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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844142

ABSTRACT

As one of the most rapidly evolving proteins of the genus Betacoronavirus, open reading frames (ORF8's) function and potential pathological consequence in vivo are still obscure. In this study, we show that the secretion of ORF8 is dependent on its N-terminal signal peptide sequence and can be inhibited by reactive oxygen species scavenger and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transportation inhibitor in cultured cells. To trace the effect of its possible in vivo secretion, we examined the plasma samples of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent patients and found that the patients aged from 40 to 60 had higher antibody titers than those under 40. To explore ORF8's in vivo function, we administered the mice with ORF8 via tail-vein injection to simulate the circulating ORF8 in the patient. Although no apparent difference in body weight, food intake, and vitality was detected between vehicle- and ORF8-treated mice, the latter displayed morphological abnormalities of testes and epididymides, as indicated by the loss of the central ductal lumen accompanied by a decreased fertility in 5-week-old male mice. Furthermore, the analysis of gene expression in the testes between vehicle- and ORF8-treated mice identified a decreased expression of Col1a1, the loss of which is known to be associated with mice's infertility. Although whether our observation in mice could be translated to humans remains unclear, our study provides a potential mouse model that can be used to investigate the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the human reproductive system.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 856202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792885

ABSTRACT

Background: University students' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward COVID-19 are vital to prevent the spread of the virus, especially in the context of developing countries. Consequently, the present study aimed to determine the KAP levels of university students and associated anxiety during the earlier stage of the pandemic in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional, online study with 544 university students was conducted during April 17-May 1, 2020. The questionnaire incorporated several KAP-related test items aligned with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Anxiety was measured with the 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-2). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between KAP levels and anxiety adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Subgroup analyses included rerunning models stratified by gender and quarantine status. Results: Approximately 50% of students showed high levels of knowledge about COVID-19 guidelines, 59% reported behavioral practices that aligned with COVID-19 guidelines, and 39% had negative attitudes toward COVID-19 guidelines. Attitudes differed by anxiety (χ2 = 23.55, p < 0.001); specifically, negative attitudes were associated with higher anxiety (OR: 2.40, 95% CI = 1.66-3.46, p < 0.001). Associations were significant for male (OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.45-3.84, p < 0.001) and female (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.3-4.34; p < 0.001) students. Stratified analyses found non-quarantined students with negative attitudes had three times the chance of experiencing anxiety (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.98-4.98, p < 0.001). Non-quarantined students with low levels of knowledge had half the chance of developing anxiety (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.31-0.78, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Based on these findings, it is recommended that university authorities continue to prioritize proactive and effective measures to develop higher levels of knowledge, more positive attitudes and better behavioral practices regarding COVID-19 for the mental health of their students.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792740

ABSTRACT

Health financing strategies contribute significantly to containing the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to reassess Korea's financing strategies in response to COVID-19 in 2020, to ascertain its effects and sustainability. The Joint External Evaluation tool was adopted to analyze the data collected from government reports, official statistics, and other sources. Findings show that Korea could maintain a low incidence and fatality rate compared with other countries, at low costs. It was a result of rapidly procured healthcare resources based on laws and policies established after the 2015 epidemic, and the National Health Insurance. However, to achieve long-term sustainability, it is important to enhance the financial stability of the national health insurance and increase the proportion of the public sector in healthcare resources.

4.
Methodological Innovations ; : 20597991221090856, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1791023

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a ?small? contextual analysis approach to big data and reports our experimental application of this approach in evaluating the effects of social distancing on focused subpopulations in U.S. society. We recognize the common and critical limitations of big data, especially the unrepresentativeness and the unpublished methodology of accessible datasets. Our proposed methodological approach is built upon recent works on data ontology, especially the recognition that big data are essentially remaining digital footprints of human life in need of additional data of contextual factors for valid and meaningful interpretation. It guides the selection and processing of big data to make big data small and structured and thus articulable with traditional social sciences data and usable to conventional social sciences methods. In our experimental case study, we apply our sampling strategy developed from traditional social science data to Google?s mobility dataset for our analysis using primarily a Difference In Difference (DID) model. The results of this case study are of timely value to policy evaluation and public decision-making in the pandemic. We call for more proactive methodological innovations that confront the critical limitations of accessible big data especially in times of urgent needs.

5.
Wellcome Open Research ; 6(11), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780281

ABSTRACT

Background: New data collection in established longitudinal population studies provides an opportunity for studying the risk factors and sequelae of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), plus the indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on wellbeing. The Extended Cohort for E-health, Environment and DNA (EXCEED) cohort is a population-based cohort (N>11,000), recruited from 2013 in Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland. EXCEED includes consent for electronic healthcare record (EHR) linkage, spirometry, genomic data, and questionnaire data.

6.
Trans GIS ; 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752747

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to reveal hidden patterns and confounders associated with policy implementation and adherence by investigating the home-dwelling stages from a data-driven perspective via Bayesian inference with weakly informative priors and by examining how home-dwelling stages in the USA varied geographically, using fine-grained, spatial-explicit home-dwelling time records from a multi-scale perspective. At the U.S. national level, two changepoints are identified, with the former corresponding to March 22, 2020 (9 days after the White House declared the National Emergency on March 13) and the latter corresponding to May 17, 2020. Inspections at U.S. state and county level reveal notable spatial disparity in home-dwelling stage-related variables. A pilot study in the Atlanta Metropolitan area at the Census Tract level reveals that the self-quarantine duration and increase in home-dwelling time are strongly correlated with the median household income, echoing existing efforts that document the economic inequity exposed by the U.S. stay-at-home orders. To our best knowledge, our work marks a pioneering effort to explore multi-scale home-dwelling patterns in the USA from a purely data-driven perspective and in a statistically robust manner.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322239

ABSTRACT

Background: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently been declared as a pandemic and spread over 200 countries and territories. Forecasting the long-term trend of the COVID-19 epidemic can help health authorities determine the transmission characteristics of the virus and take appropriate prevention and control strategies beforehand. Previous studies that applied the traditional epidemic models or machine learning models were subject to underfitting or overfitting problems. Methods: We propose a new model named Dynamic-Susceptible-Exposed-Infective-Quarantined (D-SEIQ), by making appropriate modifications of the Susceptible-Exposed-Infective-Recovered (SEIR) model and integrating machine learning based parameter optimization under epidemiological rational constraints. We used the model to predict the long-term reported cumulative numbers of COVID-19 cases in China from 27 January, 2020. Results: We evaluated our model on officially reported confirmed cases from three different regions in China, and the results proved the effectiveness of our model in terms of simulating and predicting the trend of COVID-19 outbreak. In China-Excluding-Hubei area within 7 days after the first public report, our model successfully and accurately predicted the 40 days long trend and the exact date of turning point. The predicted cumulative number (12,506) by 10, March 2020 was only 3·8% different with the actual number (13,005). The parameters obtained by our model proved the effectiveness of prevention and intervention strategies on epidemic control in China. Conclusions: The integrated approach of epidemic and machine learning models could accurately forecast the long-term trend of COVID-19 outbreak. The learned parameters suggested the effectiveness of intervention measures taken in China.

8.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Cattle Diseases , Animals , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Tibet
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296785

ABSTRACT

Background: New data collection in established longitudinal population studies provides an opportunity for studying the risk factors and sequelae of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), plus the indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on wellbeing. The Extended Cohort for E-health, Environment and DNA (EXCEED) cohort is a population-based cohort (N>11,000), recruited from 2013 in Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland. EXCEED includes consent for electronic healthcare record (EHR) linkage, spirometry, genomic data, and questionnaire data. Methods: Between May 2020 and July 2021, a new questionnaire was deployed in EXCEED, which captured COVID-19 symptoms, general physical and mental health, plus socioeconomic and environmental factors during the pandemic. An online system was developed to invite new participants to join EXCEED, with informed consent being provided online. New and existing participants then completed the COVID-19 questionnaire online. A subset of the new questionnaire respondents were invited to participate in COVID-19 serology substudies, using home antibody testing kits. Results: In total, 3,693 participants provided COVID-19 infection status (median age 62.9 (IQR 54.7-69.2), 58.9% female). Trends of monthly incidence proportions of COVID-19 in EXCEED (self-report or symptom-predicted) approximated local and national figures. Regression analysis of 2,768 participants with linked EHR data showed no obvious monotonic relationship between number of chronic diseases (of 16 pre-specified diseases) and COVID-19 infection. There were 2,144 participants with valid results from a kit allowing differentiation between antibodies due to vaccination or infection. Of these, 8.5% had results consistent with previous COVID-19 infection, and 85.9% had evidence of COVID-19 vaccination, but without evidence of infection. Conclusions: Enriching EXCEED with a new COVID-19 questionnaire and serology data may improve understanding of the risk factors, clinical sequelae and broader impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Controlled access to these data for bona fide researchers is via application to the EXCEED study.

10.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 123, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571835

ABSTRACT

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a member of the NLR family of inherent immune cell sensors. The NLRP3 inflammasome can detect tissue damage and pathogen invasion through innate immune cell sensor components commonly known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs promote activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, thus increasing the transcription of genes encoding proteins related to the NLRP3 inflammasome. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a complex with multiple components, including an NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, and TP1 (NACHT) domain; apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC); and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. After ischemic stroke, the NLRP3 inflammasome can produce numerous proinflammatory cytokines, mediating nerve cell dysfunction and brain edema and ultimately leading to nerve cell death once activated. Ischemic stroke is a disease with high rates of mortality and disability worldwide and is being observed in increasingly younger populations. To date, there are no clearly effective therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke. Understanding the NLRP3 inflammasome may provide novel ideas and approaches because targeting of upstream and downstream molecules in the NLRP3 pathway shows promise for ischemic stroke therapy. In this manuscript, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the composition and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the molecules involved in inflammatory pathways, and corresponding drugs or molecules that exert effects after cerebral ischemia. This evidence may provide possible targets or new strategies for ischemic stroke therapy.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Animals , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Humans
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296436

ABSTRACT

Despite multiple court cases and repeated efforts at reform, there are still significant concerns about the equity and the adequacy in Connecticut’s public K–12 education funding. One vital component of any attempt to reform education finance is a methodologically rigorous evaluation of what it would cost school districts across the state to achieve target performance standards given their student characteristics. This report addresses that need, evaluating the equity and the adequacy of school spending in Connecticut based on education costs. Different from actual school expenditure, a district’s education cost is an estimation based on its cost factors that are outside the direct control of local officials at any given point in time;efficiency levels are held constant across school districts in the estimation. This report finds large disparities in education costs due to differences among school districts in cost factors. It also finds that, despite existing state aid programs, disparities in cost-adjusted spending across the state remain large. Spending in some districts is well below the levels needed to achieve common performance goals. Among the specific findings of this report is that in the last year for which data were analyzed, the average costs of school districts with the lowest socioeconomic status and highest level of student need were 62 percent greater than those of districts with the highest socioeconomic status and the lowest level of student need. When this report holds every district’s efficiency at the statewide average level, it finds that more than half of Connecticut’s public school students attended districts where spending was insufficient to meet the “predicted costs” to achieve the statewide average student test performance level. A direct, negative consequence of spending inadequacy is student underperformance relative to the common student performance target. This report recommends that the state consider adopting the cost measure as the basis of a new, scientifically grounded, equitable, and adequate formula that allocates more state aid to districts with higher costs. It also suggests that many districts need to increase their spending to meet their predicted costs and close the gap between student performance and the common goal. The exact amount of the additional spending needed partly depends on the state’s choices for the student performance target and the common level of district efficiency. For example, this report estimates that in the last year analyzed, with district efficiency held at the statewide average level, an additional $940 million, or an increase of 12.3 percent from statewide public K–12 school spending, would have been needed to fully fund the predicted costs required to achieve the statewide average student test performance level in every district. While the state and local governments now face great fiscal difficulties induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, they should remain committed to the investment in public education, because it will affect Connecticut’s economic growth in the long run.

12.
Redox Biol ; 48: 102199, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537013

ABSTRACT

3CLpro is a key proteinase for SARS-CoV-2 replication and serves as an important target for antiviral drug development. However, how its activity is regulated intracellularly is still obscure. In this study, we developed a 3CLpro protease activity reporter system to examine the impact of various factors, including nutrient supplements, ions, pHs, or oxidative stress inducers, on 3CLpro protease activity. We found that oxidative stress could increase the overall activity of 3CLpro. Not altering the expression, oxidative stress decreased the solubility of 3CLpro in the lysis buffer containing 1% Triton-X-100. The Triton-X-100-insoluble 3CLpro was correlated with aggregates' formation and responsible for the increased enzymatic activity. The disulfide bonds formed between Cys85 sites of 3CLpro protomers account for the insolubility and the aggregation of 3CLpro. Besides being regulated by oxidative stress, 3CLpro impaired the cellular antioxidant capacity by regulating the cleavage of GPx1 at its N-terminus. This cleavage could further elevate the 3CLpro-proximate oxidative activity, favor aggregation and activation of 3CLpro, and thus lead to a positive feedback loop. In summary, we reported that oxidative stress transforms 3CLpro into a detergent-insoluble form that is more enzymatically active, leading to increased viral replication/transcription. Our study provided mechanistic evidence that suggests the therapeutic potential of antioxidants in the clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients.

13.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488535

ABSTRACT

Official responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have prioritized information disclosure. Timely and comprehensive information released by the authorities is conveyed mainly through dashboards, which can better inform the public and help them prepare for the pandemic. However, there is limited evidence regarding the COVID-19 dashboard data presentation for South Korea, China, and Japan. This study aimed to describe the current COVID-19 situation in the three countries and compare the information disclosure content on their COVID-19 dashboards. Based on the COVID-19 data released and updated by each country's official authorities, two dashboard websites used by many people in each country were selected. We conducted content analysis and developed a checklist (39 items in five categories: cases, testing, vaccines, health information, and additional items) based on the structure of each country's COVID-19 dashboard website to assess COVID-19 information disclosure. Japan experienced the worst outbreak among the three countries. They all provided basic dynamic data displayed on the dashboard, while the performance in key categories varied substantially between the countries (South Korea: 30/39 items; China: 25/39 items; Japan: 30/39 items). Moreover, as part of the publicly accessible information recorded by each nation, there were differences in the key indicators published and important facts disclosed. Improvement in reporting techniques and disclosure methods will help countries communicate more effectively with the public and conduct more efficient public health research.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150722, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447139

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation is one of the conventional methods for virus concentration. This technique has been used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in wastewater. The procedures and seeded surrogate viruses were different among implementers; thus, the reported whole process recovery efficiencies considerably varied among studies. The present study compared five PEG precipitation procedures, with different operational parameters, for the RT-qPCR-based whole process recovery efficiency of murine hepatitis virus (MHV), bacteriophage phi6, and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and molecular process recovery efficiency of murine norovirus using 34 raw wastewater samples collected in Japan. The five procedures yielded significantly different whole process recovery efficiency of MHV (0.070%-2.6%) and phi6 (0.071%-0.51%). The observed concentration of indigenous PMMoV ranged from 8.9 to 9.7 log (8.2 × 108 to 5.6 × 109) copies/L. Interestingly, PEG precipitation with 2-h incubation outperformed that with overnight incubation partially due to the difference in molecular process recovery efficiency. The recovery load of MHV exhibited a positive correlation (r = 0.70) with that of PMMoV, suggesting that PMMoV is the potential indicator of the recovery efficiency of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we reviewed 13 published studies and found considerable variability between different studies in the whole process recovery efficiency of enveloped viruses by PEG precipitation. This was due to the differences in operational parameters and surrogate viruses as well as the differences in wastewater quality and bias in the measurement of the seeded load of surrogate viruses, resulting from the use of different analytes and RNA extraction methods. Overall, the operational parameters (e.g., incubation time and pretreatment) should be optimized for PEG precipitation. Co-quantification of PMMoV may allow for the normalization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration by correcting for the differences in whole process recovery efficiency and fecal load among samples.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Humans , Mice , Polyethylene Glycols , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobamovirus , Waste Water
15.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(9): 692-706, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434350

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidiosis is an extensively contagious zoonotic waterborne disease caused by the genus Cryptosporidium and poses to be a danger to public health. Sheep and goats are an intermediate host of Cryptosporidium. Consequently, a first systematic review and meta-analysis are performed to assess the burden of the infection relative to the Cryptosporidium in sheep and goat flocks in China. Five databases were searched for relevant literature in accordance with the inclusion criteria until January 30, 2020. At last, a total of 33 qualified documents were included. We calculate the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium (4.9%) in sheep and goats in China with the random-effects model. The prevalence after 2014 (4.6%) was higher than that before or in 2014 (2.8%). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Northern China (12.3%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than other regions. The infection rate of modified acid-fast staining (14.3%) was the highest among the detection methods. In age subgroups, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats in 3 months or before was the highest (20.8%). Goats had a higher infection rate (5.9%) in species. The prevalence of large-scale farms (2.8%) was lower than free-ranging farms (4.4%). The medium quality level (6.4%) was the highest. Besides, geographical factors (such as latitude, longitude, height, precipitation, humidity, mean temperature, etc.) were further analyzed as potential risk factors of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats. This meta-analysis indicates that the Cryptosporidium infection of Chinese sheep and goat flocks is general. Thus, it is necessary to further monitor the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, and the reasonable preventive strategy should be formulated on the basis of the geographical factors of different regions and the differences in sheep and goats' growth stages to reduce the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Goat Diseases , Sheep Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Feces , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Prevalence , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
16.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(23): 6663-6673, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359452

ABSTRACT

At present, over 180 million people have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide and there have been more than 3.8 million deaths due to the virus. However, specific effective antiviral treatment for this infectious disease is absent. At the beginning of the epidemic, relevant cellular and animal experiments of antiviral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 were conducted based on the prior studies of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Some antivirals were preliminarily validated to be potentially effective in the clinical settings. But as the epidemic continued and more studies were carried out, the efficacy of these antiviral drugs became controversial. This paper reviews the pharmacology and application of interferon, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, chloroquine, arbidol, favipiravir, remdesivir, and thymosin α1 in coronavirus disease 2019. The actual effect of these drugs remains controversial. Meanwhile, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 still need to be explored.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): 1038-1048, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has strained many healthcare systems. In response, U.S. hospitals altered their care delivery systems, but there are few data regarding specific structural changes. Understanding these changes is important to guide interpretation of outcomes and inform pandemic preparedness. We sought to characterize emergency responses across hospitals in the United States over time and in the context of local case rates early in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. DESIGN: We surveyed hospitals from a national acute care trials group regarding operational and structural changes made in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from January to August 2020. We collected prepandemic characteristics and changes to hospital system, space, staffing, and equipment during the pandemic. We compared the timing of these changes with county-level coronavirus disease 2019 case rates. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: U.S. hospitals participating in the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury Network Coronavirus Disease 2019 Observational study. Site investigators at each hospital collected local data. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-five sites participated (94% response rate). System-level changes (incident command activation and elective procedure cancellation) occurred at nearly all sites, preceding rises in local case rates. The peak inpatient census during the pandemic was greater than the prior hospital bed capacity in 57% of sites with notable regional variation. Nearly half (49%) expanded ward capacity, and 63% expanded ICU capacity, with nearly all bed expansion achieved through repurposing of clinical spaces. Two-thirds of sites adapted staffing to care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019, with 48% implementing tiered staffing models, 49% adding temporary physicians, nurses, or respiratory therapists, and 30% changing the ratios of physicians or nurses to patients. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic prompted widespread system-level changes, but front-line clinical care varied widely according to specific hospital needs and infrastructure. Linking operational changes to care delivery processes is a necessary step to understand the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Hospitals , Surge Capacity/organization & administration , Critical Care/organization & administration , Hospital Bed Capacity , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Workforce/organization & administration
19.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178158

ABSTRACT

To investigate the knowledge, preventive practices, and depression of Chinese university students living in South Korea and Mainland China during the COVID-19 outbreak and explore the determinants of depression among these students, an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from 23 March to 12 April 2020. The online questionnaire included questions on knowledge and preventive practices related to COVID-19, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to diagnose depressive symptoms. A total of 420 Chinese university students were finally included in the study (171 students from South Korea and 249 students from Mainland China). The majority of these students had a good level of knowledge of COVID-19. Students living in South Korea displayed better preventive practices than those living in Mainland China; however, the proportion of students (28.7%) with moderate-to-severe depression in this group was relatively higher than that (18.9%) of the Mainland Group (χ2 = 5.50, p < 0.05). More severe depression was related to high levels of concern about family members and contracting COVID-19 as well as suspecting themselves of having come into contact with patients. Displaying more preventive behaviors decreased the depressive symptoms in both groups. These data could be used as a reference for further studies in different regions to take measures (e.g., psychological counseling and encouragement for physical activities) to reduce depressive symptoms in university students.

20.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154291

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, intraneuronal deposition of misfolded proteins known as Lewy bodies, and chronic neuroinflammation. PD can arise from monogenic mutations, but in most cases, the etiology is unclear. Viral infection is gaining increasing attentions as a trigger of PD. In this study, we investigated whether the PD-causative 620 aspartate (D) to asparagine (N) mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (Vps35) precipitated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We observed that ectopic expression of Vps35 significantly reduced the proliferation and release of HSV-1 virions; the D620N mutation rendered Vps35 a partial loss of such inhibitory effects. Tetherin is a host cell protein capable of restricting the spread of encapsulated viruses including HSV-1 and SARS-Cov-2, both of which are implicated in the development of parkinsonism. Compared with cells overexpressing wildtype Vps35, cells expressing mutant Vps35 with D620N had less Tetherin on cell surfaces. Real-time and static cell imaging revealed that Tetherin recycled through Vps35-positive endosomes. Expression of Vps35 with D620N reduced endosomal dynamics and frequency of motile Tetherin-containing vesicles, a sign of defective production of recycling carriers. Our study suggests that the D620N mutation in Vps35 hinders Tetherin trafficking to cell surfaces and facilitates virus spread.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/virology , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Endosomes/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Transfection , Vesicular Transport Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics
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