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1.
Education Research and Perspectives (Online) ; 49:29-62, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824583

ABSTRACT

While the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been widely discussed during the past two years, little attention has been given to international students. This study aimed to systematically review all the empirical studies regarding international students' mental health amidst COVID-19. A search of the peer-reviewed papers was conducted using PsycINFO, Google Scholar, ProQuest Psychology, PubMed, Web of Science and ProQuest Public Health on 5 January 2022. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria created. Eighteen studies were finally included in this review. Findings showed that international students experienced various adverse psychological outcomes during COVID-19. Protective and risk factors that have been found to correlate with international students' mental health were reviewed. Four possible avenues for future research, based on the current literature are identified and discussed.

2.
Education Research and Perspectives (Online) ; 49:1-28, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1824582

ABSTRACT

This paper explores existing evidence on indicators of risk to the mental health status of Chinese students studying in Australian universities prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies published from January 1999 to January 2020 were considered. Findings indicated that Chinese students routinely report increased levels of fear, stress, anxiety, depression and social problems, as well as decreased levels of general well-being, while studying in Australia. Numerous factors may exacerbate the issues confronted by Chinese university students studying in Australia, including language barriers;social, academic and financial difficulties;challenges associated with the different education systems of the two countries;and their own underuse of available mental health services. Recommendations for further practice and research are presented based on these findings.

3.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 49(3): 201-205, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine (a) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and (b) the impact of socioeconomic factors on COVID-19-related anxiety and PTSD symptoms. SAMPLE & SETTING: Women with early-stage invasive breast cancer who were receiving chemotherapy in western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio. METHODS & VARIABLES: Baseline study variables included economic hardship, interpersonal relationships, and perceived stress. PTSD and anxiety symptoms were collected in June 2020 (T1) and February 2021 (T2). Group comparisons were made using paired-sample t tests, analysis of variance, and Pearson correlations. RESULTS: There were 88 women at T1 and 64 women at T2. At T1, PTSD symptom scores were significantly associated with less interpersonal support, greater economic hardship, and greater perceived stress. Anxiety scores were associated with perceived stress. At T2, anxiety scores were still associated with perceived stress. However, PTSD symptom scores were no longer associated with interpersonal support, economic hardship, or perceived stress. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Anxiety and PTSD symptom measurement during a global pandemic is needed to identify vulnerable patients with breast cancer who need targeted support and emergency guidance in nursing practice.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adenosine Monophosphate , Anxiety/etiology , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
4.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298221086129, 2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794115

ABSTRACT

The aim of the overview was to synthesize existing systematic reviews (SRs) of flushing interval for patients who inserted totally implanted venous catheter devices (TIVAD). Regular flushing is indispensable for catheter patency, the recommended flushing interval of TIVAD is 4 weeks, however, there is an argument for prolonging the maintenance interval, which has been proved by many SRs. However, the flushing interval range from 4-week to 3-month. The discrepancy in maintenance period could puzzle health professionals and hinder best practice into the clinic. So, we performed the overview by following the PRISMA statement. The PubMed, Ovid, Wan Fang database, Web of Science, CINAHL, CNKI, EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched from inception to November 2021. The AMSTAR-2, the PRISMA statement, and ROBIS tool were used to assess SRs' method, report quality, and risk of bias, respectively. Then all results were synthesized, the quality of SRs' results was evaluated with GRADE. Finally, five SRs were included. However, non-randomized and small sample size of original studies result in the limitation of SRs. The evidence grade of conclusions is low, bias of mixed factors in included studies, further large sample sizes, RCTs need to be conducted in the future. Prolonged flushing interval was feasible based on the recent evidence, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic because the overwhelming healthcare system and inconvenience of transportation made maintenance not as easy as it used to be. There is no difference of complication between prolonged flushing interval (⩾4-week) and 4-week period, and it can also reduce healthcare cost with no harm to patients.

5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 845769, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785413

ABSTRACT

Individuals' coping strategies have a profound effect on how well they respond to negative life events. Despite this, most coping strategies instruments that are available currently have been developed exclusively in Western contexts. In the present study, a Coping Strategies Scale (CSS) for use with Chinese participants was developed and validated based on responses from 734 Chinese university students (334 male, 399 female, 1 other). Results supported a seven-factor structure for the CSS, which included the dimensions of Withdrawal, Positive Adaptation, Problem-solving, Disengagement, Prosocial Focus, Seeking Emotional Support, and Self-regulation. The results supported the validity of the seven-factor CSS in terms of its content, associated response processes, internal structure, and relationships with other variables. Based on these results, the CSS provides a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing the coping strategies used by Chinese adults in confronting potentially adverse psychological events.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 825408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776025

ABSTRACT

Objective: During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), tourniquet may negatively impact post-operative functional recovery. This study aimed at investigating the effects of tourniquet on pain and return to function. Methods: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 15th, 2020. Search terms included; total knee arthroplasty, tourniquet, and randomized controlled trial. RCTs evaluating the efficacies of tourniquet during and after operation were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. Dichotomous data were calculated as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were used to measure the impact of consecutive results. Primary outcomes were the range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. Results: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 2,393 patients were included in this study. The mean age is 65.58 years old. Compared to no tourniquet group, the use of a tourniquet resulted in suppressed ROM on the 3rd post-operative day [MD, -4.67; (95% CI, -8.00 to -1.35)] and the 1st post-operative month [MD, -3.18; (95% CI, -5.92 to -0.44)]. Pain increased significantly when using tourniquets on the third day after surgery [MD, 0.39; (95% CI, -0.19 to 0.59)]. Moreover, tourniquets can reduce intra-operative blood loss [MD, -127.67; (95% CI, -186.83 to -68.50)], shorter operation time [MD, -3.73; (95% CI, -5.98 to -1.48)], lower transfusion rate [RR, 0.85; (95% CI, 0.73-1.00)], higher superficial wound infection rates RR, 2.43; [(5% CI, 1.04-5.67)] and higher all complication rates [RR, 1.98; (95% CI, 1.22-3.22)]. Conclusion: Moderate certainty evidence shows that the use of a tourniquet was associated with an increased risk of higher superficial wound infection rates and all complication rates. Therefore, the findings did not support the routine use of a tourniquet during TKA.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Pain, Postoperative , Tourniquets , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Humans , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Range of Motion, Articular , Tourniquets/adverse effects
7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 218: 106731, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719551

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) and computer vision (CV) methods become reliable to extract features from radiological images, aiding COVID-19 diagnosis ahead of the pathogenic tests and saving critical time for disease management and control. Thus, this review article focuses on cascading numerous deep learning-based COVID-19 computerized tomography (CT) imaging diagnosis research, providing a baseline for future research. Compared to previous review articles on the topic, this study pigeon-holes the collected literature very differently (i.e., its multi-level arrangement). For this purpose, 71 relevant studies were found using a variety of trustworthy databases and search engines, including Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus. We classify the selected literature in multi-level machine learning groups, such as supervised and weakly supervised learning. Our review article reveals that weak supervision has been adopted extensively for COVID-19 CT diagnosis compared to supervised learning. Weakly supervised (conventional transfer learning) techniques can be utilized effectively for real-time clinical practices by reusing the sophisticated features rather than over-parameterizing the standard models. Few-shot and self-supervised learning are the recent trends to address data scarcity and model efficacy. The deep learning (artificial intelligence) based models are mainly utilized for disease management and control. Therefore, it is more appropriate for readers to comprehend the related perceptive of deep learning approaches for the in-progress COVID-19 CT diagnosis research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 825: 153880, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692895

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, face mask (FM) has been recognized as an effective measure to reduce the infection, increasing its consumption across the world. However, the large amount of at-home FM usage changed traditional medical waste management practices, lack of improper management. Currently, few studies estimate FM consumption at a global scale, not to say a comprehensive investigation on the environmental risks of FM from a life cycle perspective. Therefore, global FM consumption and its associated environmental risks are clarified in the present study. Our result shows that 449.5 billion FMs were consumed from January 2020 to March 2021, with an average of 59.4 FMs per person worldwide. This review also provides a basis to understand the environmental risk of randomly disposed of FM and highlights the urgent requirement for the attention of FMs waste management to prevent pollution in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325230

ABSTRACT

Background: School closures and home confinement due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may lead to disrupted sleep patterns. Consequently, it could increase the risk of children and adolescents’ mental health disorders. We examined sleep patterns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and their associations with mental health in children and adolescents during the pandemic in Shanghai, China.Methods: In this natural experiment study, a total of 7,544 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were randomly selected from ten schools in Shanghai, China in the first wave of the survey between January 3 and 21, 2020. Approximately two months after the COVID-19 outbreak declared, a second wave of the survey was conducted among 4,391 children and adolescents from six schools. In total, 2,250 individuals were surveyed in both waves. Participants’ mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress), sleep patterns and other demographic information were measured in both waves. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the associations between sleep patterns and mental health status. Multiple imputation was used to reduce the risk of bias from missing data.Findings: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a total of 873 participants (19.9%), 1,100 participants (25.1%), and 670 participants (15.3%) reported depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, respectively. Significant changes of both sleep duration and sleep-wake cycle patterns were observed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, shorter sleep duration and late to rise patterns (including early to bed late to rise and late to bed late to rise) were found to be associated with higher odds of having mental illnesses during the pandemic.Interpretation: These results suggest there is pressing need to monitor children and adolescents’ health behaviour and mental health and develop timely evidence‐based strategies and interventions to mitigate adverse behavioural and psychological impacts caused by these unprecedented challenges.Funding Statement: This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 71804110) for Mi Xiang and supported by Global Public Health strand of the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research, funded under the University of Bristol’s QR GCRF strategy. Declaration of Interests: None.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (SJUPN-201813). Written, informed consent was obtained from caregivers of all participants.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 301: 337-344, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures and home confinement due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may lead to disrupted sleep patterns. Consequently, it could increase the risk of children and adolescents' mental health disorders. METHODS: In this prospective study, we randomly selected ten schools in Shanghai and conducted cluster sampling of students from each school. The first wave of the survey was conducted between January 3 and 21, 2020. Approximately two months after the COVID-19 outbreak declared, a second wave of the survey was conducted. In total, 2427 individuals were surveyed in both waves using the same sampling method. Participants' mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress), sleep patterns and other demographic information were measured in both waves. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the associations between sleep patterns and mental health status. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a total of 873 participants (19.9%), 1100 participants (25.1%), and 670 participants (15.3%) reported depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Significant changes of both sleep duration and sleep-wake cycle patterns were observed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, shorter sleep duration and late to rise patterns (including early to bed late to rise and late to bed late to rise) were found to be associated with higher odds of having mental illnesses during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: These results suggest there is a pressing need to monitor children's and adolescents' health behavior and mental health and develop timely evidence-based strategies and interventions to mitigate adverse behavioral and psychological impacts caused by these unprecedented challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292322

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented severe challenges to emergency practice of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, poor evidence was shown on ACS in a non-hot-spot region. We sought to clarify the influence of the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic on emergency ACS from a non-epicenter region. Methods: : This retrospective multicenter study was conducted in emergency ACS patients during the pandemic (from 2020-01-23 to 2020-03-29) and the ones during the same period in 2019. Clinical characteristics, timeline parameters and treatment strategies were compared between different groups. Association of the pandemic with non-invasive therapy was further assessed. Results: : Compared with 2019, ACS had a drop in admission (267 cases vs. 475 cases) and invasive therapy (140 cases vs. 318 cases). Also, process delays were detected including the period from symptom onset to first medical contact (S-to-FMC, 5h vs. 2.5h), the period from FMC to electrocardiogram (ECG) completed (8min vs. 4min) and the period from FMC to dual antiplatelet therapy (FMC-to-DAPT, 25min vs. 19min). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) decreased by 54.9% in STEMI and early invasive therapy decreased by 59.2% in NSTE-ACS. The proportion of invasive therapy in NSTE-ACS decreased more than in STEMI (16.9% vs. 10.1%) with longer process delay. The pandemic was associated with increased non-PPCI in STEMI (OR=1.707, 95%CI 1.082-2.692, P=0.021) and elevated medication in NSTE-ACS (OR=2.029, 95%CI 1.268-3.247, P=0.003), respectively. Conclusion: Even in a non-epicenter region, the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant reduction of invasive therapy and evident process delays in emergency ACS.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 669103, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348487

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially severe cases, are currently lacking. As macrophages have unique effector functions as a first-line defense against invading pathogens, we genetically armed human macrophages with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to reprogram their phagocytic activity against SARS-CoV-2. After investigation of CAR constructs with different intracellular receptor domains, we found that although cytosolic domains from MERTK (CARMERTK) did not trigger antigen-specific cellular phagocytosis or killing effects, unlike those from MEGF10, FcRγ and CD3ζ did, these CARs all mediated similar SARS-CoV-2 clearance in vitro. Notably, we showed that CARMERTK macrophages reduced the virion load without upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. These results suggest that CARMERTK drives an 'immunologically silent' scavenger effect in macrophages and pave the way for further investigation of CARs for the treatment of individuals with COVID-19, particularly those with severe cases at a high risk of hyperinflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virion/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , THP-1 Cells , Vero Cells , Virion/genetics
16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(15): e2100606, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340232

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is the core signaling adaptor in the RNA signaling pathway. Thus, appropriate regulation of MAVS expression is essential for antiviral immunity against RNA virus infection. However, the regulation of MAVS expression at the mRNA level especially at the post transcriptional level is not well-defined. Here, it is reported that the MAVS mRNA undergoes N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modification through methyltransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14), which leads to a fast turnover of MAVS mRNA. Knockdown or deficiency of METTL14 increases MAVS mRNA stability, and downstream phosphorylation of TBK1/IRF3 and interferon-ß production in response to RNA viruses. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygotes Mettl14+/- mice better tolerate RNA virus infection. The authors' findings unveil a novel mechanism to regulate the stability of MAVS transcripts post-transcriptionally through m6 A modification.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Methyltransferases/immunology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/immunology , Adenosine/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Methyltransferases/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology
18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5168

ABSTRACT

A review. 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV), was discovered from the case of viral pneumonia in Wuhan at the end of 2019, Jan. 12, 2020 Named by the World Health Organization. 2019-nCoV is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in human before. Its genome size and structure are different from other coronary diseases, the viruses are similar, but they are far from human SARS coronavirus in the evolutionary tree. The 2019-nCoV genome consists of approx. 29 000 nucleotides with 12 open reading frames(ORF), belongs to a brand-new genus coronavirus. This article reviews the biol. characteristics, genetic structure and mol. biol. of 2019-nCoV, and reviews Give recommendations on laboratory testing specifications and quality control.

19.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1104-1122.e9, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933377

ABSTRACT

Human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causative pathogen of the COVID-19 pandemic, exerts a massive health and socioeconomic crisis. The virus infects alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s), leading to lung injury and impaired gas exchange, but the mechanisms driving infection and pathology are unclear. We performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic survey of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived AT2s (iAT2s) infected with SARS-CoV-2 at air-liquid interface (ALI). Time course analysis revealed rapid remodeling of diverse host systems, including signaling, RNA processing, translation, metabolism, nuclear integrity, protein trafficking, and cytoskeletal-microtubule organization, leading to cell cycle arrest, genotoxic stress, and innate immunity. Comparison to analogous data from transformed cell lines revealed respiratory-specific processes hijacked by SARS-CoV-2, highlighting potential novel therapeutic avenues that were validated by a high hit rate in a targeted small molecule screen in our iAT2 ALI system.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Cytoskeleton , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Transport , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
20.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(19): 4303-4310, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-819327

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of unexplained pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization officially named this disease as novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Liver injury was observed in patients with COVID-19, and its severity varied depending on disease severity, geographical area, and patient age. Systemic inflammatory response, immune damage, ischemia-reperfusion injury, viral direct damage, drug induce, mechanical ventilation, and underlying diseases may contribute to liver injury. Although, in most cases, mild liver dysfunction is observed, which is usually temporary and does not require special treatment, the importance of monitoring liver injury should be emphasized for doctors. The risk of COVID-19 infection of liver transplantation recipients caused more and more concerns. In this article, we aimed to review the available literature on liver injury in COVID-19 to highlight the importance of monitoring and treating liver injury in COVID-19.

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