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1.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 371: 132445, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967138

ABSTRACT

With the frequent detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in dwellings and wastewater, the risk of transmission of environmental contaminants is of great concern. Fast, simple and sensitive sensors are essential for timely detecting infection and controlling transmission through environment fomites. Herein, we developed a Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) aptasensor, which can realize ultrasensitive and rapid assay of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles. In this strategy, we designed a novel locking amplifier which is activated only in the presence of virus by aptamer recognition. The reaction process was carried out though one-pot method at 37 °C, which can save time and resources. In addition, magnetic beads used in reaction system can simplify operation, as well as provide ideas for developing biosensing robots via magnetic field. This SERS aptasensor can detect SARS-CoV-2 virus with a LOD of 260 TU/µL within 40 min in the linear range of 625-10,000 TU/µL. Therefore, this convenience, speediness, sensitivity, and selectivity of detection has great prospects in analyzing SARS-CoV-2 viral particles or other viruses in environment as well as monitoring of environmental virus sources.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 939573, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928445

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid worldwide spread of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has unleashed a new wave of COVID-19 outbreaks. The efficacy of molnupiravir, an approved drug, is still unknown in patients infected with the Omicron variant. Objective: Evaluated the antiviral efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, with symptom duration within 5 days. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial involving patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. Patients were randomized to orally receive molnupiravir (800 mg) plus basic treatment or only basic treatment for 5 days (BID). The antiviral efficacy of the drug was evaluated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Results showed that the time of viral RNA clearance (primary endpoint) was significantly decreased in the molnupiravir group (median, 9 days) compared to the control group (median, 10 days) (Log-Rank p = 0.0092). Of patients receiving molnupiravir, 18.42% achieved viral RNA clearance on day 5 of treatment, compared to the control group (0%) (p = 0.0092). On day 7, 40.79%, and 6.45% of patients in the molnupiravir and control groups, respectively, achieved viral RNA clearance (p = 0.0004). In addition, molnupiravir has a good safety profile, and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Molnupiravir significantly accelerated the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron RNA clearance in patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: [chictr.org.cn], identifier [ChiCTR2200056817].

3.
Cell Rep ; 39(11): 110955, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866959

ABSTRACT

Direct myocardial and vascular injuries due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-driven inflammation is the leading cause of acute cardiac injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, in-depth knowledge of the injury characteristics of the heart affected by inflammation is lacking. In this study, using a quantitative spatial proteomics strategy that combines comparative anatomy, laser-capture microdissection, and histological examination, we establish a region-resolved proteome map of the myocardia and microvessels with obvious inflammatory cells from hearts of patients with COVID-19. A series of molecular dysfunctions of myocardia and microvessels is observed in different cardiac regions. The myocardia and microvessels of the left atrial are the most susceptible to virus infection and inflammatory storm, suggesting more attention should be paid to the lesion and treatment of these two parts. These results can guide in improving clinical treatments for cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2
4.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 30: 1181-1190, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853503

ABSTRACT

In Industry 4.0, medical data present a trend of multisource development. However, in complex information networks, an information gap often exists in data exchange between doctors and patients. In the case of diseases with complex manifestations, doctors often perform qualitative analysis, which is macroscopic and fuzzy, to present treatment recommendations for patients. Improving the reliability of data acquisition and maximizing the potential of data, require attention. To solve these problems, a multimodal data-driven rehabilitation strategy auxiliary feedback method is proposed. In this study, depth sensor and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) were used to obtain ethology and brain function data, and skeleton tracking analysis and ethology discrete statistics were performed to assist the diagnostic feedback of rehabilitation strategies. This study takes rhythm rehabilitation training of autistic children as a case, and results show that the multimodal data-driven rehabilitation strategy auxiliary feedback method can provide effective feedback for individuals or groups. The proposed auxiliary decision method increases the dimension of data analysis and improves the reliability of analysis. Through discrete statistical results, the potential of data are maximized, thereby assisting the proposed rehabilitation strategy diagnostic feedback.


Subject(s)
Feedback , Child , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331882

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 evolved into a global pandemic. Increasing numbers of reports have linked obesity to more severe COVID-19 illness and death (1-3). However, almost all the studies focused on the proportion of people entering the ICU or mortality. Is obesity also associated with severity of pneumonia in common pneumonia patients? How about underweight patients? The answer is lack. So, our research below will answer the question. Methods: We collected and analyzed epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 193 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, between January 1, 2020, and March 13, 2020. They were followed up until April 15, 2020. Results: Among these patients, 5.70% were underweight, 58.03% were normal weight, 27.98% were overweight and 8.29% were obese. underweight patients were more likely to have headache (P=0.029) Obese patients were more likely to experience a decline in lymphocyte counts(P=0.042), an increase in CRP(P=0.020), bilateral multiple mottling and groundglass opacity (P=0.008). Besides, the proportion of patients receiving human immunoglobulin+systematic corticosteroids treatment is the highest among the obese group compared with other BMI groups. After adjusting for potential confounders, Underweight patients had 6.483-fold higher(P=0.012),and obesity patients showed 5.965-fold higher odds developing acute lung injury(ALI) than normal weight patients(P=0.022). Underweight patients were 3.255 times more likely than normal-weight patients to develop secondary infections (P=0.041). Conclusions: Our study shows that in patients with common pneumonia, both underweight and obese people tend to develop ALI compared with normal weight patients.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 207: 715-729, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757390

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is considered to be one of the diseases most associated with COVID-19. In this study, interfering effects and potential mechanisms of several compounds from Lianqiao (Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl) leaves on the bioactivities of some key proteins of COVID-19 and its variants, as well as diabetic endothelial dysfunctions were illuminated through in vitro and in silico analyses. Results showed that, among the main ingredients in the leaves, forsythoside A showed the strongest docking affinities with the proteins SARS-CoV-2-RBD-hACE2 of COVID-19 and its variants (Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617)), as well as neuropilin-1 (NRP1), and SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro) to interfere coronavirus entering into the human body. Moreover, forsythoside A was the most stable in binding to receptors in Delta (B.1.617) system. It also has good antiviral activities and drug properties and has the strongest binding force to the RBD domain of COVID-19. In addition, forsythoside A reduced ROS production in AGEs-induced EA.hy926 cells, maintained endothelial integrity, and bound closely to protein profilin-1 (PFN1) receptor. This work may provide useful knowledge for further understanding the interfering effects and potential mechanisms of compounds, especially forsythoside A, from Lianqiao leaves on the bioactivities of key proteins of COVID-19/variants in diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Profilins/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 840639, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742239

ABSTRACT

Since the first reports from December 2019, COVID-19 caused an overwhelming global pandemic that has affected 223 countries, seriously endangering public health and creating an urgent need for effective drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, there is a lack of safe, effective, and specific therapeutic drugs for COVID-19, with mainly supportive and symptomatic treatments being administered to patients. The preferred option for responding to an outbreak of acute infectious disease is through drug repurposing, saving valuable time that would otherwise be lost in preclinical and clinical research, hastening clinical introduction, and lowering treatment costs. Alternatively, researchers seek to design and discover novel small-molecule candidate drugs targeting the key proteins in the life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 through an in-depth study of the infection mechanism, thus obtaining a number of candidate compounds with favorable antiviral effects in preclinical and clinical settings. There is an urgent need to further elucidate the efficacy and mechanism of action of potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 small-molecule drugs. Herein, we review the candidate small-molecule anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs in ongoing clinical trials, with a major focus on their mechanisms of action in an attempt to provide useful insight for further research and development of small-molecule compounds against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(2): 544-550, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the current epidemic of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), there is a need to distinguish the differences between the laboratory examinations of COVID-19-infected patients, tumor patients with fever, and those with normal fever patients. We aimed to investigate the temperature of tumor patients with different tumor burdens, stages, and cancer types. METHODS: We recruited 3 groups of patients to this study: fever patients with malignant tumors, ordinary fever patients, and confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 31, 55, and 28 cases in each group, respectively. RESULTS: The levels of leukocytes and neutrophils were the highest among non-tumor patients, and the count of COVID-19 was the lowest, with a P value of 0.000. Among the leukocytosis group, non-tumor patients had the highest proportion (43.6%), while that of COVID-19 was only 3.6% (P=0.000). Similarly, there were significant differences in the grading of neutrophils, where most of the infected patients were in the normal group and the P value was 0.000. The lymphocyte count of the tumor group was significantly reduced, with an average of (0.97±0.66) ×109/L (P=0.004). In the lymphocyte grades, most of the infected patients were the normal group (71.4%), while tumor patients in the lymphocytopenia group accounted for 63.1% (P=0.006). There were also significant differences in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P=0.006). There was a significant difference in temperature between different tumor burden groups (P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The normal fever group had the highest count of leukocyte and neutrophils, whereas the infected group had the lowest relative count. The NLR was the lowest in the infected group. The NLR was higher in the bigger tumor load group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Lymphocytes , Neoplasms/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323544

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to a series of clinical settings from non-symptomatic viral carriers/spreaders to severe illness characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)1,2. A sizable part of patients with COVID-19 have mild clinical symptoms at the early stage of infection, but the disease progression may become quite rapid in the later stage with ARDS as the common manifestation and followed by critical multiple organ failure, causing a high mortality rate of 7-10% in the elderly population with underlying chronic disease1-3. The pathological investigation in the lungs and other organs of fatal cases is fundamental for the mechanistic understanding of severe COVID-19 and the development of specific therapy in these cases. Gross anatomy and molecular markers allowed us to identify, in two fatal patients subject to necropsy, the main pathological features such as exudation and hemorrhage, epithelium injuries, infiltration of macrophages and fibrosis in the lungs. The mucous plug with fibrinous exudate in the alveoli and the activation of alveolar macrophages were characteristic abnormalities. These findings shed new insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and justify the use of interleukin 6 (IL6) receptor antagonists and convalescent plasma with neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for severe patients.Authors Chaofu Wang, Jing Xie, Lei Zhao, Xiaochun Fei, Heng Zhang, and Yun Tan contributed equally to this work. Authors Chaofu Wang, Jun Cai, Rong Chen, Zhengli Shi, and Xiuwu Bian jointly supervised this work.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310727

ABSTRACT

It is still nontrivial to develop a new fast COVID-19 screening method with the easier access and lower cost, due to the technical and cost limitations of the current testing methods in the medical resource-poor districts. On the other hand, there are more and more ocular manifestations that have been reported in the COVID-19 patients as growing clinical evidence[1]. This inspired this project. We have conducted the joint clinical research since January 2021 at the ShiJiaZhuang City, Heibei province, China, which approved by the ethics committee of The fifth hospital of ShiJiaZhuang of Hebei Medical University. We undertake several blind tests of COVID-19 patients by Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Meantime as an important part of the ongoing globally COVID-19 eye test program by AIMOMICS since February 2020, we propose a new fast screening method of analyzing the eye-region images, captured by common CCD and CMOS cameras. This could reliably make a rapid risk screening of COVID-19 with the sustainable stable high performance in different countries and races. Our model for COVID-19 rapid prescreening have the merits of the lower cost, fully self-performed, non-invasive, importantly real-time, and thus enables the continuous health surveillance. We further implement it as the open accessible APIs, and provide public service to the world. Our pilot experiments show that our model is ready to be usable to all kinds of surveillance scenarios, such as infrared temperature measurement device at airports and stations, or directly pushing to the target people groups smartphones as a packaged application.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 269, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621240

ABSTRACT

A complete diagnostic autopsy is the gold-standard to gain insight into Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. To delineate the in situ immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, here we perform comprehensive high-dimensional transcriptional and spatial immune profiling in 22 COVID-19 decedents from Wuhan, China. We find TIM-3-mediated and PD-1-mediated immunosuppression as a hallmark of severe COVID-19, particularly in men, with PD-1+ cells being proximal rather than distal to TIM-3+ cells. Concurrently, lymphocytes are distal, while activated myeloid cells are proximal, to SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens, consistent with prevalent SARS-CoV-2 infection of myeloid cells in multiple organs. Finally, viral load positively correlates with specific immunosuppression and dendritic cell markers. In summary, our data show that SARS-CoV-2 viral infection induces lymphocyte suppression yet myeloid activation in severe COVID-19, so these two cell types likely have distinct functions in severe COVID-19 disease progression, and should be targeted differently for therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , China , Diagnosis , Female , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/genetics , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load
12.
Urology ; 164: 33-39, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612076

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the clinical condition caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has been associated with massive cytokine storm and damage to multiple organ systems. Although evidence for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the testis remains scarce, testicular damage and dysregulation of gonadotropins associated with inflammation has been reported. Additionally, as a result of the rapidly evolving pandemic, frequently updated medical interventions and public policies leading to delays of care can play a role in fertility. This narrative review aims to summarize the current literature on how COVID-19 may influence male fertility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Fertility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Testis
13.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 741204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528830

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and have a poor prognosis after infection. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since vaccination is an effective measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19, we studied the vaccination rate among breast cancer survivors and analyzed their characteristics to provide evidence for boosting the vaccination rate. The researchers conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study on 747 breast cancer survivors from six hospitals in Wuhan city between June 5, 2021, and June 12, 2021. The self-administrated questionnaires based on relevant studies were distributed. The researchers then compared differences in characteristics among vaccinated patients, hesitant patients, and non-vaccinated patients. Moreover, they performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify potential factors associated with vaccination hesitancy. The researchers assessed a total of 744 breast cancer survivors -94 cases in the vaccinated group, 103 in the planning group, 295 in the hesitancy group, and 252 in the refusal group. The vaccination rate was 12.63% (95% CI 10.25-15.02%) and 37.23% (95% CI 27.48-47.82%) patients reported adverse reactions. The vaccination hesitancy/refusal rate was 73.52% (95% CI 70.19-76.66%), which was independently associated with current endocrine or targeted therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24), no notification from communities or units (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.69-3.59) and self-perceived feel (general vs. good, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13; bad vs. good, OR = 4.75, 95% CI 1.85-12.16). In the hesitancy/refusal group, the primary reason was "I did not know who to ask whether I can get vaccinated" (46.07%), the person who would most influence decisions of patients was the doctor in charge of treatment (35.83%). Effective interaction between doctors and patients, simple and consistent practical guidelines on vaccination, and timely and positive information from authoritative media could combat misinformation and greatly reduce vaccine hesitancy among breast cancer survivors.

15.
Front Nutr ; 8: 649422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485085

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a global pandemic, increasing numbers of reports have linked obesity to more severe COVID-19 illness and death. However, almost all the studies focused on an increased risk of mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) admission among hospitalized obese patients with COVID-19. Is obesity also associated with the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) in the patients with COVID-19? How about underweight patients? The answer is lacking. Therefore, our following research will answer the above two questions. Methods: We collected and analyzed epidemiologic, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 193 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, between January 1, 2020, and March 13, 2020. They were followed up until April 15, 2020. Underweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) lower than 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight by 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight by 24.0-27.9 kg/m2, and obesity as ≥28 kg/m2. Results: Among these patients, 5.70% were underweight, 58.03% were normal weight, 27.98% were overweight, and 8.29% were obese. Underweight patients were more likely to have a headache (P = 0.029). Obese patients were more likely than other groups to experience a decline in lymphocyte counts (P = 0.038), an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP; P = 0.023), bilateral multiple mottling, and ground glass opacity in the lungs (P = 0.007). Besides, the proportion of patients receiving human immunoglobulin + systematic corticosteroids treatment is the highest among the obese group compared with other BMI groups. After adjusting for potential confounders, underweight patients had a 6.483-fold higher (P = 0.012), and obese patients showed a 5.965-fold higher odds for developing ALI than normal-weight patients (P = 0.022). In addition, underweight patients were 3.255 times more likely than normal-weight patients to develop secondary infections (P = 0.041). Conclusions: Our study showed that both underweight and obese patients with COVID-19 tend to develop ALI compared with normal-weight patients. Underweight patients were more likely to develop a secondary infection than other patients.

16.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 746292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459524

ABSTRACT

Technology acceptance and usage become obligatory for people when their work modes change as a result of an unexpected but irresistible force. This is especially true for teachers who are reluctant technology adopters compared with their students. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese government issued national policies to enforce online teaching and learning. As the success of online teaching largely depends on university faculties' readiness and intentions, how they perceive and practice technology adoption becomes an issue that warrants in-depth research. Unlike their students who grow up with technology and can be seen as digital natives, university faculties may lack competence in using technology, whether to teach or do other tasks. Previous studies on faculties' technology adoption were all conducted in situations where they made volitional decisions to use technology, but their mandatory technology use received scant attention. In addition, although studies suggested that teachers demonstrated features of digital natives, it remains unknown whether or to what extent their digital nativity correlates with technology intentions. To address these research gaps, the current study examined Chinese university faculties' intentions to use technology for online teaching by incorporating digital nativity and computer self-efficacy as key determinants into technology acceptance variables. Results suggested that digital nativity was a key factor that affected university faculties' online teaching, as evidenced by the fact that 67% of the variance could be explained by perceived usefulness, attitudes and digital nativity. In addition, it was also found that computer efficacy significantly influenced perceived ease of use.

18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108242, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treatment among cancer patients has been shown to have antiviral effects by reactivating exhausted T cells. However, they could also trigger inflammatory storm. Therefore, prior exposure to ICIs may influence the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and subsequent mortality. Recent results from studies of ICIs treatment on incidence and mortality of COVID-19 are controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched databases PubMed, Embase, ISI of Knowledge, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), as well as pre-print databases (MedRxiv and BioRxiv) for retrospective and prospective studies comparing ICIs versus other antitumor treatments in cancer patients in the area of COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was the incidence of COVID-19. The secondary outcomes were mortality of COVID-19. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies with a total of 117,735 patients were selected. Compared with other antitumor treatments, prior exposure to ICIs had not an increased risk of incidence [Odds ratio (OR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-1.18; P = 0.32] and mortality (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.91-1.62; P = 0.18) of COVID-19 infectioin. Our subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated that prior exposure to ICIs may reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in metastatic cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference on incidence and mortality of COVID-19 between prior exposure to ICIs with other anti-tumor treatments. ICIs may reduce infection susceptibility of COVID-19 in metastatic cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasms/complications , Risk Factors
20.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(12): 7034-7053, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a large-scale global epidemic, impacting international politics and the economy. At present, there is no particularly effective medicine and treatment plan. Therefore, it is urgent and significant to find new technologies to diagnose early, isolate early, and treat early. Multimodal data drove artificial intelligence (AI) can potentially be the option. During the COVID-19 Pandemic, AI provided cutting-edge applications in disease, medicine, treatment, and target recognition. This paper reviewed the literature on the intersection of AI and medicine to analyze and compare different AI model applications in the COVID-19 Pandemic, evaluate their effectiveness, show their advantages and differences, and introduce the main models and their characteristics. METHODS: We searched PubMed, arXiv, medRxiv, and Google Scholar through February 2020 to identify studies on AI applications in the medical areas for the COVID-19 Pandemic. RESULTS: We summarize the main AI applications in six areas: (I) epidemiology, (II) diagnosis, (III) progression, (IV) treatment, (V) psychological health impact, and (VI) data security. The ongoing development in AI has significantly improved prediction, contact tracing, screening, diagnosis, treatment, medication, and vaccine development for the COVID-19 Pandemic and reducing human intervention in medical practice. DISCUSSION: This paper provides strong advice for using AI-based auxiliary tools for related applications of human diseases. We also discuss the clinicians' role in the further development of AI. They and AI researchers can integrate AI technology with current clinical processes and information systems into applications. In the future, AI personnel and medical workers will further cooperate closely.

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