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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 782731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581325

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 and its variants are still hitting the world. Ever since the outbreak, neurological involvements as headache, ageusia, and anosmia in COVID-19 patients have been emphasized and reported. But the pathogenesis of these new-onset neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients is still obscure and controversial. As difficulty always lay in the diagnosis of neurological infection, current reports to validate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) almost relied on the basic methods and warranted improvement. Here we reported a case series of 8 patients with prominent new-onset neurological manifestations, who were screened out from a patch of 304 COVID-19 confirmed patients. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and proteomics were conducted in the simultaneously obtained CSF and serum samples of the selected patients, with three non-COVID-19 patients with matched demographic features used as the controls for proteomic analysis. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the CSF of four COVID-19 patients and was suspicious in the rest four remaining patients by NGS, but was negative in all serum samples. Proteomic analysis revealed that 185 and 59 proteins were differentially expressed in CSF and serum samples, respectively, and that only 20 proteins were shared, indicating that the proteomic changes in CSF were highly specific. Further proteomic annotation highlighted the involvement of complement system, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, enhanced cellular interaction, and macrophages in the CSF proteomic alterations. This study, equipped with NGS and proteomics, reported a high detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of COVID-19 patients and the proteomic alteration of CSF, which would provide insights into understanding the pathological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 CNS infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
2.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(3): 201895, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158064

ABSTRACT

Development of strategies for mitigating the severity of COVID-19 is now a top public health priority. We sought to assess strategies for mitigating the COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital setting via the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions. We developed an individual-based model for COVID-19 transmission in a hospital setting. We calibrated the model using data of a COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital unit in Wuhan. The calibrated model was used to simulate different intervention scenarios and estimate the impact of different interventions on outbreak size and workday loss. The use of high-efficacy facial masks was shown to be able to reduce infection cases and workday loss by 80% (90% credible interval (CrI): 73.1-85.7%) and 87% (CrI: 80.0-92.5%), respectively. The use of social distancing alone, through reduced contacts between healthcare workers, had a marginal impact on the outbreak. Our results also indicated that a quarantine policy should be coupled with other interventions to achieve its effect. The effectiveness of all these interventions was shown to increase with their early implementation. Our analysis shows that a COVID-19 outbreak in a hospital's non-COVID-19 unit can be controlled or mitigated by the use of existing non-pharmaceutical measures.

3.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5719

ABSTRACT

Background: There had been a preliminary occurrence of human-to-human transmissions between healthcare workers (HCWs), but risk factors in the susceptibility

6.
Sleep Med X ; 2: 100028, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857168

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they are at high risk of acquiring the pathogen from infected patients and transmitting to other HCWs. We aimed to investigate risk factors for nosocomial COVID-19 infection among HCWs in a non-COVID-19 hospital yard. Methods: Retrospective data collection on demographics, lifestyles, contact status with infected subjects for 118 HCWs (including 12 COVID-19 HCWs) at Union Hospital of Wuhan, China. Sleep quality and working pressure were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The Nurse Stress Index (NSI), respectively. The follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020. Results: A high proportion of COVID-19 HCWs had engaged in night shift-work (75.0% vs. 40.6%) and felt working under pressure (66.7% vs. 32.1%) than uninfected HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCWs had significantly higher scores of PSQI and NSI than uninfected HCWs (P < 0.001). Specifically, scores of 5 factors (sleep quality, sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep disorder, and daytime dysfunction) in PSQI were higher among infected HCWs. For NSI, its 5 subscales (nursing profession and work, workload and time allocation, working environment and resources, patient care, management and interpersonal relations) were all higher in infected than uninfected nurse. Furthermore, total scores of PSQI (HR = 2.97, 95%CI = 1.86-4.76; P <0.001) and NSI (HR = 4.67, 95%CI = 1.42-15.45; P = 0.011) were both positively associated with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that poor sleep quality and higher working pressure may increase the risk of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs.

8.
J Neurol ; 267(10): 2777-2789, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, affecting millions of people. However, clinical research on its neurological manifestations is thus far limited. In this study, we aimed to systematically collect and investigate the clinical manifestations and evidence of neurological involvement in COVID-19. METHODS: Three medical (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and two preprints (BioRxiv and MedRxiv) databases were systematically searched for all published articles on neurological involvement in COVID-19 since the outbreak. All included studies were systematically reviewed, and selected clinical data were collected for meta-analysis via random-effects. RESULTS: A total of 41 articles were eligible and included in this review, showing a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations in COVID-19. The meta-analysis for unspecific neurological symptoms revealed that the most common manifestations were fatigue (33.2% [23.1-43.3]), anorexia (30.0% [23.2-36.9]), dyspnea/shortness of breath (26.9% [19.2-34.6]), and malaise (26.7% [13.3-40.1]). The common specific neurological symptoms included olfactory (35.7-85.6%) and gustatory (33.3-88.8%) disorders, especially in mild cases. Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges were repeatedly reported after COVID-19. Laboratory, electrophysiological, radiological, and pathological evidence supported neurologic involvement of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations are various and prevalent in COVID-19. Emerging clinical evidence suggests neurological involvement is an important aspect of the disease. The underlying mechanisms can include both direct invasion and maladaptive inflammatory responses. More studies should be conducted to explore the role of neurological manifestations in COVID-19 progression and to verify their underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Neurosurgery ; 87(2): E140-E146, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: A pituitary adenoma patient who underwent surgery in our department was diagnosed with COVID-19 and 14 medical staff were confirmed infected later. This case has been cited several times but without accuracy or entirety, we feel obligated to report it and share our thoughts on the epidemic among medical staff and performing endonasal endoscopic surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient developed a fever 3 d post endonasal endoscopic surgery during which cerebrospinal leak occurred, and was confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection later. Several medical staff outside the operating room were diagnosed with COVID-19, while the ones who participated in the surgery were not. CONCLUSION: The deceptive nature of COVID-19 results from its most frequent onset symptom, fever, a cliché in neurosurgery, which makes it hard for surgeons to differentiate. The COVID-19 epidemic among medical staff in our department was deemed as postoperative rather than intraoperative transmission, and attributed to not applying sufficient personal airway protection. Proper personal protective equipment and social distancing between medical staff contributed to limiting epidemic since the initial outbreak. Emergency endonasal endoscopic surgeries are feasible since COVID-19 is still supposed to be containable when the surgeries are performed in negative pressure operating rooms with personal protective equipment and the patients are kept under quarantine postoperatively. However, we do not encourage elective surgeries during this pandemic, which might put patients in conditions vulnerable to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Neuroendoscopy/methods , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adenoma/complications , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Epidemics , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Nasal Cavity , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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