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1.
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4183-4189, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism for anaphylaxis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination has been widely debated; understanding this serious adverse event is important for future vaccines of similar design. A mechanism proposed is type I hypersensitivity (i.e., IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation) to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Using an assay that, uniquely, had been previously assessed in patients with anaphylaxis to PEG, our objective was to compare anti-PEG IgE in serum from mRNA COVID-19 vaccine anaphylaxis case-patients and persons vaccinated without allergic reactions. Secondarily, we compared anti-PEG IgG and IgM to assess alternative mechanisms. METHODS: Selected anaphylaxis case-patients reported to U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System December 14, 2020-March 25, 2021 were invited to provide a serum sample. mRNA COVID-19 vaccine study participants with residual serum and no allergic reaction post-vaccination ("controls") were frequency matched to cases 3:1 on vaccine and dose number, sex and 10-year age category. Anti-PEG IgE was measured using a dual cytometric bead assay (DCBA). Anti-PEG IgG and IgM were measured using two different assays: DCBA and a PEGylated-polystyrene bead assay. Laboratorians were blinded to case/control status. RESULTS: All 20 case-patients were women; 17 had anaphylaxis after dose 1, 3 after dose 2. Thirteen (65 %) were hospitalized and 7 (35 %) were intubated. Time from vaccination to serum collection was longer for case-patients vs controls (post-dose 1: median 105 vs 21 days). Among Moderna recipients, anti-PEG IgE was detected in 1 of 10 (10 %) case-patients vs 8 of 30 (27 %) controls (p = 0.40); among Pfizer-BioNTech recipients, it was detected in 0 of 10 case-patients (0 %) vs 1 of 30 (3 %) controls (p >n 0.99). Anti-PEG IgE quantitative signals followed this same pattern. Neither anti-PEG IgG nor IgM was associated with case status with both assay formats. CONCLUSION: Our results support that anti-PEG IgE is not a predominant mechanism for anaphylaxis post-mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunosuppressive Agents , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 22(8):1100-1104, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2288756

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the value of liver function indexes on evaluation of the illness condition of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: 261 patients with confirmed COVID-19 which collected from Huangshi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January to March 2020 were investigated and separated into:group of critical type, group of severe type and group of common type, and the data of the patients about age, gender, past medical history and the results of liver function test were collected. Chi-square test, analysis of variance, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were adopted to explore the relationship between liver function indexes and illness condition of COVID-19. Results: 50.2% of COVID-19 patients had abnormal liver function. Compared with the group of severe type, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), P-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and total bilirubin (TBIL)in the group of critical type was significantly higher, while the level of albumin(ALB)was significantly lower, and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05);compared with the group of common type, the levels of ALT, +AST, and GGT in the group of severe type were significantly higher, while the level of ALB was significantly lower, and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). The proportions of patients with abnormal liver function or liver damage in the group of critical type were significantly higher than those in the group of severe type (P < 0.05), and the proportions of patients with abnormal liver function or liver damage in the group of severe type was significantly higher than those in the group of common type (P < 0.05). The incidence ratio of abnormal liver function in patients with underlying disease was higher than that of without underlying disease (P < 0.05). ALT, AST, ALP, TBIL, and ALB were all risk factors for severe progress of COVID-19 disease (all P < 0.05);multivariate logistic regression analysis inidicating that TBIL (OR=10.862, P < 0.05) and ALB (OR=11.733, P < 0.05)were the independent risk factors. TBIL level was positively correlated with the severity of COVID-19 (r=0.367, P < 0.05), and ALB level was negatively correlated with the severity of COVID-19 (r=-0.613, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The abnormal liver function, especially the obvious abnormality of TBIL and ALB, could be used as the reference index of COVID-19 severity. The COVID-19 patients with underlying disease were easily suffered liver injury.

3.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.04.11.23288372

ABSTRACT

Background: The mechanism for anaphylaxis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination has been widely debated; understanding this serious adverse event is important for future vaccines of similar design. A mechanism proposed is type I hypersensitivity (i.e., IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation) to excipient polyethylene glycol (PEG). Using an assay that, uniquely, had been previously assessed in patients with anaphylaxis to PEG, our objective was to compare anti-PEG IgE in serum from mRNA COVID-19 vaccine anaphylaxis case-patients and persons vaccinated without allergic reactions. Secondarily, we compared anti-PEG IgG and IgM to assess alternative mechanisms. Methods: Selected anaphylaxis case-patients reported to U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System December 14, 2020 - March 25, 2021 were invited to provide a serum sample. mRNA COVID-19 vaccine study participants with residual serum and no allergic reaction post-vaccination ("controls") were frequency matched to cases 3:1 on vaccine and dose number, sex and 10-year age category. Anti-PEG IgE was measured using a dual cytometric bead assay. Anti-PEG IgG and IgM were measured using two different assays. Laboratorians were blinded to case/control status. Results: All 20 case-patients were women; 17 had anaphylaxis after dose 1, 3 after dose 2. Thirteen (65%) were hospitalized and 7 (35%) were intubated. Time from vaccination to serum collection was longer for case-patients vs controls (post-dose 1: median 105 vs 21 days). Among Moderna recipients, anti-PEG IgE was detected in 1 of 10 (10%) case-patients vs 8 of 30 (27%) controls (p=0.40); among Pfizer-BioNTech recipients, it was detected in 0 of 10 case-patients (0%) vs 1 of 30 (3%) controls (p>0.99). Anti-PEG IgE quantitative signals followed this same pattern. Neither anti-PEG IgG nor IgM was associated with case status with both assay formats. Conclusion: Our results support that anti-PEG IgE is not a predominant mechanism for anaphylaxis post-mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.

4.
Comput Biol Med ; 152: 106385, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous traditional filtering approaches and deep learning-based methods have been proposed to improve the quality of ultrasound (US) image data. However, their results tend to suffer from over-smoothing and loss of texture and fine details. Moreover, they perform poorly on images with different degradation levels and mainly focus on speckle reduction, even though texture and fine detail enhancement are of crucial importance in clinical diagnosis. METHODS: We propose an end-to-end framework termed US-Net for simultaneous speckle suppression and texture enhancement in US images. The architecture of US-Net is inspired by U-Net, whereby a feature refinement attention block (FRAB) is introduced to enable an effective learning of multi-level and multi-contextual representative features. Specifically, FRAB aims to emphasize high-frequency image information, which helps boost the restoration and preservation of fine-grained and textural details. Furthermore, our proposed US-Net is trained essentially with real US image data, whereby real US images embedded with simulated multi-level speckle noise are used as an auxiliary training set. RESULTS: Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments indicate that although trained with only one US image data type, our proposed US-Net is capable of restoring images acquired from different body parts and scanning settings with different degradation levels, while exhibiting favorable performance against state-of-the-art image enhancement approaches. Furthermore, utilizing our proposed US-Net as a pre-processing stage for COVID-19 diagnosis results in a gain of 3.6% in diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework can help improve the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , Ultrasonography/methods , Image Enhancement/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Algorithms
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(33): e29249, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001497

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the abrasion of implant drills and postoperative reactions for the preparation of the interradicular immediate implant bed during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Thirty-two implant drills were included in four groups: blank, improved surgery, traditional surgery, and control. In the improved surgery group, a dental handpiece with a surgical bur was used to decoronate the first molar and create a hole in the middle of the retained root complex, followed by the pilot drilling protocol through the hole. The remaining root complex was separated using a surgical bur and then extracted. Subsequently, the implant bed was prepared. Implant drills were used in the traditional surgery group to complete the decoronation, hole creation, and implant-drilling processes. The tooth remained intact until the implant bed was prepared. The surface roughness of the pilot drill was observed and measured. Surgery time, postoperative reactions (swelling, pain, and trismus), and fear of coronavirus disease 2019 scale (FCV-19S) were measured and recorded, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference with surface roughness among blank group (0.41 ± 0.05 µm), improved surgery group (0.37 ± 0.06 µm), traditional surgery group (0.16 ± 0.06 µm), and control group (0.26 ± 0.04 µm) (P < .001). Significant differences were revealed with surgery time between improved surgery group (5.63 ± 1.77 min) and traditional surgery group (33.63 ± 2.13 min) (P < .001). Swelling, pain, and trismus (improved group: r ≥ 0.864, P ≤ .006; traditional group: r ≥ 0.741, P ≤ .035) were positively correlated with the FCV-19S. This study proved that a new pilot drill could only be used once in traditional surgery but could be used regularly in improved surgery. Improved surgery was more effective, efficient, and economical than the traditional surgery. The higher FCV-19S, the more severe swelling, pain, and trismus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Humans , Molar/surgery , Pain/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Trismus
8.
Environ Microbiol ; 24(9): 4013-4029, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806974

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic is a reminder that aerosols have important health effects as a potential route for disease transmission. Biological components in aerosols (especially PM2.5 ) may pose potential threats to humans as pathogens and allergens. Research on PM2.5 and biological components currently focuses mainly on polluted conditions, with less emphasis on clean environments. Sampling has also been primarily based on a single point with a lack of data at different positions. In this study, a modified fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis method was used to measure microbial activity in PM2.5 at different altitudes over a year in Beijing, China. A high-throughput sequencing method was used to study the microbial community. Results showed that microbial activity 1.5 m (0.0465 ng m-3 ) above the ground was higher than 31.5 m (0.0348 ng m-3 ). There was higher microbial activity at both heights during spring. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between microbial activity and relative abundance of dominant species. Microbial activity increased during autumn and winter increased alongside the pollution level, but in spring higher levels of microbial activity were observed in excellent or good weather conditions. The results from this study are valuable for further research regarding the biological components of atmospheric PM, the prevention of biological pollution, and establishing a comprehensive air quality evaluation system.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Allergens , Atmosphere , Beijing , China , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Seasons
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 790422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789351

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection mainly present with respiratory issues and related symptoms, in addition to significantly affected digestive system, especially the intestinal tract. While several studies have shown changes in the intestinal flora of patients with COVID-19, not much information is available on the gut virome of such patients. In this study, we used the viromescan software on the latest gut virome database to analyze the intestinal DNA virome composition of 15 patients with COVID-19 and investigated the characteristic alternations, particularly of the intestinal DNA virome to further explore the influence of COVID-19 on the human gut. The DNA viruses in the gut of patients with COVID-19 were mainly crAss-like phages (35.48%), Myoviridae (20.91%), and Siphoviridae (20.43%) family of viruses. Compared with healthy controls, the gut virome composition of patients with COVID-19 changed significantly, especially the crAss-like phages family, from the first time of hospital admission. A potential correlation is also indicated between the change in virome and bacteriome (like Tectiviridae and Bacteroidaceae). The abundance of the viral and bacterial population was also analyzed through continuous sample collection from the gut of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The gut virome is indeed affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and along with gut bacteriome, it may play an important role in the disease progression of COVID-19. These conclusions would be helpful in understanding the gut-related response and contribute to the treatment and prevention strategies of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , DNA , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virome
10.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(5): e14844, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776709

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that often correlate with the severity of COVID-19. Here, we explored the pathogenesis underlying the intestinal inflammation in COVID-19. Plasma VEGF level was particularly elevated in patients with GI symptoms and significantly correlated with intestinal edema and disease progression. Through an animal model mimicking intestinal inflammation upon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we further revealed that VEGF was over-produced in the duodenum prior to its ascent in the circulation. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 spike promoted VEGF production through activating the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in enterocytes, but not in endothelium, and inducing permeability and inflammation. Blockage of the ERK/VEGF axis was able to rescue vascular permeability and alleviate intestinal inflammation in vivo. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation and therapeutic targets for the GI symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Enterocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 11, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564449

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection mainly present with respiratory issues and related symptoms, in addition to significantly affected digestive system, especially the intestinal tract. While several studies have shown changes in the intestinal flora of patients with COVID-19, not much information is available on the gut virome of such patients. In this study, we used the viromescan software on the latest gut virome database to analyze the intestinal DNA virome composition of 15 patients with COVID-19 and investigated the characteristic alternations, particularly of the intestinal DNA virome to further explore the influence of COVID-19 on the human gut. The DNA viruses in the gut of patients with COVID-19 were mainly crAss-like phages (35.48%), Myoviridae (20.91%), and Siphoviridae (20.43%) family of viruses. Compared with healthy controls, the gut virome composition of patients with COVID-19 changed significantly, especially the crAss-like phages family, from the first time of hospital admission. A potential correlation is also indicated between the change in virome and bacteriome (like Tectiviridae and Bacteroidaceae). The abundance of the viral and bacterial population was also analyzed through continuous sample collection from the gut of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The gut virome is indeed affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and along with gut bacteriome, it may play an important role in the disease progression of COVID-19. These conclusions would be helpful in understanding the gut-related response and contribute to the treatment and prevention strategies of COVID-19.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 678157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417107

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and the parameters of the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and to clarify the risk or protective factors for weaning failure. Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia were selected from the special intensive care unit (ICU) of the Sino-French New City Branch of Tong Ji Hospital, Wuhan, and treated by the National Medical Team Work. They were divided into successful weaning (SW) group (N = 15) and unsuccessful weaning (USW) group (N = 18) according to the prognosis. Information of these patients was analyzed. Results: There were 33 patients included in this study. Patients in the USW group were associated with a poor outcome; the 28-day mortality rate was higher than in the SW group (86.7 vs. 16.7% p < 0.001). By comparison, we found that the initial plateau pressure (Pplat) and driving pressure (DP) of the USW group were higher and that compliance was lower than that of the SW group, but there was no difference between positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and the ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio). Comparing the worst respiratory mechanics parameters of the two groups, the results of the Pplat, DP, compliance, and PEEP were the same as the initial data. The PCO2 of the USW group was higher, while the P/F ratio was lower. A logistic regression analysis suggested that higher Pplat might be an independent risk factor and that higher compliance and lower DP might be protective factors for weaning failure of invasive mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusions: Patients with USW were associated with a poor outcome, higher Pplat might be a risk factor, and a higher compliance and a lower DP might be protective factors for the weaning failure of ventilated COVID-19 patients. Mechanical ventilation settings will affect the patient's prognosis.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 654658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325536

ABSTRACT

Purpose: A phenotype of COVID-19 ARDS patients with extremely low compliance and refractory hypercapnia was found in our ICU. In the context of limited number of ECMO machines, feasibility of a low-flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) based on the renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform in these patients was assessed. Methods: Single-center, prospective study. Refractory hypercapnia patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS were included and divided into the adjusted group and unadjusted group according to the level of PaCO2 after the application of the ECCO2R system. Ventilation parameters [tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate, and PEEP], platform pressure (Pplat) and driving pressure (DP), respiratory system compliance, arterial blood gases, and ECCO2R system characteristics were collected. Results: Twelve patients with refractory hypercapnia were enrolled, and the PaCO2 was 64.5 [56-88.75] mmHg. In the adjusted group, VT was significantly reduced from 5.90 ± 0.16 to 5.08 ± 0.43 ml/kg PBW; DP and Pplat were also significantly reduced from 23.5 ± 2.72 mmHg and 29.88 ± 3.04 mmHg to 18.5 ± 2.62 mmHg and 24.75 ± 3.41 mmHg, respectively. In the unadjusted group, PaCO2 decreased from 94 [86.25, 100.3] mmHg to 80 [67.50, 85.25] mmHg but with no significant difference, and the DP and Pplat were not decreased after weighing the pros and cons. Conclusions: A low-flow ECCO2R system based on the RRT platform enabled CO2 removal and could also decrease the DP and Pplat significantly, which provided a new way to treat these COVID-19 ARDS patients with refractory hypercapnia and extremely low compliance. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT04340414.

14.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009766, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317147

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies to the SARS CoV-2 spike proteins have been issued Emergency Use Authorizations and are a likely mechanism of vaccines to prevent COVID-19. However, benefit of treatment with monoclonal antibodies has only been observed in clinical trials in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 but not in patients who are hospitalized and/or have advanced disease. To address this observation, we evaluated the timing of anti SARS-CoV-2 antibody production in hospitalized patients with the use of a highly sensitive multiplexed bead-based immunoassay allowing for early detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. We found significantly lower levels of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the first week after symptom onset in patients who expired as compared to patients who were discharged. We also developed a model to characterize the relationship between each patient's individual antibody level trajectory and eventual COVID 19 outcome which can be adapted into a prediction model with more data.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , Prognosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
15.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1345-1356, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171843

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to spread around the world. While prophylactic vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are making great progress, there is still a need to explore safe and effective therapies with biological products for COVID-19. Currently clinical trial efforts are planned and ongoing using different biological agents for anti-inflammatory therapies, immunomodulation, and therapeutic repair in COVID-19. Targeting inflammatory cytokines with antibodies or inhibitors may be an urgent therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. Importantly, it is critical for an in-depth understanding of these new clinical therapeutic agents in their conditions that are probably involved in both physiological and pathological host responses. In this article, we analyze the potential implications for the current clinical trials of therapeutic biologics and address issues for the development of the COVID-19-related biological therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Biological Products/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e22860, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has challenged global public health because it is highly contagious and can be lethal. Numerous ongoing and recently published studies about the disease have emerged. However, the research regarding COVID-19 is largely ongoing and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: A potential way to accelerate COVID-19 research is to use existing information gleaned from research into other viruses that belong to the coronavirus family. Our objective is to develop a natural language processing method for answering factoid questions related to COVID-19 using published articles as knowledge sources. METHODS: Given a question, first, a BM25-based context retriever model is implemented to select the most relevant passages from previously published articles. Second, for each selected context passage, an answer is obtained using a pretrained bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) question-answering model. Third, an opinion aggregator, which is a combination of a biterm topic model and k-means clustering, is applied to the task of aggregating all answers into several opinions. RESULTS: We applied the proposed pipeline to extract answers, opinions, and the most frequent words related to six questions from the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset Challenge. By showing the longitudinal distributions of the opinions, we uncovered the trends of opinions and popular words in the articles published in the five time periods assessed: before 1990, 1990-1999, 2000-2009, 2010-2018, and since 2019. The changes in opinions and popular words agree with several distinct characteristics and challenges of COVID-19, including a higher risk for senior people and people with pre-existing medical conditions; high contagion and rapid transmission; and a more urgent need for screening and testing. The opinions and popular words also provide additional insights for the COVID-19-related questions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other methods of literature retrieval and answer generation, opinion aggregation using our method leads to more interpretable, robust, and comprehensive question-specific literature reviews. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method in answering COVID-19-related questions with main opinions and capturing the trends of research about COVID-19 and other relevant strains of coronavirus in recent years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Storage and Retrieval , Natural Language Processing , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.02.21.21252168

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies to the SARS CoV-2 spike proteins have been issued Emergency Use Authorizations and are a likely mechanism of vaccines to prevent COVID-19. However, benefit of treatment with monoclonal antibodies has only been observed in clinical trials in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 but not in patients who are hospitalized and/or have advanced disease. To address this observation, we evaluated the timing of anti SARS-CoV-2 antibody production in hospitalized patients with the use of a highly sensitive multiplexed bead-based immunoassay allowing for early detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. We found that significantly lower levels of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the first week after symptom onset were associated with patients who expired as compared to patients who were discharged. We also developed a model, based on antibody level trajectory, to predict COVID 19 outcome that is compatible with greater antibody benefit earlier in COVID 19 disease. Author SummaryWe evaluated antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 over time in patients that were hospitalized with COVID 19. Early detection of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was associated with survival in patients hospitalized with COVID 19. Early antibody levels predicted outcome in our study. This result is consistent with the benefit of therapeutic antibodies early in the course of COVID 19 disease. With additional study, early antibody levels may be helpful in deciding on appropriate therapies.

18.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102533, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064771

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate and monitor the mental health status of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The meta-analysis was used to study the literatures on the psychology of pregnant women in four databases until Sep 27, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 42 % (95 %CI 26 %-57 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99.6 %). The overall prevalence of depression was 25 % (95 %CI 20 %-31 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 97.9 %). Age, family economic status, social support, and physical activity seem to correlate with the mental health status of pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women increased significantly during the COVID-19 epidemic. Pregnant women are more concerned about others than themselves during COVID-19, and younger pregnant women seem to be more prone to anxiety, while social support and physical activity can reduce the likelihood of anxiety and depression. It is necessary to take some psychological intervention measures for pregnant women to help them go through this special period safely and smoothly.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Economic Status , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 37-46, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009693

ABSTRACT

Only a few studies investigated the impact of quarantine on anxiety of general population during a second wave of COVID-19 breakout. We aimed to compare anxiety levels of quarantined and non-quarantined people and investigate factors affecting anxiety during the second COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 1837 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Participants were divided into the quarantined group (QG) and non-quarantined group (Non-QG). The mean STAI-S score in the QG was significantly higher than Non-QG (41.8 ± 11.2 vs 40.01 ± 9.9), so was the proportion of severe state anxiety (11.6% vs 5.5%). Males in the QG were significantly more anxious than females evaluated by both STAI-S and STAI-T. High income was independent protective factors while moderate or bad health status and high trait anxiety level were independent risk factors for severe state anxiety. In conclusion, the COVID-19 confinement could significantly increase anxiety of quarantined people. Males were more vulnerable to the quarantine of COVID-19 with significantly increased anxiety level than females. The results suggest that attention should be paid to anxiety during a second round of quarantine due to COVID-19 and are of help in planning psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22048, 2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983660

ABSTRACT

Although several cases of family clusters with SARS-Cov-2 infection have been reported, there are still limited data preventing conclusions from being drawn regarding the characteristics and laboratory findings in the COVID-19 population within family clusters. In the present study, we retrospectively collected five family clusters with COVID-19 and summarized the dynamic profiles of the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, immune markers, treatment and prognosis of this population. Furthermore, we also compared clinical and laboratory data between the SARS-Cov-2 infection with family cluster (n = 21) and those without family cluster (n = 16). We demonstrated that the duration of SARS-Cov-2 replication might be varied based on the different family clusters due to their different genetic backgrounds. The onset improved lung radiology might start at the end of the SARS-Cov-2 positive period. Furthermore, the obtained results demonstrated that similar basic characteristics and clinical findings seem to exist between the cases with SARS-Cov-2 and without family clusters. The serum level of ferritin might have a different biological function and be a new biomarker for the family cluster. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Family , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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