. Fisher exact test was used to comparing the clinical characteristics among AE groups with an anaphylactic response, concerning neurological disorders and death. Results: VAERS reported 3,908 AEFIs of COVID-19 vaccines in December 2020. Most (79.68%) were reported after the first dose of the vaccine. Among the reported cases, we found that general disorders (48.80%), nervous system disorders (46.39%), and gastrointestinal disorders (25.54%) were the most common AEFIs. The allergy history was more frequent in vaccine recipients with anaphylactic reactions than those without (64.91% vs. 49.62%, OR = 1.88, P <0.017). History of anxiety or depression was more common in subjects reporting severe neurological AEFIs than those reporting other AEFIs (18.37% vs. 7.85%, OR = 2.64, P <0.017). Cases reporting death were significantly older (79.36 ± 10.41-year-old vs. 42.64 ± 12.55-year-old, P <0.01, 95% CI 29.30-44.15) and more likely experienced hypertension (50.00% vs. 11.42%, OR = 7.76, P <0.01) and neurological disorders (50.00% vs. 5.36%, OR = 17.65, P <0.01) than other vaccine recipients. The outpatient and emergency room visit rates were 11.92 and 22.42% for AEFIs, and 2.53% of cases needed hospitalization. Conclusion: AEFIs of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were generally non-severe local or systemic reactions. A prior allergy history is the risk factor for anaphylaxis, while a history of anxiety may link with severe neurological AEs. Such vaccine recipients need further evaluation and monitor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
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