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1.
Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives ; 13:100524, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1586302

ABSTRACT

With increased internet connectivity, there are more opportunities to substitute physical, or “in-person”, activities with online activities. With this, changes to household and individual travel/activity patterns are to be expected. For example, the increased adoption of e-commerce can affect individual travel destinations and frequency. To study these shifts, we enhance an existing smartphone-based travel/activity diary to capture online activities, with a focus on activities that can replace passenger trips. Furthermore, we expand the options to report shopping details, to better understand the influence of e-commerce on in-person shopping. In this paper, we detail the data collection tool development strategy and user-experience findings. Moreover, we provide insights from a pilot deployment in Singapore during 2020, which allowed measuring travel/activity behavior, expenditure, and time allocation changes during various COVID-19 pandemic travel restriction periods.

2.
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1550097

ABSTRACT

Collecting accurate travel data is vital for transportation planning purposes. Regional travel demand forecasts as well as transportation system analyses depend on datasets that provide origins and destinations of travel for various modes, purposes of travel, socio-economic characteristics of the system users, and other attributes critical for understanding travel demand. GPS-based household travel surveys emerged as a state-of-the-practice method to collect travel data with increased accuracy and detail. The Maricopa Association of Governments conducted a survey utilizing Future Mobility Sensing (FMS) technology. One hundred percent of the sample was collected with the FMS technology platform that combines mobile sensing through a smartphone app with machine learning and a user interface. The technology enables detailed, multi-day, multimodal, user-verified travel and activity behavior data to be obtained with a reduced burden on participants. The data collected through the survey was analyzed together with a comparable dataset obtained through traditional recall-based collection methods during the same time period. The broad conclusions are that the 100% GPS-based surveys with the FMS technology platform provide greater accuracy, detail and completeness of data, as well as greater flexibility than traditional data collection approaches that rely on participant recall. Emphasis was made on comparative analyses between traditionally collected data and the GPS survey with the FMS technology. The paper systematically identifies and explains differences and provides original analyses that can inform future decision making relevant to similar data collection exercises. The method is particularly applicable for monitoring mobility in the ongoing conditions of rapidly changing travel behavior, especially due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1582-1588, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464140

ABSTRACT

AbstractObjective: To analyze the liver injury and coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19 severe/critical type patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 53 COVID-19 patients were collected from a single center in Wuhan from February 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. The patients were divided into severe type group (38 patients) and critical type group (15 patients). The clinical characteristics, indexes of liver function, coagulation function and inflammatory markers were analyzed retrospectively. According to the degree of abnormal liver function in the process of diagnosis and treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: combined liver injury, mild abnormal liver function and normal liver function group. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Among the 53 patients, 29 were male (54.7%) and 24 were female (45.3%), the median age was 57(27-80) years old. The time from onset to admission was (11.5±7.7) days. The levels of AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, GGT, LDH, D-dimer, PCT and hsCRP in critical patients were higher than those in severe patients (P<0.05). The levels of Alb in critical patients was lower than those in severe patients (P<0.05). Among the 53 patients, 34 (64%) patients showed abnormal elevation of ALT, AST or TBIL, while 4 (7.5%) patients showed the criteria of COVID-19 with liver injury. After the patients were grouping according to the degree of liver dysfunction, the levels of ALP, GGT and D-dimer of the patients in the liver injury group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, D-dimer levels of the patients in the liver injury group was significantly higher than those in the mild abnormal liver function group, while the levels of ALP and GGT in the mild abnormal liver function group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this group, the patients with COVID-19 severe/critical type have a certain proportion of liver injury accompanied by significantly increased D-dimer levels, critical type patients have more severe liver function and coagulation dysfunction, which may promote the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cell Res ; 31(9): 1011-1023, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315592

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global crisis, urgently necessitating the development of safe, efficacious, convenient-to-store, and low-cost vaccine options. A major challenge is that the receptor-binding domain (RBD)-only vaccine fails to trigger long-lasting protective immunity if used alone for vaccination. To enhance antigen processing and cross-presentation in draining lymph nodes (DLNs), we developed an interferon (IFN)-armed RBD dimerized by an immunoglobulin fragment (I-R-F). I-R-F efficiently directs immunity against RBD to DLNs. A low dose of I-R-F induces not only high titers of long-lasting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) but also more comprehensive T cell responses than RBD. Notably, I-R-F provides comprehensive protection in the form of a one-dose vaccine without an adjuvant. Our study shows that the pan-epitope modified human I-R-F (I-P-R-F) vaccine provides rapid and complete protection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tracts against a high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques. Based on these promising results, we have initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase I/II trial of the human I-P-R-F vaccine (V-01) in 180 healthy adults, and the vaccine appears safe and elicits strong antiviral immune responses. Due to its potency and safety, this engineered vaccine may become a next-generation vaccine candidate in the global effort to overcome COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Double-Blind Method , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells , Young Adult
10.
Sustainability ; 13(1):279, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1011611

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the resilience of the Chinese child protection system in responding to the special needs of children in difficulty under the specific circumstances caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study applied qualitative document analysis of child protection administrative documents, in-depth interviews with 13 child protection professionals, and an in-depth case study of 14 children living in difficulty, complemented by relevant information available in the media. The results indicate that there are good policies in China’s child protection services but the organizational and functional fragmentation complicates implementation, suggesting a need for the development of bottom-up practices. The essential conclusion supported by these results is that the child protection system should be regarded and developed as a systematic project combining the legal, policymaking, and professional systems of child welfare services as well as governmental and non-governmental forces. As the COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness of the need to develop the field of child protection holistically as an integrated system in terms of social sustainability in China, an international literature-based comparison indicates that the pandemic has also raised similar political awareness in other countries.

12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 404, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705170

ABSTRACT

Background: The ABO blood group system has been associated with multiple infectious diseases, including hepatitis B, dengue haemorrhagic fever and so on. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new respiratory infectious disease and the relationship between COVID-19 and ABO blood group system needs to be explored urgently. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January 2020 to 5 March 2020. A total of 105 COVID-19 cases and 103 controls were included. The blood group frequency was tested with the chi-square statistic, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between cases and controls. In addition, according to gender, the studied population was divided into two subgroups, and we assessed the association between cases and controls by gender. Finally, considering lymphopenia as a feature of COVID-19, the relationship between the ABO blood group and the lymphocyte count was determined in case samples. Results: The frequencies of blood types A, B, AB, and O were 42.8, 26.7, 8.57, and 21.9%, respectively, in the case group. Association analysis between the ABO blood group and COVID-19 indicated that there was a statistically significant difference for blood type A (P = 0.04, OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.73) but not for blood types B, AB or O (P = 0.48, OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.66-1.23; P = 0.61, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.53-1.46; and P = 0.23, OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.58-1.15, respectively). An analysis stratified by gender revealed that the association was highly significant between blood type A in the female subgroup (P = 0.02, OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.08-2.27) but not in the male subgroup (P = 0.51, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.78-1.67). The average level of lymphocyte count was the lowest with blood type A in patients, however, compared with other blood types, there was still no significant statistical difference. Conclusions: Our findings provide epidemiological evidence that females with blood type A are susceptible to COVID-19. However, these research results need to be validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Lymphopenia/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(9): 648-655, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed. RESULTS: An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1213-1218, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-54128

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is raging in China and more than 20 other countries and regions since the middle of December 2019. Currently, there is no specific drug or vaccine besides symptomatic supportive therapy. Taking full advantage of the clinical experience of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in preventing and controlling major epidemics such as SARS, it is an important mission for TCM to propose effective formula with immediate response and solid evidence by using modern biomedical knowledge and techniques(molecular docking assisted TCM formulation for short). In view of the high homology between the gene sequences of the novel coronavirus and SARS virus, and the similarities between the two in terms of pathogenic mechanism and clinical manifestations, our team established a rapid screening and optimization model for the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus based on clinical experience and molecular docking technology. Firstly, the clinical team and the research team pre-developed and screened TCM formula by using "back-to-back" manner. Then, the formula was optimized and determined by comparing and analyzing the results of the two groups. The results showed that the research team screened out 46 active ingredients from candidate TCMs that could act on the novel coronavirus S-protein-binding site of human ACE2 protein, which were mainly attributed to 7 herbs such as Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Mori Folium. The result was largely consistent with the formula raised by the clinical group, verifying and supporting its rationality. This provides evidence for the scientific and potential efficacy of the TCM prescription from the perspective of treatment target analysis, and also suggests that the TCM prescription has the potential to directly inhibit viral infection in addition to improving clinical symptoms or syndromes. Based on this, our team optimized and formed a new anti-coronavirus TCM prescription "Keguan Yihao", immediately providing the TCM prescription with certain clinical experience and objective evidence support for the prevention and treatment of new emergent infectious diseases in our hospital. The TCM prescription was combined with modern medicine symptomatic supportive treatment for clinical treatment, preliminary results showed better effect than symptomatic supportive therapy alone. This research has innovated the method mode in clinical practice and basic research integration of traditional Chinese medicine for the prevention and control of new emerging infectious diseases. It is of great significance to further improve the rapid response mechanism of TCM in face of major epidemics, and further improve the capability level of TCM to prevent and treat new emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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