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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871809

ABSTRACT

Objective The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset, that patients first developed symptoms. The potential risk factors were also explored. Methods A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients' health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed. Findings 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0–70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0–467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12–11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07–5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13–4.14) in females to males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3–198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity. Conclusions 15-month follow-up in this study demonstrated the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155720, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819602

ABSTRACT

Harmful microorganism (e.g., new coronavirus) based infection is the most important security concern in life sciences and healthcare. This article aims to provide a state-of-the-art review on the development of advanced technology based on nanomaterial disinfection/sterilization techniques (NDST) for the first time including the nanomaterial types, disinfection techniques, bactericidal devices, sterilization products, and application scenarios (i.e., water, air, medical healthcare), with particular brief account of bactericidal behaviors referring to varied systems. In this emerging research area spanning the years from 1998 to 2021, total of ~200 publications selected for the type of review paper and research articles were reviewed. Four typical functional materials (namely type of metal/metal oxides, S-based, C-based, and N-based) with their development progresses in disinfection/sterilization are summarized with a list of synthesis and design. Among them, the widely used silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered as the most effective bacterial agents in the type of nanomaterials at present and has been reported for inactivation of viruses, fungi, protozoa. Some methodologies against (1) disinfection by-products (DBPs) in traditional sterilization, (2) noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) agglomeration and release, (3) toxic metal leaching, (4) solar spectral response broadening, and (5) photogenerated e-/h+ pairs recombination are reviewed and discussed in this field, namely (1) alternative techniques and nanomaterials, (2) supporter anchoring effect, (3) nonmetal functional nanomaterials, (4) element doping, and (5) heterojunction constructing. The feasible strategies in the perspective of NDST are proposed to involve (1) non-noble metal disinfectors, (2) multi-functional nanomaterials, (3) multi-component nanocomposite innovation, and (4) hybrid techniques for disinfection/sterilization system. It is promising to achieve 100% bactericidal efficiency for 108 CFU/mL within a short time of less than 30 min.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Nanocomposites , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Disinfection/methods , Oxides , Silver , Technology
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820439

ABSTRACT

With the emergence and rapid spread of new pandemic variants, especially variants of concern (VOCs), the development of next-generation vaccines with broad-spectrum neutralizing activities is of great importance. In this study, SCTV01C, a clinical stage bivalent vaccine based on trimeric spike extracellular domain (S-ECD) of SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) with a squalene-based oil-in-water adjuvant was evaluated in comparison to its two corresponding (Alpha and Beta) monovalent vaccines in mouse immunogenicity studies. The two monovalent vaccines induced potent neutralizing antibody responses against the antigen-matched variants, but drastic reductions in neutralizing antibody titers against antigen-mismatched variants were observed. In comparison, the bivalent vaccine SCTV01C induced relatively higher and broad-spectrum cross-neutralizing activities against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the D614G variant, VOCs (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2, B.1.1.529), variants of interest (VOIs) (C.37, B.1.621), variants under monitoring (VUMs) (B.1.526, B.1.617.1, B.1.429, C.36.3) and other variants (B.1.618, 20I/484Q). All three vaccines elicited potent Th1-biased T-cell immune responses. These results provide direct evidence that variant-based multivalent vaccines could play important roles in addressing the critical issue of reduced protective efficacy against the existing and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819919

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate eHealth literacy about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among older adults during the pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic promoted the development of online health care. Higher demand for accessing information from the Internet was seen. METHODS: This was a sequential explanatory mixed-method study, involving a survey of older adults to explore the status and influencing factors of eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand experiences and challenges regarding information retrieval, judgment and utilization. RESULTS: A total of 337 older adults participated in the online questionnaire survey. Overall, older adults had slightly higher scores on eHealth literacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants' location in the past month and current health issues were associated with eHealth literacy. Qualitative data were collected from nine older adults and included that some older adults retrieved health-related information during the pandemic. However, those who used non-smartphones described difficulties in information retrieval. A glut of misinformation has resulted in an 'infodemic', which has not only increased the difficulty of judging information but also posed challenges in information utilization for older adults. CONCLUSION: Improving older adults' eHealth literacy is essential in promoting an improved response to major public health events and in providing better health care for this group in the future. It is essential that government health agencies and health care providers provide evidence-based health information via social media platforms. Further efforts are needed to combine aspects of traditional and online health care services and provide reliable and updated online information and resources for older adults. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Providing evidence to eHealth literacy improvement and health management of older adults in the context of public health events.

6.
Nature ; 606(7914): 585-593, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815563

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by persistent lung inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, viral RNA and a sustained interferon (IFN) response, all of which are recapitulated and required for pathology in the SARS-CoV-2-infected MISTRG6-hACE2 humanized mouse model of COVID-19, which has a human immune system1-20. Blocking either viral replication with remdesivir21-23 or the downstream IFN-stimulated cascade with anti-IFNAR2 antibodies in vivo in the chronic stages of disease attenuates the overactive immune inflammatory response, especially inflammatory macrophages. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in lung-resident human macrophages is a critical driver of disease. In response to infection mediated by CD16 and ACE2 receptors, human macrophages activate inflammasomes, release interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-18, and undergo pyroptosis, thereby contributing to the hyperinflammatory state of the lungs. Inflammasome activation and the accompanying inflammatory response are necessary for lung inflammation, as inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway reverses chronic lung pathology. Notably, this blockade of inflammasome activation leads to the release of infectious virus by the infected macrophages. Thus, inflammasomes oppose host infection by SARS-CoV-2 through the production of inflammatory cytokines and suicide by pyroptosis to prevent a productive viral cycle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 851214, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793037

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care in China. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study in Hunan province (adjacent to the epidemic center), China. Consecutive patients presenting with STEMI within 12 h of symptom onset and receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention, pharmaco-invasive strategy and only thrombolytic treatment, were enrolled from January 23, 2020 to April 8, 2020 (COVID-19 era group). The same data were also collected for the equivalent period of 2019 (pre-COVID-19 era group). Results: A total of 610 patients with STEMI (COVID-19 era group n = 286, pre-COVID-19 era group n = 324) were included. There was a decline in the number of STEMI admissions by 10.5% and STEMI-related PCI procedures by 12.7% in 2020 compared with the equivalent period of 2019. The key time intervals including time from symptom onset to first medical contact, symptom onset to door, door-to-balloon, symptom onset to balloon and symptom onset to thrombolysis showed no significant difference between these two groups. There were no significant differences for in-hospital death and major adverse cardiovascular events between these two groups. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in China, we observed a decline in the number of STEMI admissions and STEMI-related PCI procedures. However, the key quality indicators of STEMI care were not significantly affected. Restructuring health services during the COVID-19 pandemic has not significantly adversely influenced the in-hospital outcomes.

8.
Energy ; 248:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1788055

ABSTRACT

Boosting natural gas consumption can contribute to a healthy China. To examine the link between natural gas consumption and mortality, this study utilizes a balanced panel dataset including 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2019. The fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed to reveal the long-term cointegration, and the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (D-H) test is further applied to explore the causal relations. Moreover, this study estimates the mediation effects of particulate matter (PM 2.5) emissions on mortality. The empirical results indicate that climbing natural gas consumption can effectively reduce the mortality rate. At the national level, a 1% increase in natural gas consumption leads to a 0.02% decrease in the mortality rate. In addition, the causality analysis uncovers the existence of significant regional heterogeneity. An increase in natural gas consumption will exert a stronger impact in curbing mortality in high gross domestic product (High-GDP) or high natural gas consumption (High-NG) regions. In addition to directly affecting mortality, natural gas consumption also has an indirect impact through the mediation effects of PM 2.5 emissions. Finally, implications for policy and practice are put forward for the Chinese government pertaining to build a healthy China and advance the natural gas industry. • The nexus between natural gas consumption and mortality in China is investigated for 2001–2019. • Natural gas consumption negatively affects mortality rates. • Bidirectional causality link between natural gas consumption and mortality rate is detected. • Natural gas consumption not only directly affects mortality but also indirectly affect mortality by influencing PM 2.5 emissions. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Energy is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333032

ABSTRACT

How SARS-CoV-2 causes disturbances of the lung microenvironment and systemic immune response remains a mystery. Here, we first analyze detailedly paired single-cell transcriptome data of the lungs, blood and bone marrow of two patients who died of COVID-19. Second, our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increases the cellular communication frequency between AT1/AT2 cells and highly inflammatory myeloid cells, and induces the pulmonary inflammation microenvironment, and drives the disorder of fibroblasts, club and ciliated cells, thereby causing the increase of pulmonary fibrosis and mucus accumulation. Third, our works reveal that the increase of the lung T cell infiltration is mainly recruited by myeloid cells through certain ligands/receptors (ANXA1/FPR1, C5AR1/RPS19 and CCL5/CCR1), rather than AT1/AT2. Fourth, we find that some ligands and receptors such as ANXA1/FPR1, CD74/COPA, CXCLs/CXCRs, ALOX5/ALOX5AP, CCL5/CCR1, are significantly activated and shared among patients’ lungs, blood and bone marrow, implying that dysregulated ligands and receptors may cause the migration, redistribution and the inflammatory storm of immune cells in different tissues. Overall, our study reveals a latent mechanism by which the disorders of ligands and receptors caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection drive cell communication alteration, the pulmonary inflammatory microenvironment and systemic immune responses across tissues in COVID-19 patients.

10.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786477

ABSTRACT

How SARS-CoV-2 causes disturbances of the lung microenvironment and systemic immune response remains a mystery. Here, we first analyze detailedly paired single-cell transcriptome data of the lungs, blood and bone marrow of two patients who died of COVID-19. Second, our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increases the cellular communication frequency between AT1/AT2 cells and highly inflammatory myeloid cells, and induces the pulmonary inflammation microenvironment, and drives the disorder of fibroblasts, club and ciliated cells, thereby causing the increase of pulmonary fibrosis and mucus accumulation. Third, our works reveal that the increase of the lung T cell infiltration is mainly recruited by myeloid cells through certain ligands/receptors (ANXA1/FPR1, C5AR1/RPS19 and CCL5/CCR1), rather than AT1/AT2. Fourth, we find that some ligands and receptors such as ANXA1/FPR1, CD74/COPA, CXCLs/CXCRs, ALOX5/ALOX5AP, CCL5/CCR1, are significantly activated and shared among patients’ lungs, blood and bone marrow, implying that dysregulated ligands and receptors may cause the migration, redistribution and the inflammatory storm of immune cells in different tissues. Overall, our study reveals a latent mechanism by which the disorders of ligands and receptors caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection drive cell communication alteration, the pulmonary inflammatory microenvironment and systemic immune responses across tissues in COVID-19 patients.

11.
Psychology research and behavior management ; 15:569-579, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733471

ABSTRACT

Purpose COVID-19 has affected the health and well-being of tens of millions of people and contributed to smartphone addiction. The prior studies found several characteristics that influenced smartphone addiction, but little research was undertaken on the epidemic. This study aims to test a moderated mediation model of smartphone addiction. Methods Three classes in each grade from grade 7 through grade 9 at random were recruited in the target junior high schools. A total of 931 Chinese adolescents (Mage=13.54 years, SDage =1.08) completed valid questionnaires via online surveys from February 5–19, 2021. Results Parent phubbing had a positive effect on smartphone addiction. Boredom proneness played a mediating role in this relationship. Additionally, refusal self-efficacy moderated the effect of parent phubbing on smartphone addiction. Refusal self-efficacy moderated the effect of boredom proneness on smartphone addiction. Conclusion Findings of this study shed light on a correlation between parent phubbing and smartphone addiction. Moreover, this study emphasizes the value of intervening in adolescents’ boredom proneness and increasing the ability of refusal self-efficacy to prevent and intervene in the context of COVID-19.

12.
Comput Biol Med ; 144: 105340, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734294

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused a severe shortage of healthcare resources. Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) and consolidation of chest CT scans have been an essential basis for imaging diagnosis since 2020. The similarity of imaging features between COVID-19 and other pneumonia makes it challenging to distinguish between them and affects radiologists' diagnosis. Recently, deep learning in COVID-19 has been mainly divided into disease classification and lesion segmentation, yet little work has focused on the feature correlation between the two tasks. To address these issues, in this study, we propose MultiR-Net, a 3D deep learning model for combined COVID-19 classification and lesion segmentation, to achieve real-time and interpretable COVID-19 chest CT diagnosis. Precisely, the proposed network consists of two subnets: a multi-scale feature fusion UNet-like subnet for lesion segmentation and a classification subnet for disease diagnosis. The features between the two subnets are fused by the reverse attention mechanism and the iterable training strategy. Meanwhile, we proposed a loss function to enhance the interaction between the two subnets. Individual metrics can not wholly reflect network effectiveness. Thus we quantify the segmentation results with various evaluation metrics such as average surface distance, volume Dice, and test on the dataset. We employ a dataset containing 275 3D CT scans for classifying COVID-19, Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP), and healthy people and segmented lesions in pneumonia patients. We split the dataset into 70% and 30% for training and testing. Extensive experiments showed that our multi-task model framework obtained an average recall of 93.323%, an average precision of 94.005% on the classification test set, and a 69.95% Volume Dice score on the segmentation test set of our dataset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of flavonoids in treating viral acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were entered into meta-analyses performed separately for each indication. Efficacy analyses were based on changes in disease-specific symptom scores. Safety was analyzed based on the pooled data from all eligible trials, by comparing the incidence of adverse events between flavonoids and the control. RESULTS: In this study, thirty RCTs (n = 5,166) were included. In common cold, results showed that the flavonoids group decreased total cold intensity score (CIS), the sum of sum of symptom intensity differences (SSID) of CIS, and duration of inability to work vs. the control group. In influenza, the flavonoids group improved the visual analog scores for symptoms. In COVID-19, the flavonoids group decreased the time taken for alleviation of symptoms, time taken for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR clearance, the RT-PCR positive subjects at day 7, time to achievement of the normal status of symptoms, patients needed oxygen, patients hospitalized and requiring mechanical ventilation, patients in ICU, days of hospitalization, and mortality vs. the control group. In acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, the flavonoids group decreased the tonsillitis severity score (TSS) on day 7. In acute rhinosinusitis, the flavonoids group decreased the sinusitis severity score (SSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In acute bronchitis, the flavonoids group decreased the bronchitis severity score (BSS) on day 7, days off work, and duration of illness. In bronchial pneumonia, the flavonoids group decreased the time to symptoms disappearance, the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In upper respiratory tract infections, the flavonoids group decreased total CIS on day 7 and increased the improvement rate of symptoms. Furthermore, the results of the incidence of adverse reactions did not differ between the flavonoids and the control group. CONCLUSION: Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that flavonoids were efficacious and safe in treating viral ARTIs including the common cold, influenza, COVID-19, acute non-streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, acute rhinosinusitis, acute bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, and upper respiratory tract infections. However, uncertainty remains because there were few RCTs per type of ARTI and many of the RCTs were small and of low quality with a substantial risk of bias. Given the limitations, we suggest that the conclusions need to be confirmed on a larger scale with more detailed instructions in future studies.Systematic Review Registration: inplasy.com/inplasy-2021-8-0107/, identifier: INPLASY20218010.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 154, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical (UM) students faced the difficulties inherent in medical careers due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Thus, imperative containment measures might affect UM students' career intentions. Information on the factors that may be associated with these students' career change intentions is limited. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in August 2020 to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on career intention and the associated factors in UM students. Univariate analyses and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify said factors. RESULTS: A total of 2040 medical students from the Hubei University of Medicine were surveyed. Univariate analyses showed that grade, attitude towards healthcare, and the degree of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the students' lives were associated with changes in career choice (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that Grade 2, Grade 5, attitude towards a medical career, and having relatives with a medical background were associated with changes in career choice. The degree of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact was a common and significant factor associated with career preference, career perspective, and ideal workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in career intentions were particularly influenced by grade, attitude towards being a health worker, and the degree of COVID-19's impact on the participants' lives. Treating large-scale public health emergencies rationally, setting up correct views of occupation choice, and building reasonable career planning may reduce the loss of medical talent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Occupations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 16: 831977, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715021

ABSTRACT

Microglia are intrinsic immune cells of the central nervous system and play a dual role (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) in the homeostasis of the nervous system. Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia serves as an important stage of ischemic hypoxic brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage disease, neurodegeneration and neurotumor of the nervous system and is present through the whole course of these diseases. Microglial membrane protein or receptor is the basis of mediating microglia to play the inflammatory role and they have been found to be upregulated by recognizing associated ligands or sensing changes in the nervous system microenvironment. They can then allosterically activate the downstream signal transduction and produce a series of complex cascade reactions that can activate microglia, promote microglia chemotactic migration and stimulate the release of proinflammatory factor such as TNF-α, IL-ß to effectively damage the nervous system and cause apoptosis of neurons. In this paper, several representative membrane proteins or receptors present on the surface of microglia are systematically reviewed and information about their structures, functions and specific roles in one or more neurological diseases. And on this basis, some prospects for the treatment of novel coronavirus neurological complications are presented.

16.
mBio ; : e0287521, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688867

ABSTRACT

Bats are well-recognized reservoirs of zoonotic viruses. Several spillover events from bats to humans have been reported, causing severe epidemic or endemic diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV), henipaviruses, and filoviruses. In this study, a novel rhabdovirus species, provisionally named Rhinolophus rhabdovirus DPuer (DPRV), was identified from the horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) in Yunnan province, China, using next-generation sequencing. DPRV shedding in the spleen, liver, lung, and intestinal contents of wild bats with high viral loads was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, indicating that DPRV has tropism for multiple host tissues. Furthermore, DPRV can replicate in vitro in multiple mammalian cell lines, including BHK-21, A549, and MA104 cells, with the highest efficiency in hamster kidney cell line BHK-21, suggesting infectivity of DPRV in these cell line-derived hosts. Ultrastructure analysis revealed a characteristic bullet-shaped morphology and tightly clustered distribution of DPRV particles in the intracellular space. DPRV replicated efficiently in suckling mouse brains and caused death of suckling mice; death rates increased with passaging of DPRV in suckling mice. Moreover, 421 serum samples were collected from individuals who lived near the bat collection site and had fever symptoms within 1 year. DPRV-specific antibodies were detected in 20 (4.75%) human serum samples by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Furthermore, 10 (2.38%) serum samples were DPRV positive according to plaque reduction neutralization assay, which revealed potential transmission of DPRV from bats to humans and highlighted the potential public health risk. Potential vector association with DPRV was not found with negative viral RNA in bloodsucking arthropods. IMPORTANCE We identified a novel rhabdovirus from the horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus thomasi) in China with probable infectivity in humans. DPRV was isolated in vitro from several mammalian cell lines, indicating wide host tropism, excluding bats, of DPRV. DPRV replicated in the brains of suckling mice, and the death rate of suckling mice increased with passaging of DPRV in vivo. Serological tests indicated the possible infectivity of DPRV in humans and the potential transmission to humans. The present findings provide preliminary evidence for the potential risk of DPRV to public health. Additional studies with active surveillance are needed to address interspecies transmission and determine the pathogenicity of DPRV in humans.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315018

ABSTRACT

In March of this year, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic and it continues to threaten public health. This global health crisis imposes limitations on daily movements, which have deteriorated every sector in our society. Understanding public reactions to the virus and the non-pharmaceutical interventions should be of great help to fight COVID-19 in a strategic way. We aim to provide tangible evidence of the human mobility trends by comparing the day-by-day variations across the U.S. Large-scale public mobility at an aggregated level is observed by leveraging mobile device location data and the measures related to social distancing. Our study captures spatial and temporal heterogeneity as well as the sociodemographic variations regarding the pandemic propagation and the non-pharmaceutical interventions. All mobility metrics adapted capture decreased public movements after the national emergency declaration. The population staying home has increased in all states and becomes more stable after the stay-at-home order with a smaller range of fluctuation. There exists overall mobility heterogeneity between the income or population density groups. The public had been taking active responses, voluntarily staying home more, to the in-state confirmed cases while the stay-at-home orders stabilize the variations. The study suggests that the public mobility trends conform with the government message urging to stay home. We anticipate our data-driven analysis offers integrated perspectives and serves as evidence to raise public awareness and, consequently, reinforce the importance of social distancing while assisting policymakers.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311045

ABSTRACT

The research team has utilized an integrated dataset, consisting of anonymized location data, COVID-19 case data, and census population information, to study the impact of COVID-19 on human mobility. The study revealed that statistics related to social distancing, namely trip rate, miles traveled per person, and percentage of population staying at home have all showed an unexpected trend, which we named social distancing inertia. The trends showed that as soon as COVID-19 cases were observed, the statistics started improving, regardless of government actions. This suggests that a portion of population who could and were willing to practice social distancing voluntarily and naturally reacted to the emergence of COVID-19 cases. However, after about two weeks, the statistics saturated and stopped improving, despite the continuous rise in COVID-19 cases. The study suggests that there is a natural behavior inertia toward social distancing, which puts a limit on the extent of improvement in the social-distancing-related statistics. The national data showed that the inertia phenomenon is universal, happening in all the U.S. states and for all the studied statistics. The U.S. states showed a synchronized trend, regardless of the timeline of their statewide COVID-19 case spreads or government orders.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309028

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 had spread all over the world, causing public health emergency. Although the diagnosis for COVID-19 such as nucleic acid test and antibody detection have been well defined, there is still a big gap of knowledge regarding for COVID-19 patients receiving convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT) therapy, especially patients with comorbidity of diabetes. Method: In this study, out of 3059 COVID-19 patients admitted in Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital of China, we described the characteristics of 39 diabetes patients receiving the transfusion of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, and compared the baseline information and clinical outcome with that of 328 diabetes patients receiving traditional treatment. Results: : It was found that the intervention of CPT therapy was effective and beneficial for COVID-19 patients, including severe or critical patients with comorbidity of diabetes, without obvious adverse effects observing during the treatments. The CPT therapy significantly improved the clinical outcome of diabetes patients with COVID-19 infection, especially the duration based on six categories compared to the patients with traditional therapy. Conclusions: : This study not only provided a better understanding of COVID-19 in diabetes people receiving CPT, but also highlighted the CPT therapy was helpful for COVID-19 patients with comorbidity of diabetes.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325305

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Earlier researches suggested patients should be routinely screened for bacteria and fungi infection after COVID-19 being confirmed. Here, we enrolled 236 patients with COVID-19 to analyze the clinical characteristics, fungal strains, mortality, and laboratory data of different groups.Design: Single center retrospective studyPatients: A total of 236 COVID-19 patients from Huoshenshan Hospital were included in this study, consisting of 14(6%) died cases, 222(94%) discharged cases.Results: The result revealed that 5 mortality in positive group were all related to aspergillus infection while candida infection rarely caused death. Aspergillus was most common in non-survivors while candida was most common in survivors. In terms of interleukin-6 (IL6), viral loads, nucleic acid clearance time, etc, fungal serologically positive group had a higher level than negative group.Conclusions: Non-survivors of Covid-19 with fungal infection were almost associated with aspergillus infection. Aspergillus infection, instead of candida infection might be fatal for critical ill patients with COVID-19. There is great significance to carry out routine screening for fungal infection especially for critical patients to enable early treatment to be implemented.Funding Statement: This study was financially supported by grants Key Foundation of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital (2020[18]), Key Research& Development Program of Jiangsu Province (BE2018713), Medical Innovation Project of Logistics Service (18JS005).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital (No. HSSLL011). Written informed consent was obtained from each patient.

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