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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 3325-3341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968915

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Current vaccines for the SARS-CoV-2 virus mainly induce neutralizing antibodies but overlook the T cell responses. This study aims to generate an exosomal vaccine carrying T cell epitope peptides of SARS-CoV-2 for the induction of CD8+ T cell response. Methods: Thirty-one peptides presented by HLA-A0201 molecule were conjugated to the DMPE-PEG-NHS molecules, and mixed with DSPE-PEG to form the peptide-PEG-lipid micelles, then fused with exosomes to generate the exosomal vaccine, followed by purification using size-exclusion chromatography and validation by Western blotting, liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) test and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the exosomal vaccine was mixed with Poly (I:C) adjuvant and subcutaneously administered for three times into the hybrid mice of HLA-A0201/DR1 transgenic mice with wild-type mice. Then, the epitope-specific T cell responses were detected by ex vivo ELISPOT assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Results: The exosomal vaccine was purified from the Peak 2 fraction of FPLC and injected into the hybrid mice for three times. The IFN-γ spot forming units and the frequencies of IFN-γ+/CD8+ T cells were 10-82-fold and 13-65-fold, respectively, higher in the exosomal vaccine group compared to the Poly (I:C) control group, without visible organ toxicity. In comparison with the peptides cocktail vaccine generated in our recent work, the exosomal vaccine induced significantly stronger T cell response. Conclusion: Exosomal vaccine loading T cell epitope peptides of SARS-CoV-2 virus was initially generated without pre-modification for both peptides and exosomes, and elicited robust CD8+ T cell response in HLA-A transgenic mice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Peptides , Poly I-C , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 880915, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847156

ABSTRACT

With the epidemic of betacoronavirus increasing frequently, it poses a great threat to human public health. Therefore, the research on the pathogenic mechanism of betacoronavirus is becoming greatly important. Murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3) is a strain of betacoronavirus which cause tissue damage especially fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in mice, and is commonly used to establish models of acute liver injury. Recently, MHV-3-infected mice have also been introduced to a mouse model of COVID-19 that does not require a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facility. FHF induced by MHV-3 is a type of severe liver damage imbalanced by regenerative hepatocellular activity, which is related to numerous factors. The complement system plays an important role in host defense and inflammation and is involved in first-line immunity and/or pathogenesis of severe organ disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of aberrant complement activation in MHV-3 infection-induced FHF by strategies that use C3-deficient mice and intervene in the complement system. Our results showed that mice deficient in C3 had more severe liver damage, a higher viral load in the liver and higher serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines than wild-type controls. Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with C3aR antagonist or anti-C5aR antibody reduced liver damage, viral load, and serum IFN-γ concentration compared with the control group. These findings indicated that complement system acts as a double-edged sword during acute MHV-3 infection. However, its dysregulated activation leads to sustained inflammatory responses and induces extensive liver damage. Collectively, by investigating the role of complement activation in MHV-3 infection, we can further understand the pathogenic mechanism of betacoronavirus, and appropriate regulation of immune responses by fine-tuning complement activation may be an intervention for the treatment of diseases induced by betacoronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Complement Activation , Liver Failure, Acute/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Nat Metab ; 4(5): 547-558, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830111

ABSTRACT

The severity and mortality of COVID-19 are associated with pre-existing medical comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying causes for increased susceptibility to viral infection in patients with diabetes is not fully understood. Here we identify several small-molecule metabolites from human blood with effective antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, one of which, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG), is associated with diabetes mellitus. The serum 1,5-AG level is significantly lower in patients with diabetes. In vitro, the level of SARS-CoV-2 replication is higher in the presence of serum from patients with diabetes than from healthy individuals and this is counteracted by supplementation of 1,5-AG to the serum from patients. Diabetic (db/db) mice undergo SARS-CoV-2 infection accompanied by much higher viral loads and more severe respiratory tissue damage when compared to wild-type mice. Sustained supplementation of 1,5-AG in diabetic mice reduces SARS-CoV-2 loads and disease severity to similar levels in nondiabetic mice. Mechanistically, 1,5-AG directly binds the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, thereby interrupting spike-mediated virus-host membrane fusion. Our results reveal a mechanism that contributes to COVID-19 pathogenesis in the diabetic population and suggest that 1,5-AG supplementation may be beneficial to diabetic patients against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Animals , Glucose , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 139, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815514

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant shows substantial resistance to neutralization by infection- and vaccination-induced antibodies, highlighting the demands for research on the continuing discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Here, we developed a panel of bnAbs against Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) elicited by vaccination of adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV). We also investigated the human longitudinal antibody responses following vaccination and demonstrated how the bnAbs evolved over time. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), named ZWD12, exhibited potent and broad neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Kappa, Delta, and Omicron by blocking the spike protein binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and provided complete protection in the challenged prophylactic and therapeutic K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model. We defined the ZWD12 epitope by determining its structure in complex with the spike (S) protein via cryo-electron microscopy. This study affords the potential to develop broadly therapeutic mAb drugs and suggests that the RBD epitope bound by ZWD12 is a rational target for the design of a broad spectrum of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Envelope Proteins
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315229

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-1 on patients’ lung and immune systems 15 years post-infection. Methods: : We enrolled 58 health care workers with confirmed SARS in Peking University People’s Hospital in 2003. We evaluated lung damage by mMRC score, pulmonary function tests, and chest CT. Immune function was assessed by their serum levels of globin, complete components, and peripheral T cell subsets. ELISA was used to detect SARS-CoV-specific IgG antibodies in sera. Results: : After 15 years of disease onset, 19 (36.5%), 8 (34.6%), and 19 (36.5%) subjects had impaired DL(CO), RV, and FEF 25-75 , respectively. 17 (30.4%) subjects had an mMRC score ≥ 2. Fourteen (25.5%) cases had residual CT abnormalities. T regulatory cells were a bit higher in the SARS survivors. IgG antibodies against SARS S-RBD protein and N protein were detected in 11 (18.97%) and 12 (20.69%) subjects, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that small airway dysfunction and CT abnormalities were more common in the severe group than in the non-severe group (57.1% vs 22.6%, 54.5% vs 6.1%, respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: : SARS-CoV-1 could cause permanent damage to the lung, which requires early pulmonary rehabilitation. The long-lived immune memory response against coronavirus requires further studies to assess the potential benefit. Trail registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03443102. Registered prospectively on 22/02/2018.

6.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678838

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the global TB mortality rate in 2020 is rising, making TB prevention and control more challenging. Vaccination has been considered the best approach to reduce the TB burden. Unfortunately, BCG, the only TB vaccine currently approved for use, offers some protection against childhood TB but is less effective in adults. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new TB vaccines that are more effective than BCG. Accumulating data indicated that peptides or epitopes play essential roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity and triggering adaptive immunity. Furthermore, innovations in bioinformatics, immunoinformatics, synthetic technologies, new materials, and transgenic animal models have put wings on the research of peptide-based vaccines for TB. Hence, this review seeks to give an overview of current tools that can be used to design a peptide-based vaccine, the research status of peptide-based vaccines for TB, protein-based bacterial vaccine delivery systems, and animal models for the peptide-based vaccines. These explorations will provide approaches and strategies for developing safer and more effective peptide-based vaccines and contribute to achieving the WHO’s End TB Strategy.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1183, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigate the long-term effects of SARS-CoV on patients' lung and immune systems 15 years post-infection. SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is ongoing however, another genetically related beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV caused an epidemic in 2003-2004. METHODS: We enrolled 58 healthcare workers from Peking University People's Hospital who were infected with SARS-CoV in 2003. We evaluated lung damage by mMRC score, pulmonary function tests, and chest CT. Immune function was assessed by their serum levels of globin, complete components, and peripheral T cell subsets. ELISA was used to detect SARS-CoV-specific IgG antibodies in sera. RESULTS: After 15 years of disease onset, 19 (36.5%), 8 (34.6%), and 19 (36.5%) subjects had impaired DL (CO), RV, and FEF25-75, respectively. 17 (30.4%) subjects had an mMRC score ≥ 2. Fourteen (25.5%) cases had residual CT abnormalities. T regulatory cells were a bit higher in the SARS survivors. IgG antibodies against SARS S-RBD protein and N protein were detected in 11 (18.97%) and 12 (20.69%) subjects, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that small airway dysfunction and CT abnormalities were more common in the severe group than in the non-severe group (57.1% vs 22.6%, 54.5% vs 6.1%, respectively, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV could cause permanent damage to the lung, which requires early pulmonary rehabilitation. The long-lived immune memory response against coronavirus requires further studies to assess the potential benefit. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03443102. Registered prospectively on 25 January 2018.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490495

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a severe respiratory virus. Recent reports indicate additional central nervous system (CNS) involvement. In this study, human DPP4 transgenic mice were infected with MERS-CoV, and viral antigens were first detected in the midbrain-hindbrain 4 days post-infection, suggesting the virus may enter the brainstem via peripheral nerves. Neurons and astrocytes throughout the brain were infected, followed by damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB), as well as microglial activation and inflammatory cell infiltration, which may be caused by complement activation based on the observation of deposition of complement activation product C3 and high expression of C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR1) in neurons and glial cells. It may be concluded that these effects were mediated by complement activation in the brain, because of their reduction resulted from the treatment with mouse C5aR1-specific mAb. Such mAb significantly reduced nucleoprotein expression, suppressed microglial activation and decreased activation of caspase-3 in neurons and p38 phosphorylation in the brain. Collectively, these results suggest that MERS-CoV infection of CNS triggers complement activation, leading to inflammation-mediated damage of brain tissue, and regulating of complement activation could be a promising intervention and adjunctive treatment for CNS injury by MERS-CoV and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/blood supply , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/pathology
9.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(12): 2588-2608, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500456

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells have been found to play essential roles in host immune protection and pathology in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), this study focused on the functional validation of T cell epitopes and the development of vaccines that induce specific T cell responses. A total of 120 CD8+ T cell epitopes from the E, M, N, S, and RdRp proteins were functionally validated. Among these, 110, 15, 6, 14, and 12 epitopes were highly homologous with SARS-CoV, OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E, respectively; in addition, four epitopes from the S protein displayed one amino acid that was distinct from the current SARS-CoV-2 variants. Then, 31 epitopes restricted by the HLA-A2 molecule were used to generate peptide cocktail vaccines in combination with Poly(I:C), R848 or poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, and these vaccines elicited robust and specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2/DR1 transgenic mice as well as wild-type mice. In contrast to previous research, this study established a modified DC-peptide-PBL cell coculture system using healthy donor PBMCs to validate the in silico predicted epitopes, provided an epitope library restricted by nine of the most prevalent HLA-A allotypes covering broad Asian populations, and identified the HLA-A restrictions of these validated epitopes using competitive peptide binding experiments with HMy2.CIR cell lines expressing the indicated HLA-A allotype, which initially confirmed the in vivo feasibility of 9- or 10-mer peptide cocktail vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. These data will facilitate the design and development of vaccines that induce antiviral CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Library , Vaccine Development
10.
Virol Sin ; 36(6): 1484-1491, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359969

ABSTRACT

The sudden emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has caused global panic in 2003, and the risk of SARS-CoV outbreak still exists. However, no specific antiviral drug or vaccine is available; thus, the development of therapeutic antibodies against SARS-CoV is needed. In this study, a nanobody phage-displayed library was constructed from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of alpacas immunized with the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV. Four positive clones were selected after four rounds of bio-panning and subjected to recombinant expression in E. coli. Further biological identification demonstrated that one of the nanobodies, S14, showed high affinity to SARS-CoV RBD and potent neutralization activity at the picomole level against SARS-CoV pseudovirus. A competitive inhibition assay showed that S14 blocked the binding of SARS-CoV RBD to either soluble or cell-expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In summary, we developed a novel nanobody targeting SARS-CoV RBD, which might be useful for the development of therapeutics against SARS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(48): e23377, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the effect of pharmaceutical care on the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: All case-controlled studies related to pharmaceutical care on the treatment of COVID-19 will be included in this review. We will use index words related to pharmaceutical care and COVID-19 to perform literature searches in PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, to include articles indexed as of October 20, 2020 in English and Chinese language. Two reviewers will select trials independently for inclusion and assess trial quality. Two pairs of review authors will independently extract information for each included trials. Primary outcomes are clinical outcomes, average hospital stays, costs, patient satisfaction, and incidence of adverse drug reactions. We will evaluate the risk of bias of the included studies based on Cochrane assessment tool. Revman 5.3 (the Cochrane collaboration, Oxford, UK) will be used for heterogeneity assessment, generating funnel-plots, data synthesis, subgroup analysis, and sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: We will provide targeted and practical results assessing the effect of pharmaceutical care on the treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The stronger evidence about the effect of pharmaceutical care on the treatment of COVID-19 will be provided for clinicians. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020214223 ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:: There is no need for ethical approval, and the review will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Health Expenditures , Humans , Length of Stay , Patient Satisfaction , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Science ; 369(6511): 1603-1607, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690532

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In particular, the N501Y mutation is located at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. The protective efficacy of a recombinant RBD vaccine candidate was validated by using this model. Thus, this mouse-adapted strain and associated challenge model should be of value in evaluating vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virulence/genetics
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