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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1064962, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311819

ABSTRACT

Aim: Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies to contain the transmission of infectious diseases; however, people's intentions and behavior for vaccination vary across different regions and countries around the world. It is not clear how socioecological factors such as residential mobility influence people's vaccination behaviors for infectious diseases. Methods: We analyzed public data on residential mobility and vaccination rates for COVID-19 and seasonal flu in the United States and explored how residential mobility in the previous year influenced vaccination rates for COVID-19 and seasonal flu (2011-2018) across 50 states of the US. The data were accessed and analyzed in 2021. Results: Study 1 demonstrated that collective-level residential mobility predicted COVID-19 vaccination rates across the United States (B = -168.162, 95% CI [-307.097, -29.227], adjusted R 2 = 0.091, p = 0.019). Study 2 corroborated this finding by documenting that collective-level residential mobility predicted vaccination rates for seasonal flu from 2011 to 2018 across the United States (B = -0.789, 95% CI = [-1.018, -0.56], adjusted R 2 = 0.222, p < 0.001). The link between residential mobility and vaccination behavior was robust after controlling relevant variables, including collectivism, cultural tightness-looseness, and sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Our research demonstrated that residential mobility is an important socioecological factor that influences people's vaccination behaviors for COVID-19 and seasonal flu. The results enrich our understanding of the socioecological factors that influence vaccination behaviors and have implications for developing tailored interventions to promote vaccination during pandemics of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Seasons , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Population Dynamics
2.
Brain Res Bull ; 187: 63-74, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287213

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection broke. With the gradual deepening understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, researchers and clinicians noticed that this disease is closely related to the nervous system and has complex effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this review, we summarize the effects and mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 on the nervous system, including the pathways of invasion, direct and indirect effects, and associated neuropsychiatric diseases, to deepen our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 and the nervous system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Central Nervous System , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Peripheral Nervous System , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1016938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246739

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During COVID-19, some front-line personnel experienced varying degrees of eye discomfort due to the use of goggles repeatedly disinfected with chlorine-containing disinfectant. Methods: The eye damage information of 276 front-line personnel who used goggles in a hospital from October 1, 2021, to December 1, 2021, was collected by filling out a questionnaire. To study the effect of chlorinated disinfectants on goggles, we immersed the goggles in the same volume of water and chlorinated disinfectant buckets. We tested the light transmittance, color and texture, and airtightness of the goggles at different times (1, 3, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 268 h). In addition, we detected where chlorinated disinfectant remained in the goggles by using disinfectant concentration test paper. Results: 60 (21.82%) people experienced dry eyes, stinging pain, photophobia and tearing, conjunctival congestion, eyelid redness, and swelling. After treatment or rest, the patient's ocular symptoms were significantly relieved within 3 days. With the extension of disinfection time, the light transmission of the lenses gradually decreased, and the light transmission reduced when immersion occurred at 216 h. After 72 h of disinfection, the color of the goggle frame began to change to light yellow, the texture gradually became hard and brittle, and the color became significantly darker at 268 h of disinfection. The airtightness of the goggles began to decrease after 168 h of disinfection, the airtightness decreased substantially at 268 h, and the shape changed significantly. In addition, the concentration test paper results show that the disinfection solution mainly resides in the goggle frame seam and goggles' elastic bands' bundle. Conclusions: Repeated chlorine disinfectant disinfection will reduce the effectiveness of goggles protection and damage front-line personnel's eye health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Chlorine , Eye Protective Devices , Immersion , COVID-19/prevention & control
4.
Frontiers in public health ; 11, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2237527

ABSTRACT

Introduction During COVID-19, some front-line personnel experienced varying degrees of eye discomfort due to the use of goggles repeatedly disinfected with chlorine-containing disinfectant. Methods The eye damage information of 276 front-line personnel who used goggles in a hospital from October 1, 2021, to December 1, 2021, was collected by filling out a questionnaire. To study the effect of chlorinated disinfectants on goggles, we immersed the goggles in the same volume of water and chlorinated disinfectant buckets. We tested the light transmittance, color and texture, and airtightness of the goggles at different times (1, 3, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 268 h). In addition, we detected where chlorinated disinfectant remained in the goggles by using disinfectant concentration test paper. Results 60 (21.82%) people experienced dry eyes, stinging pain, photophobia and tearing, conjunctival congestion, eyelid redness, and swelling. After treatment or rest, the patient's ocular symptoms were significantly relieved within 3 days. With the extension of disinfection time, the light transmission of the lenses gradually decreased, and the light transmission reduced when immersion occurred at 216 h. After 72 h of disinfection, the color of the goggle frame began to change to light yellow, the texture gradually became hard and brittle, and the color became significantly darker at 268 h of disinfection. The airtightness of the goggles began to decrease after 168 h of disinfection, the airtightness decreased substantially at 268 h, and the shape changed significantly. In addition, the concentration test paper results show that the disinfection solution mainly resides in the goggle frame seam and goggles' elastic bands' bundle. Conclusions Repeated chlorine disinfectant disinfection will reduce the effectiveness of goggles protection and damage front-line personnel's eye health.

5.
International Review of Economics & Finance ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2220832

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, stock markets were fragile and sensitive to downside news regardless of whether the news was true. In China, stock rumours are increasingly rampant, affecting the sound development of the capital market. By manually gathering a sample of rumours about Chinese A-share firms, this paper studies the effects of stock market rumours and the corresponding rumour clarifications on stock returns. The study suggests that rumours rely on the information environment to persuade the market through the media effect. In terms of information disclosure, for firms that previously disclosed "negative news”, stock prices would experience abnormal drops when negative rumours appear. In terms of the media effect, rumours released by leading media cause even more significant abnormal fluctuations in stock prices. Further study shows that positive rumours significantly cause an abnormal rise in state-owned enterprises' stock prices, while negative rumours significantly cause an abnormal decline in small and medium enterprise board (SME) and growth enterprise market board (GEM) stock prices. From the perspective of the effect of clarification announcements in restraining stock price fluctuations, clear and timely clarifications are recommended.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20193, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133637

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences between the prevalence and impact factors of adolescent dissociative symptoms (ADSs) by using sex-stratification during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A school-based, two-center cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou City, China, between January 1, 2021 and April 30, 2022. The sample included 1,916 adolescents aged 13-18 years that were randomly selected using a multiphase, stratified, cluster sampling technique. A two-stage assessment procedure was used to find out the ADSs. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the impact factors of ADSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The adolescent dissociative scores (t = 4.88, P < 0.001) and positive ADSs rate (Chi-square = 15.76, P < 0.001) in males were higher than in females. Gender-stratified, stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the conflict relationship of teacher-student [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.10], family expressiveness (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.98), family conflict (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.27), family organization (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99), and family cohesion (AOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99) were linked to ADSs only in males, while individual psychological states of somatic complaint (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08) and paranoid ideation (AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.19) were associated with female ADSs only. The ADSs seemed to be prevalent in Hangzhou City, studied during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gender differences in the prevalence and impact factors of dissociative symptoms seem to be significant among adolescents. Thus, gender-specific intervention programs against ADSs should be considered as reducing this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Adolescent , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Factors
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e30998, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there has been little agreement on what drug is the "best" drug for treating severe COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 28, 2022, with no language restrictions, of medications recommended for patients (aged 16 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: We identified 4021 abstracts and of these included 48 RCTs comprising 9147 participants through database searches and other sources. For decrease in ACM, we found that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG (i.e., a hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 intravenous immunoglobulin), methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/standard-of-care (SOC), interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, high dosage sarilumab (HS), auxora, and imatinib were effective when compared with placebo or SOC group. We found that colchicine and interferon-beta/SOC were only associated with the TEAEs of severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that ivermectin/doxycycline, C-IVIG, methylprednisolone, interferon-beta/SOC, interferon-beta-1b, convalescent plasma (CP), remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, immunoglobulin gamma, HS, auxora, and imatinib were efficacious for treating severe COVID-19 patients. We found that most medications were safe in treating severe COVID-19. More large-scale RCTs are still needed to confirm the results of this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Serotherapy
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1617-1626, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589044

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of different medications available at present for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We searched databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to April 30, 2021, with Chinese or English language restriction, of medications recommended for patients (aged 18 years or older) with severe COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on trials and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality (ACM), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). We identified 1855 abstracts and of these included 15 RCTs comprising 3073 participants through database searches and other sources. In terms of efficacy, compared with the standard of care (SOC) group, no significant decrease in ACM was found in α-lipoic acid, convalescent plasma (CP), azithromycin, tocilizumab, methylprednisolone, interferon beta, CP/SOC, high dosage sarilumab, low dosage sarilumab, remdesivir, lopinavir-ritonavir, auxora, and placebo group. Compared with placebo, we found that a significant decrease in ACM was only found in methylprednisolone (odds ratio [OR]: 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.75]. With respect to TEAEs, the CP group showed lower TEAEs than placebo (OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.58) or SOC (OR: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.42) group for the therapy of severe COVID-19 patients. This study only demonstrated that methylprednisolone was superior to placebo in treating patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Meanwhile, this further confirmed that the safety of other treatment interventions might be inferior to CP for the therapy of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Network Meta-Analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
Neurology Perspectives ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1505423

ABSTRACT

Background The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19, has caused a pandemic that has rapidly affected the whole world and caused a significant threat to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the social and occupational effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in three different countries: China, Spain, and Cuba. Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the social and occupational effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in MS patients in these three countries, using a 25-item anonymous online questionnaire, structured into three sections. Quantitative data are expressed as mean (standard deviation), and quantitative data as absolute frequency and percentage. Results A total of 361 participants responded to the questionnaire: 194 from China, 104 from Spain, and 63 from Cuba. We found no cases of COVID-19 among Chinese patients with MS, and few cases in Spain and Cuba. Respondents reported different levels of impact on relationships with friends, family, and colleagues, and patients in all three countries described increased use of digital or social media platforms. Spanish patients reported a significantly less negative impact than those in Cuba and China. Mental and cognitive effects were similar in all three countries, although China seemed to have a better situation. We also found that the time spent exercising decreased at specific points during the pandemic, but with few changes in dietary habits. Patients reported little or no change in their means of transport in all three countries. Most patients in all three countries reported little or no physical deterioration, especially in Chinese patients (82.47%), compared to the Spanish (70.20%) and Cuban respondents (73.02%). In general, patients from all three countries demonstrated confidence in overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic, although to a lesser extent among Spanish respondents. Conclusions During the pandemic, family support was more effective in China than in Cuba and Spain. Neither COVID-19 infections nor the number of MS relapses increased significantly during lockdown in any of the three countries. Regarding their economic situation, Spanish MS patients reported a significantly less severe negative impact than those in Cuba and China. Patients from all three countries used digital or social media platforms more frequently, probably to maintain personal relationships. Chinese and Cuban respondents were more confident of the control of the pandemic than the Spanish, who were more pessimistic.

10.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 79: 114-121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic which may compromise the management of vascular emergencies. An uncompromised treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) during such a health crisis represents a challenge. This study aimed to demonstrate the treatment outcomes of rAAA and the perioperative prevention of cross-infection under the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In cases of rAAA during the pandemic, a perioperative workflow was applied to expedite coronavirus testing and avoid pre-operative delay, combined with a strategy for preventing cross-infection. Data of rAAA treated in 11 vascular centers between January-March 2020 collected retrospectively were compared to the corresponding period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Eight, 12, and 14 rAAA patients were treated in 11 centers in January-March 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. An increased portion were treated at local hospitals with a comparable outcome compared with large centers in Guangzhou. With EVAR-first strategy, 85.7% patients with rAAA in 2020 underwent endovascular repair, similar to that in 2018 and 2019. The surgical outcomes during the pandemic were not inferior to that in 2018 and 2019. The average length of ICU stay was 1.8 ± 3.4 days in 2020, tending to be shorter than that in 2018 and 2019, whereas the length of hospital stay was similar among 3 years. The in-hospital mortality of 2018, 2019, and 2020 was 37.5%, 25.0%, and 14.3%, respectively. Three patients undergoing emergent surgeries were suspected of COVID-19, though turned out to be negative after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience for emergency management of rAAA and infection prevention for healthcare providers is effective in optimizing emergent surgical outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Aortic Rupture/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnosis , Aortic Rupture/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Workflow
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21866-21902, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many recent studies have investigated the role of drug interventions for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. However, an important question has been raised about how to select the effective and secure medications for COVID-19 patients. The aim of this analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of the various medications available for severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients based on randomized placebo-controlled trials (RPCTs). METHODS: We did an updated network meta-analysis. We searched the databases from inception until July 31, 2021, with no language restrictions. We included RPCTs comparing 49 medications and placebo in the treatment of severe and non-severe patients (aged 18 years or older) with COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on the trial and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality, the ratios of virological cure, and treatment-emergent adverse events. Odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as effect estimates. RESULTS: From 3,869 publications, we included 61 articles related to 73 RPCTs (57 in non-severe COVID-19 patients and 16 in severe COVID-19 patients), comprising 20,680 patients. The mean sample size was 160 (interquartile range 96-393) in this study. The median duration of follow-up drugs intervention was 28 days (interquartile range 21-30). For increase in virological cure, we only found that proxalutamide (OR 9.16, 95% CI 3.15-18.30), ivermectin (OR 6.33, 95% CI 1.22-32.86), and low dosage bamlanivimab (OR 5.29, 95% CI 1.12-24.99) seemed to be associated with non-severe COVID-19 patients when compared with placebo, in which proxalutamide seemed to be better than low dosage bamlanivimab (OR 5.69, 95% CI 2.43-17.65). For decrease in all-cause mortality, we found that proxalutamide (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.09-0.19), imatinib (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.96), and baricitinib (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.82) seemed to be associated with non-severe COVID-19 patients; however, we only found that immunoglobulin gamma (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.89) was related to severe COVID-19 patients when compared with placebo. For change in treatment-emergent adverse events, we only found that sotrovimab (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.13-0.34) was associated with non-severe COVID-19 patients; however, we did not find any medications that presented a statistical difference when compared with placebo among severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that marked variations exist in the efficacy and safety of medications between severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19. It seems that monoclonal antibodies (e.g., low dosage bamlanivimab, baricitinib, imatinib, and sotrovimab) are a better choice for treating severe or non-severe COVID-19 patients. Clinical decisions to use preferentially medications should carefully consider the risk-benefit profile based on efficacy and safety of all active interventions in patients with COVID-19 at different levels of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Oxazoles/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiohydantoins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(15): 15771-15783, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721665

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia also suffered from acute abdomen requiring surgical treatment; however, there is no consensus for the treatment of such patients. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with acute abdomen who underwent emergency surgery during the COVID-19 outbreak. Among the 34 patients with acute abdomen, a total of six cases were found with COVID-19 pneumonia (clinical classification for COVID-19 pneumonia: all were the common type). On the premise of similar demographics between both groups, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had worse indicators of liver and coagulation function. Compared with acute abdomen patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had a longer hospital stay, but there were no significant differences in postsurgical complications (P = 0.58) or clinical outcomes (P = 0.56). In addition, an obvious resolution of lung inflammation after surgery was observed in five COVID-19 patients (83.3%). No new COVID-19 cases occurred during the patients' hospital stays. Therefore, for the common type of COVID-19 pneumonia, emergency surgery could not only improve the outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia patients with acute abdomen, but also benefit the resolution of pulmonary inflammation.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , Coronavirus Infections , Emergency Treatment , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Abdomen, Acute/diagnosis , Abdomen, Acute/epidemiology , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Emergency Treatment/methods , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/trends
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 121, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640304
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