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1.
The Educational Review, USA ; 7(3):372-374, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2320741

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the new year of 2020, the new coronavirus swept across the motherland. Scientific researchers throughout the country overcame scientific difficulties and wrote papers for the motherland. Under the challenge of the epidemic situation, medical workers in the front saved the dying and healed the wounded, while the scientific researchers in the rear tackled scientific and technological problems. The two sides cooperated sincerely to unify medical practice and theoretical development, and effectively improved the scientific and technological level of China's medical industry. Health care is closely related to human survival, development and quality of life. At present, mankind is still facing the threat of major diseases, and the development of medical and health services has increasingly shown strategic significance to national security, social stability and even national survival. This article introduces a new model of talent cultivation at the graduate level. The cross-dissolution of clinical medicine and manufacturing engineering produces novel ideas and new technologies.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1096022, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The protective effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has become a global focus due to Omicron variant pandemic. The effects of various SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are diverse. However, studies on the effect of domestic vaccines on clinical characteristics in convalescent adult patients infected with the Omicron variant are lacking. Methods: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, the effect of three domestic vaccines on clinical characteristics of convalescent adult patients infected with the Omicron variant was investigated in the initial largest outbreak of the Omicron variant infection between January and February 2022 in Tianjin, China. The primary endpoint was COVID-19 severity and the secondary endpoints were re-positive results on nucleic acid tests, liver and kidney function, and inflammation levels during recovery. Results: A total of 320 adult patients infected with the Omicron variant were enrolled, including 296 post-vaccination and 24 unvaccinated patients. The median age of the unvaccinated patients was higher than that of vaccinated patients, but no significant difference was detected in the sex composition ratio between the different groups. Binary logistic regression results suggested that Sinopharm and Sinovac vaccine was an independent protective factor for relieving the severity of the Omicron variant infection. Regrettably, the vaccines did not showed any protective effect on the liver and kidney function of convalescent adult patients. Three domestic vaccines significantly relieved inflammation and increased the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels. Furthermore, Sinovac and CanSino vaccines had a better immune stimulation effect on increasing T lymphocytes levels in convalescent adult patients. In addition, three domestic vaccines have protective effects on preventing re-detectable positive (RP) result in convalescent adult patients. Conclusion: Although the three domestic vaccines cannot prevent the infection of the Omicron variant, it has a significant protective effect in adult patients. This study supports the policy of accelerating to vaccination worldwide combat the evolving and mutating SARS-CoV-2. Discussion: Omicron spreads faster and might escape antibodies more readily than previous variants, increasing the cases of reinfection and breakthrough infections in vaccinated people. Although vaccinated people are likely to have a much lower risk of severe disease from Omicron infection, many issues still need to be considered. Concerns about lower vaccine efficacy because of new variants might have changed our understanding of the COVID-19 endgame, disabusing the world of the notion that global vaccination is by itself adequate for controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. The current data showed that vaccination with three domestic SARS-CoV-2 vaccines alleviates the disease severity of adult patients with COVID-19, reduces the inflammation level and the RP rate of convalescent adult patients, and enhances body's defense against the virus in convalescent adult patients. Moreover, our study has highlighted that a combination prevention approach of vaccination and public health measures would be an effective strategy.

3.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 441, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296700

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism occurs in up to one-third of patients with COVID-19. Venous thromboembolism and COVID-19 may share a common genetic architecture, which has not been clarified. To fill this gap, we leverage summary-level genetic data from the latest COVID-19 host genetics consortium and UK Biobank and examine the shared genetic etiology and causal relationship between COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism. The cross-trait and co-localization analyses identify 2, 3, and 4 shared loci between venous thromboembolism and severe COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization, SARS-CoV-2 infection respectively, which are mapped to ABO, ADAMTS13, FUT2 genes involved in coagulation functions. Enrichment analysis supports shared biological processes between COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism related to coagulation and immunity. Bi-directional Mendelian randomization suggests that venous thromboembolism was associated with higher risk of three COVID-19 traits, and SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a higher risk of venous thromboembolism. Our study provides timely evidence for the genetic etiology between COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our findings contribute to the understanding of COVID-19 and VTE etiology and provide insights into the prevention and comorbidity management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Venous Thromboembolism/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Risk Factors
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288759

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) threatens the survival of critically ill patients, the mechanisms of which are still unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by activated neutrophils play a critical role in inflammatory injury. We investigated the role of NETs and the underlying mechanism involved in acute lung injury (ALI). We found a higher expression of NETs and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) in the airways, which was reduced by Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in ALI. The administration of the STING inhibitor H-151 also significantly relieved inflammatory lung injury, but failed to affect the high expression of NETs in ALI. We isolated murine neutrophils from bone marrow and acquired human neutrophils by inducing HL-60 to differentiate. After the PMA interventions, exogenous NETs were obtained from such extracted neutrophils. Exogenous NETs intervention in vitro and in vivo resulted in airway injury, and such inflammatory lung injury was reversed upon degrading NETs with or inhibiting cGAS-STING with H-151 as well as siRNA STING. In conclusion, cGAS-STING participates in regulating NETs-mediated inflammatory pulmonary injury, which is expected to be a new therapeutic target for ARDS/ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Mice , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
5.
Drugs ; 83(5): 403-427, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Berberine is a nutraceutical that can improve lipid metabolism. Berberine may also affect sex hormones and exert sex-specific lipid-modifying effects, which have been overlooked. This study aimed to comprehensively review the efficacy and safety of berberine in adults for the treatment of dyslipidemia with consideration of potential sex disparity. Data Sources We searched Medline, Embase, Wanfang, CNKI, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to 13 December 2022. No language restrictions were applied. This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021293218) prior to completing the literature search. Study Selection Two blinded reviewers assessed studies for inclusion. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials in adults that compared berberine versus placebo, and measured blood lipids or lipoproteins. Data Extraction and Synthesis Data extraction was performed by two blinded reviewers using a structured form in Covidence. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials. Mean differences (MD) were estimated using inverse variance weighting with random effects models for lipid outcomes using R. Adverse events (AEs) were described narratively. Main Outcomes Primary outcomes were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Secondary outcomes were gastrointestinal and muscle-related AEs. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (n = 1788 participants), conducted mainly in mainland China and Hong Kong (15 studies [83%]), were included with treatment durations ranging from 4 to 24 weeks. Berberine reduced LDL cholesterol (- 0.46 mmol/L, 95% CI - 0.62 to - 0.30, 14 studies, n = 1447), total cholesterol (- 0.48 mmol/L, 95% CI - 0.63 to - 0.33, 17 studies, n = 1637), triglycerides (- 0.34 mmol/L, 95% CI - 0.46 to - 0.23, 18 studies, n = 1661) and apolipoprotein B (- 0.25 g/L, 95% CI - 0.40 to - 0.11, 2 studies, n = 127). Berberine increased HDL cholesterol by 0.06 mmol/L (95% CI 0.00 to 0.11, 15 studies, n = 1471). Notably, the effect on HDL cholesterol was different in women (0.11 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.13) from that in men (- 0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI - 0.16 to 0.02). Among 16 studies that reported AEs, no serious AEs were reported for berberine. Gastrointestinal AEs were reported in 12 studies and tended to be more frequent in participants allocated to berberine versus placebo (2-23% vs 2-15%). CONCLUSIONS: Berberine produces small reductions in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B, with potential sex-specific effects on HDL cholesterol. Large-scale trials that consider sex disparity and assess clinical outcomes are required.


Berberine is found naturally in barberry and goldenthread, plants which have long been used in traditional herbal medicine in Asia. Nowadays berberine is used as a purified product and is easy to purchase as a nutraceutical supplement or non-prescription drug. People with dyslipidemia, a medical condition often known as 'high cholesterol', may prefer treatment with a nutraceutical such as berberine to reduce blood cholesterol. In recent years, many studies have contrasted the effects of taking berberine with an inactive placebo. This study aimed to combine all the available randomized controlled trials that assessed berberine's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. We included 18 studies that used berberine doses of 900­1500 mg/day, the majority of which were conducted in mainland China and Hong Kong. We found that on average berberine can modestly reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 0.5 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) and triglycerides by 0.3 mmol/L (30 mg/dL). Berberine also increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 0.06 mmol/L (2 mg/dL). Interestingly, women may obtain a greater increase in HDL cholesterol than men. The short-term use of berberine appears to be safe. No study participants treated with berberine experienced a serious adverse event. However, berberine may occasionally cause constipation, diarrhea, or nausea. Larger high-quality studies are still needed to determine the long-term effects of berberine for dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Dyslipidemias , Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Berberine/adverse effects , Cholesterol , Triglycerides , Lipids , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Apolipoproteins , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
6.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28570, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246548

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) may cause a dysregulation of the immune system and has complex relationships with multiple autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, little is known about their common genetic architecture. Using the latest data from COVID-19 host genetics consortium and consortia on RA and SLE, we conducted a genome-wide cross-trait analysis to examine the shared genetic etiology between COVID-19 and RA/SLE and evaluated their causal associations using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR). The cross-trait meta-analysis identified 23, 28, and 10 shared genetic loci for severe COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization, and SARS-CoV-2 infection with RA, and 14, 17, and 7 shared loci with SLE, respectively. Co-localization analysis identified five causal variants in TYK2, IKZF3, PSORS1C1, and COG6 for COVID-19 with RA, and four in CRHR1, FUT2, and NXPE3 for COVID-19 with SLE, involved in immune function, angiogenesis and coagulation. Bidirectional MR analysis suggested RA is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization, and COVID-19 is not related to RA or SLE. Our novel findings improved the understanding of the genetic etiology shared by COVID-19, RA and SLE, and suggested an increased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization in people with higher genetic liability to RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
7.
Virol Sin ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184339

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread surprisingly fast worldwide, and new variants continue to emerge. Recently, the World Health Organization acknowledged a new mutant strain "Omicron", with children were accounting for a growing share of COVID-19 cases compared with other mutant strains. However, the clinical and immunological characteristics of convalescent pediatric patients after Omicron infection were lacking. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the clinical data from pediatric patients with adult patients or healthy children and the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine on the clinical and immune characteristics in convalescent pediatric patients. Our results indicated that convalescent pediatric patients had unique clinical and immune characteristics different from those of adult patients or healthy children, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination significantly affected on the clinical and immune characteristics and the prevention of nucleic acid re-detectable positive (RP) in convalescent patients. Our study further deepens the understanding of the impact of Omicron on the long-term health of pediatric patients and provides a valuable reference for the prevention and treatment of children infected with Omicron.

8.
Telemed J E Health ; 2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188165

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Based on practical services of the Henan Province Telemedicine Center (HTCC), the purpose of this study is to investigate the design, construction, implementation, and application effect of a specific telemedicine system in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Data on COVID-19 cases from December 31, 2019, through October 17, 2022, were collected from official websites. Data and information of telemedicine services related to COVID-19 in HTCC were collected and analyzed, and relevant graphical representations were plotted. Results: All the 147 COVID-19 designated hospitals in the Henan Province were covered by the specific telemedicine system. The cities near to the Hubei Province in the south of Henan tended to be with more COVID-19 cases, where more COVID-19-related telemedicine services were conducted. For the telemedicine system, function modules, including real-time monitoring, command and dispatch, intractable cases transfer, remote guidance, and data sharing, were designed and realized to deal with COVID-19. Through the system, telemedicine services involved COVID-19 such as epidemic surveillance, emergency rescue, case discussion, diagnosis and treatment, remote ward-round, and distance education were performed. During the period between February 2 and March 3, 2020, 646 COVID-19 patients were served by the telemedicine system, with an improvement rate of 73.2%. Conclusions: Telemedicine can improve the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients, which play a helpful role in curbing the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the current global COVID-19 pandemic and the potential re-emerge of novel zoonotic pathogens in the future, the use of telemedicine would be imperative to fight against the pandemic.

9.
Virologica Sinica ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093134

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread surprisingly fast worldwide, and new variants continue to emerge. Recently, the World Health Organization acknowledged a new mutant strain "Omicron", with children were accounting for a growing share of COVID-19 cases compared with other mutant strains. However, the clinical and immunological characteristics of convalescent pediatric patients after Omicron infection were lacking. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the clinical data from pediatric patients with adult patients or healthy children and the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine on the clinical and immune characteristics in convalescent pediatric patients. Our results indicated that convalescent pediatric patients had unique clinical and immune characteristics different from those of adult patients or healthy children, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination significantly affected on the clinical and immune characteristics and the prevention of nucleic acid re-detectable positive (RP) in convalescent patients. Our study further deepens the understanding of the impact of Omicron on the long-term health of pediatric patients and provides a valuable reference for the prevention and treatment of children infected with Omicron.

10.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(7):874-878, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2080559

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the global epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) in June 2022 and the risk of importation.

11.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071840

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein interactions are critical for intracellular viral propagation. Understanding the interactions between cellular and viral proteins may help us develop new antiviral strategies. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious coronavirus that causes severe damage to the global swine industry. Here, we employed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize 426 unique PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein-binding proteins in infected Vero cells. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was created, and gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses revealed that the PEDV N-bound proteins belong to different cellular pathways, such as nucleic acid binding, ribonucleoprotein complex binding, RNA methyltransferase, and polymerase activities. Interactions of the PEDV N protein with 11 putative proteins: tripartite motif containing 21, DEAD-box RNA helicase 24, G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1, heat shock protein family A member 8, heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1, YTH domain containing 1, nucleolin, Y-box binding protein 1, vimentin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, and karyopherin subunit alpha 1, were further confirmed by in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, studying an interaction network can facilitate the identification of antiviral therapeutic strategies and novel targets for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Karyopherins/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism
12.
Expert Syst Appl ; 213: 118841, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031277

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 brings almost the biggest explosions of scientific literature ever. Facing such volume literature, it is hard for researches to find desired citation when carrying out COVID-19 related research, especially for junior researchers. This paper presents a novel neural network based method, called citation relational BERT with heterogeneous deep graph convolutional network (CRB-HDGCN), for COVID-19 inline citation recommendation task. The CRB-HDGCN contains two main stages. The first stage is to enhance the representation learning of BERT model for COVID-19 inline citation recommendation task through CRB. To achieve the above goal, an augmented citation sentence corpus, which replaces the citation placeholder with the title of the cited papers, is used to lightly retrain BERT model. In addition, we extract three types of sentence pair according citation relation, and establish sentence prediction tasks to further fine-tune the BERT model. The second stage is to learn effective dense vector of nodes among COVID-19 bibliographic graph through HDGCN. The HDGCN contains four layers which are essentially all sub neural networks. The first layer is initial embedding layer which generates initial input vectors with fixed size through CRB and a multilayer perceptron. The second layer is a heterogeneous graph convolutional layer. In this layer, we expand traditional homogeneous graph convolutional network into heterogeneous by subtly adding heterogeneous nodes and relations. The third layer is a deep attention layer. This layer uses trainable project vectors to reweight the node importance simultaneously according to both node types and convolution layers, which further promotes the performance of learnt node vectors. The last decoder layer recovers the graph structure and let the whole network trainable. The recommendation is finally achieved by integrating the high performance heterogeneous vectors learnt from CRB-HDGCN with the query vectors. We conduct experiments on the CORD-19 and LitCovid datasets. The results show that compared with the second best method CO-Search, CRB-HDGCN improves MAP, MRR, P@100 and R@100 with 21.8%, 22.7%, 37.6% and 21.2% on CORD-19, and 29.1%, 25.9%, 15.3% and 11.3% on LitCovid, respectively.

13.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(4):287-290, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1924836

ABSTRACT

Objective: To model an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shijiazhuang and forecast its spread trend. Method: We collected confirmed COVID-19 cases from the Health Commission of Hebei Province during the period of January 2 to January 27, 2021. We built a new model (SEIaIcRK), including the contribution of asymptomatic cases, based on the traditional SEIR model to explore and analyze the transmission of COVID-19.

14.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(4):335-339, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1924833

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize the mortality rate of residents in Minhang District of Shanghai from January to April in 2016-2020, and to determine the change in the epidemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020.

15.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059396, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902010

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak poses a significant threat to the patients with tuberculosis (TB). TB and COVID-19 (TB-COVID) coinfection means the disease caused by both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, the prevalence status, treatment and outcomes of the coinfection are poorly characterised. We aimed to systematically review the evidence on this topic and provide comprehensive information to guide the control and treatment of TB-COVID coinfection. METHODS: An extensive screening was conducted using six electronic databases to search eligible studies from 1 November 2019 to 19 March 2021. Prevalence rate, treatment and outcomes of TB-COVID coinfection were extracted. Random-effects models were used to calculate mean fatality rates of coinfection with 95% CIs. The risks of bias were assessed with the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Study Reporting Prevalence Data and JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Report. A meta-analysis was conducted for subgroups on in-hospital fatality rate. RESULTS: Forty-two studies were included into the analysis (35 case reports and 7 retrospective cohort studies). Nineteen countries reported coinfected patients, including high and low TB prevalence countries. The only study revealing prevalence rate came from West Cape Province, South Africa (people aged above 20 years, 0.04% until 1 June 2020 and 0.06% until 9 June 2020). The treatment regimens for coinfected patients were highly heterogeneous. The mean overall and in-hospital fatality rates of coinfection were 13.9% (95% CI: 1.6% to 26.2%) and 17.5% (95% CI: 8.9% to 26.0%). The mean in-hospital fatality rates for high-income countries (Italy and Argentina) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs) (India, Philippines, South Africa) were 6.5% (95% CI: -0.8% to ~13.9%) and 22.5% (95% CI: 19.0% to ~26.0%). CONCLUSION: TB-COVID coinfection is common globally, and the coinfected patients suffer from higher fatality risk than patients with normal COVID-19. Outcomes shared significant differences between high-income countries and LMICs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021253660.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
16.
J Infect Prev ; 23(5): 206-213, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833138

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of COVID-19 has been an ordeal for nurses worldwide. It is crucial to understand their experiences at the frontline, attempt to allay their concerns, and help inform future pandemic response capabilities. Aims: To explore nurses' lived experiences at the frontline in order to identify and address their concerns and help enhance future responses to infectious disease outbreaks. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 registered nurses who came to Hubei from different parts of China to care for patients with COVID-19. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results: Six major themes emerged: emotional turmoil due to personal and professional concerns, quality issues with personal protective equipment and associated physical discomfort, witnessing and managing patient distress, readiness of emergency response mechanisms in the health system, collective community awareness and preparedness, and heightened professional pride and confidence in future epidemic control. Discussion: Nurses were placed in challenging and unfamiliar situations to deal with unexpected and unpredictable events which caused considerable psychological and physical distress. Support in the form of government edicts, hospital management policies, community generosity and collegiality was highly welcomed by the nurses. Policy makers and managers should ensure that nurses are provided with the support and resources necessary for dealing with large-scale infectious disease outbreaks. Priority should be given to risk assessment, infection prevention and control, and patient and staff health and safety.

17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743558, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775906

ABSTRACT

Background: As the first domestic PD-1 antibody approved for lung cancer in China, camrelizumab has exhibited proven effectiveness for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the cost-effectiveness of this new regimen remains to be investigated. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of camrelizumab combination therapy vs. chemotherapy for previously untreated patients with advanced, non-squamous NSCLC without Alk or Egfr genomic aberrations from the perspective of China's healthcare system. Methods: Based on the CameL trial, the study developed a three-health state Markov model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding camrelizumab to chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone in NSCLC patients. The analysis models were conducted for patients unselected by PD-L1 tumor expression (the base case) and the patient subgroup with PD-L1-expressing tumors (≥1%). Primary model outcomes included the costs in US dollars and health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $31,500 per QALY. Additionally, a scenario analysis that adjusted within-trial crossover was employed to evaluate camrelizumab combination therapy compared to chemotherapy without subsequent use of PD1/PD-L1 antibodies. Results: Camrelizumab combination therapy was more costly and provided additional 0.11 QALYs over chemotherapy in the base case analysis (0.86 vs. 0.75 QALYs), 0.12 QALYs over chemotherapy in the subgroup analysis (0.99 vs. 0.88 QALYs), and 0.34 QALYs over chemotherapy in the scenario analysis (0.86 vs. 0.52 QALYs). Correspondingly, the ICER was $63,080 per QALY, $46,311 per QALY, and $30,591 per QALY, in the base case, the subgroup, and the scenario analysis, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that ICERs of the base case and the subgroup analysis were most sensitive to the cost of camrelizumab, the cost of pemetrexed. Besides, the base case and subgroup analysis were more sensitive to the risk of neutrophil count decreased in the camrelizumab and the utility of stable disease, respectively. Conclusion: Although camrelizumab combination therapy is not cost-effective as first-line therapy for NSCLC patients in China in the base case, adjusting within-trial crossover would move the treatment regimen toward cost-effectiveness in the scenario analysis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
18.
Front Comput Neurosci ; 15: 803724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715022

ABSTRACT

Medical image fusion has an indispensable value in the medical field. Taking advantage of structure-preserving filter and deep learning, a structure preservation-based two-scale multimodal medical image fusion algorithm is proposed. First, we used a two-scale decomposition method to decompose source images into base layer components and detail layer components. Second, we adopted a fusion method based on the iterative joint bilateral filter to fuse the base layer components. Third, a convolutional neural network and local similarity of images are used to fuse the components of the detail layer. At the last, the final fused result is got by using two-scale image reconstruction. The contrast experiments display that our algorithm has better fusion results than the state-of-the-art medical image fusion algorithms.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 781781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566656

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to tremendous individuals visit medical institutions for healthcare services. Public gatherings and close contact in clinics and emergency departments may increase the exposure and cross-infection of COVID-19. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and deploy an intelligent response system for COVID-19 voice consultation, to provide suggestions of response measures based on actual information of users, and screen COVID-19 suspected cases. Methods: Based on the requirements analysis of business, user, and function, the physical architecture, system architecture, and core algorithms are designed and implemented. The system operation process is designed according to guidance documents of the National Health Commission and the actual experience of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Both qualitative (system construction) and quantitative (system application) data from the real-world healthcare service of the system were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: The system realizes the functions, such as remote deployment and operations, fast operation procedure adjustment, and multi-dimensional statistical report capability. The performance of the machine-learning model used to develop the system is better than others, with the lowest Character Error Rate (CER) 8.13%. As of September 24, 2020, the system has received 12,264 times incoming calls and provided a total of 11,788 COVID-19-related consultation services for the public. Approximately 85.2% of the users are from Henan Province and followed by Beijing (2.5%). Of all the incoming calls, China Mobile contributes the largest proportion (66%), while China Unicom and China Telecom are accounted for 23% and 11%. For the time that users access the system, there is a peak period in the morning (08:00-10:00) and afternoon (14:00-16:00), respectively. Conclusions: The intelligent response system has achieved appreciable practical implementation effects. Our findings reveal that the provision of inquiry services through an intelligent voice consultation system may play a role in optimizing the allocation of healthcare resources, improving the efficiency of medical services, saving medical expenses, and protecting vulnerable groups.

20.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 381, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney dysfunction occurs in severe COVID-19, and is a predictor of COVID-19 mortality. Whether kidney dysfunction causes severe COVID-19, and hence is a target of intervention, or whether it is a symptom, is unclear because conventional observational studies are open to confounding. To obtain unconfounded estimates, we used Mendelian randomization to examine the role of kidney function in severe COVID-19. METHODS: We used genome-wide significant, uncorrelated genetic variants to predict kidney function, in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and then assessed whether people with genetically instrumented higher eGFR or lower UACR, an indication of better kidney function, had a lower risk of severe COVID-19 (8779 cases, 1,001,875 controls), using the largest available cohorts with extensive genotyping. For comprehensiveness, we also examined their role in COVID-19 hospitalization (24,274 cases, 2,061,529 controls) and all COVID-19 (1,12,612 cases, 2,474,079 controls). RESULTS: Genetically instrumented higher eGFR was associated with lower risk of severe COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83, 0.98) but not related to COVID-19 hospitalization or infection. Genetically instrumented UACR was not related to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney function appears to be one of the key targets for severe COVID-19 treatment. Use of available medications to improve kidney function, such as antihypertensives, might be beneficial for COVID-19 treatment, with relevance to drug repositioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Glomerular Filtration Rate/genetics , Kidney/physiopathology , Patient Acuity , Albuminuria/urine , Case-Control Studies , Creatinine/urine , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , White People/genetics
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