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1.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1840651

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the cold chain transportation of medicines is becoming more and more critical to the quality and safety of drugs. In order to better motivate the logistics service providers to adopt the cold chain transportation strategy, this paper constructs a multiparty evolutionary game model composed of the government, logistics service providers, and medical institutions, and models behavioral strategies. The interaction is simulated and analyzed. Focusing on the contradictions between cost and service level in cold chain transportation, the revenue-sharing coefficient between medical institutions and logistics service providers and the government's reward and punishment mechanism are introduced. The results show the following: (1) a reasonable revenue sharing contract between the medical institution and logistics service provider will prompt the logistics service provider to use cold chain transportation. (2) With the government's penalties and rewards being further increased, the logistics service provider will tend to use noncold chain transportation. Therefore, the government must set a reasonable reward and punishment mechanism to ensure drug safety. (3) With the increasing revenue of the medical institution, the probability of the logistics service provider using noncold chain transportation decreases. In order to avoid medical malpractice related to noncold chain transportation, the government should appropriately adjust drug price restrictions to increase drug sales revenue. (4) With the rate of medical malpractice being increased, the evolution of each stakeholder to the equilibrium point of the game is accelerated. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324554

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with cerebral stroke. Methods: : In this retrospective study, 2474 patients with COVID-19 were admitted and treated in Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan from February 10, 2020, to March 24, 2020. Data on the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with or without cerebral stroke were collected and comparatively analyzed. Results: : Of 2474 COVID-19 patients (61.0±15.7 years;1235 males [49.9%]), 113 (4.7%) patients had cerebral stroke, and 25 (1.0%) patients had a new onset of stroke. Eighty-eight (77.9%) patients in the previous stroke group had cerebral ischemia, while 25 (22.1%) patients in the new-onset stroke group had cerebral ischemia. Most COVID-19 patients with stroke were elderly with more complicated disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases. Laboratory examinations showed a hypercoagulation status and elevated serum parameters such as IL-6, cTnI, NT pro-BNP and BUN. Of note, stroke patients revealed a nearly double mortality (12.4% vs 6.9%) to that of patients without stroke. Additionally, age (≥60 years), fingertip oxygen saturation (<93%) and consciousness disorder were independent predictors for new cerebral stroke in COVID-19 patients. Interpretation: The high risk of new-onset stroke in COVID-19 patients was older age combined with fingertip oxygen saturation (<93%) and consciousness disorder. These patients are more vulnerable to multiple organ dysfunction and an overactivated inflammatory response, in turn leading to a deteriorated outcome and mortality.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323776

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is a potential factor affecting semen quality. However, the relationship between depression and semen quality remains to be fully elucidated. We investigated the association between depression and semen quality in men during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : Cross‐sectional, participants completed a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to evaluate the psychological depression status of subjects. Semen quality assessment implements the requirements of the fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO )manual ,multivariable logistic regression analysis and linear regression analysis were conducted to assess the associations between depression and semen quality. Results: : Of the 896 participants, 173 were depressed (19.30%). A Linear regression model was fitted to assess the strength and significant level of the association between depressive symptoms and semen quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, depression was significantly associated with 9.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.39, 15.15), 0.57(95% CI 0.27, 0.87), 62.20 (95% CI 32.93, 91.48), and 12.96 (95% CI 10.55, 15.37) reduction in sperm concentration, sperm volume, total sperm count, and progressive motility, respectively. Which are consistent with the logistic regression analysis results. The semen concentration and total sperm count were linearly correlated with depression scores, whereas the semen volume and progressive motility of sperm were nonlinearly correlated with depression scores. Conclusions: : Depression were associated with lower levels of semen concentration, semen volume, total sperm count, and progressive motility, which could affect male reproductive health.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323752

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There is no report about association of anxiety on sperm quality during the COVID-19 epidemic. Purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anxiety and sperm quality during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Methods: : 896 sperm donors from 7 sperm banks in China were investigated, and passed the screening for sperm donation between 23 January 2020 and 8 June 2020. Semen quality analysis follows the standards of the WHO Fifth Edition Human Semen Examination and Processing Manual. Anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scal-7(GAD-7). Logistic regression and linear regression were used to identify the association between anxiety level and sperm quality. Results: : Participants with anxiety status (N = 155;17.3%) had lower sperm concentration (56.81 ± 32.70 vs. 47.21 ± 30.76 [10 6 /mL]), sperm volume (3.58 ± 1.65 vs. 3.04 ± 1.69 [mL], P < 0.001), total sperm count (7.29 ± 1.23 vs. 6.56 ± 1.63 [10 6 ], P < 0.001), and progressive motility (50.86 ± 12.45 vs. 38.50 ± 17.00 [%], P < 0.001) than those without anxiety. Linear regression showed that anxiety symptoms was significantly associated with 8.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51, 13.75), 0.49 (0.20, 0.79) ,51.05 (23.43, 78.68) and 12.15 (95% CI: 23.43, 78.68), reduction in sperm concentration, semen volume, and total sperm count and progressive motility respectively. Conclusions: : This study revealed that anxiety symptoms were negatively associated with semen quality, and interaction was discovered between debt stress and anxiety.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323564

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) broke out globally. Early prediction of the clinical progression was essential but still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the timeline of COVID-19 development and analyze risk factors of disease progression.Methods In this retrospective study, we included 333 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection hospitalized in the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from 10 January to 10 February 2020. Epidemiological feature, clinical records, laboratory and radiology manifestations were collected and analyzed. 323 patients with mild-moderate symptoms on admission were observed to determine whether they exacerbated to severe-critically ill conditions (progressive group) or not (stable group). We used logistic regression to identify the risk factors associated with clinical progression.Results Of all the 333 patients, 70(21.0%) patients progressed into severe-critically ill conditions during hospitalization and assigned to the progressive group, 253(76.0%) patients belonged to the stable group, another 10 patients were severe before admission. we found that the clinical features of aged over 40 (3.80[1.72, 8.52]), males (2.21[1.20, 4.07]), with comorbidities (1.78[1.13, 2.81]) certain exposure history (0.38[0.20, 0.71]), abnormal radiology manifestations (3.56[1.13, 11.40]), low level of T lymphocytes (0.99[0.997, 0.999]), high level of NLR (0.99[0.97, 1.01]), IL-6 (1.05[1.03, 1.07]) and CRP (1.67[1.12, 2.47]) were the risk factors of disease progression by logistic regression.Conclusions the potential risk factors of males, older age, with comorbidities, low T lymphocyte level and high level of NLR, CRP, IL-6 can help to predict clinical progression of COVID-19 at an early stage.

6.
Virol Sin ; 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648554

ABSTRACT

The nationwide COVID-19 epidemic ended in 2020, a few months after its outbreak in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Most COVID-19 cases occurred in Hubei Province, with a few local outbreaks in other provinces of China. A few studies have reported the early SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in several large cities or provinces of China. However, information regarding the early epidemics in small and medium-sized cities, where there are still traditionally large families and community culture is more strongly maintained and thus, transmission profiles may differ, is limited. In this study, we characterized 60 newly sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Anyang as a representative of small and medium-sized Chinese cities, compared them with more than 400 reference genomes from the early outbreak, and studied the SARS-CoV-2 transmission profiles. Genomic epidemiology revealed multiple SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Anyang and a large-scale expansion of the epidemic because of the large family size. Moreover, our study revealed two transmission patterns in a single outbreak, which were attributed to different social activities. We observed the complete dynamic process of single-nucleotide polymorphism development during community transmission and found that intrahost variant analysis was an effective approach to studying cluster infections. In summary, our study provided new SARS-CoV-2 transmission profiles representative of small and medium-sized Chinese cities as well as information on the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 strains during the early COVID-19 epidemic in China.

7.
mBio ; 12(5): e0234221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494971

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence and spread of zoonotic viruses highlights that animal-sourced viruses are the biggest threat to global public health. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is an HKU2-related bat coronavirus that was spilled over from Rhinolophus bats to swine, causing large-scale outbreaks of severe diarrhea disease in piglets in China. Unlike other porcine coronaviruses, SADS-CoV possesses broad species tissue tropism, including primary human cells, implying a significant risk of cross-species spillover. To explore host dependency factors for SADS-CoV as therapeutic targets, we employed genome-wide CRISPR knockout library screening in HeLa cells. Consistent with two independent screens, we identified the zinc finger DHHC-type palmitoyltransferase 17 (ZDHHC17 or ZD17) as an important host factor for SADS-CoV infection. Through truncation mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the DHHC domain of ZD17 that is involved in palmitoylation is important for SADS-CoV infection. Mechanistic studies revealed that ZD17 is required for SADS-CoV genomic RNA replication. Treatment of infected cells with the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) significantly suppressed SADS-CoV infection. Our findings provide insight on SADS-CoV-host interactions and a potential therapeutic application. IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of deadly zoonotic viral diseases, including Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2, emphasizes the importance of pandemic preparedness for the animal-sourced viruses with potential risk of animal-to-human spillover. Over the last 2 decades, three significant coronaviruses of bat origin, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have caused millions of deaths with significant economy and public health impacts. Lack of effective therapeutics against these coronaviruses was one of the contributing factors to such losses. Although SADS-CoV, another coronavirus of bat origin, was only known to cause fatal diarrhea disease in piglets, the ability to infect cells derived from multiple species, including human, highlights the potential risk of animal-to-human spillover. As part of our effort in pandemic preparedness, we explore SADS-CoV host dependency factors as targets for host-directed therapeutic development and found zinc finger DHHC-type palmitoyltransferase 17 is a promising drug target against SADS-CoV replication. We also demonstrated that a palmitoylation inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), can be used as an inhibitor for SADS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Acyltransferases/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Palmitates/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Swine
10.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104723, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is important in respiratory physiology and airway defense. Although the paranasal sinuses are the major source of nasal NO, transport dynamics between the sinuses and nasal cavities are poorly understood. METHODS: Exhaled nasal NO tracings were measured in two non-asthmatic subjects (one with allergic rhinitis, one without) using NO analyzer connected via face mask. We subsequently performed computational fluid dynamics NO emission simulations based on individual CT scans and compared to the experimental data. RESULTS: Simulated exhaled NO tracings match well with experimental data (r > 0.84, p < 0.01) for both subjects, with measured peaks reaching 319.6 ppb in one subject (allergic-rhinitis), and 196.9 ppb in the other. The CFD simulation accurately captured the peak differences, even though the initial sinus NO concentration for both cases was set to the same 9000 ppb based on literature value. Further, the CFD simulation suggests that ethmoid sinuses contributed the most (>67%, other sinuses combined <33%) to total nasal NO emission in both cases and that diffusion contributes more than convective transport. By turning off diffusion (setting NO diffusivity to ~0), the NO emission peaks for both cases were reduced by >70%. CONCLUSION: Historically, nasal NO emissions were thought to be contributed mostly by the maxillary sinuses (the largest sinuses) and active air movement (convection). Here, we showed that the ethmoid sinuses and diffusive transport dominate the process. These findings may have a substantial impact on our view of nasal NO emission mechanisms and sinus physiopathology in general.


Subject(s)
Nitric Oxide , Paranasal Sinuses , Exhalation , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Maxillary Sinus , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging
12.
Front Physiol ; 12: 651408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211845

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been an ongoing pandemic and worldwide public health emergency, having drawn a lot of attention around the world. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is characterized by infecting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-expressing cells, including testis-specific cells, namely, Leydig, Sertoli, and spermatogenic cells, which are closely related to male reproduction. This leads to aberrant hyperactivation of the immune system generating damage to the infected organs. An impairment in testicular function through uncontrolled immune responses alerts more attention to male infertility. Meanwhile, the recent clinical data indicate that the infection of the human testis with SARS-CoV-2 may impair male germ cell development, leading to germ cell loss and higher immune cell infiltration. In this review, we investigated the evidence of male reproductive dysfunction associated with the infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its possible immunological explanations and clinical remedies.

13.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 879-889, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174014

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
14.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(6): 3509-3517, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173923

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread globally, causing a pandemic and medical interruptions. As more countries control the epidemic, the resumption of work is imperative. However, asymptomatic carriers become the main source of infection. After several months of recovery, Wuhan had much experience with facing the challenge of work resumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of the resumption strategies, as well as the outcome of the resumption efforts, in the early post-epidemic period. A retrospective study was conducted in patients admitted between April 8 and June 30 to the neurosurgery department of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. The medical information, past medical history, COVID-19 tests, laboratory parameters, CT results, and management were reviewed and recorded. 768 patients were admitted to the neurosurgery department at Tongji Hospital, and none of them became new infections. Our department recovered to 70% efficiency one month after the resumption of work. Two patients were found to have asymptomatic infections in the outpatient department. Two patients who recovered from COVID-19 underwent the surgery without recurrence of COVID-19. Tumor patients accounted for more than 50% of the surgery patients in the early period. It is feasible and helpful to follow our strict admission algorithm in the early post-epidemic period, even though the challenges of asymptomatic infectors exist. Two COVID-19 tests in 3 days are suggested within the early period. Protective downgrades should be based on the testing of asymptomatic patients in the area. Recovered COVID-19 patients can undergo surgery without recurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125858

ABSTRACT

This paper has an opportunity to collect questionnaire-based data regarding respondents' life choices in China at the peak of COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., around 9-11 March 2020) and in a relatively stable period where the national pandemic was over and the lockdown policy was halted (i.e., around 25-30 March 2020). Comparing respondents' answers about their most fundamental aspects of life during and after the pandemic, including income level, expenditure structure and level, purchase method, study method, food price and quality, and dining habit, both the descriptive and econometric models reveal that Chinese consumers' life patterns were not significantly changed. These findings may imply a "new normal" where consumers stick to their new living habits that were forged during the pandemic. Therefore, policy makers have to envisage such an implicative socio-economic change (cost) brought by the implementation of a lock down policy in a long run, in addition to direct and explicit economic losses. However, improving food quality and controlling food price appear to be the strong and stable safety signals to reassure consumers in this complicated environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Consumer Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur J Neurosci ; 53(4): 1350-1361, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991349

ABSTRACT

To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with cerebral stroke. A total of 2,474 COVID-19 patients from February 10th to March 24th, 2020 were admitted and treated in two branches (Optic Valley and Sino-French New City branch) of the Tongji Hospital. Data on the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with or without cerebral stroke were collected and comparatively analysed. Of the 2,474 COVID-19 patients, 113 (4.7%) patients had cerebral stroke and 25 (1.0%) patients had new-onset stroke. Eighty-eight (77.9%) patients in the previous-stroke group had cerebral ischaemia, while 25 (22.1%) patients in the new-onset stroke group had cerebral ischaemia. Most COVID-19 patients with stroke were elderly with more comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and heart diseases than patients without stroke. Laboratory examinations showed hypercoagulation and elevated serum parameters such as IL-6, cTnI, NT pro-BNP and BUN. Consciousness disorders, a long disease course and poor prognosis were also more commonly observed in stroke patients. The mortality rate of stroke patients was almost double (12.4% vs. 6.9%) that of patients without stroke. In addition, age, male sex and hypertension were independent predictors for new cerebral stroke in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, the high risk of new-onset stroke must be taken into consideration when treating COVID-19 patients with an elderly age combined with a history of hypertension. These patients are more vulnerable to multiorgan dysfunction and an overactivated inflammatory response, in turn leading to an unfavourable outcome and higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
17.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 34(6): 721-724, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945164
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2571-2577, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944151

ABSTRACT

Following acute infection, individuals COVID-19 may still shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, limited information is available regarding the active shedding period or whether infectious virus is also shed. Here, we monitored the clinical characteristics and virological features of 38 patients with COVID-19 (long-term carriers) who recovered from the acute disease, but still shed viral RNA for over 3 months. The median carrying history of the long-term carriers was 92 days after the first admission, and the longest carrying history was 118 days. Negative-positive viral RNA-shedding fluctuations were observed. Long-term carriers were mostly elderly people with a history of mild infection. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from the sputum, where high level viral RNA was found. All nine full-length genomes of samples obtained in March-April 2020 matched early viral clades circulating in January-February 2020, suggesting that these patients persistently carried SARS-CoV-2 and were not re-infected. IgM and IgG antibodies and neutralizing-antibody profiles were similar between long-term carriers and recovered patients with similar disease courses. In summary, although patients with COVID-19 generated neutralizing antibodies, they may still shed infectious SARS-CoV-2 for over 3 months. These data imply that patients should be monitored after discharge to control future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Carrier State , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sputum/virology
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