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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 741204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528830

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and have a poor prognosis after infection. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since vaccination is an effective measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19, we studied the vaccination rate among breast cancer survivors and analyzed their characteristics to provide evidence for boosting the vaccination rate. The researchers conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study on 747 breast cancer survivors from six hospitals in Wuhan city between June 5, 2021, and June 12, 2021. The self-administrated questionnaires based on relevant studies were distributed. The researchers then compared differences in characteristics among vaccinated patients, hesitant patients, and non-vaccinated patients. Moreover, they performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify potential factors associated with vaccination hesitancy. The researchers assessed a total of 744 breast cancer survivors -94 cases in the vaccinated group, 103 in the planning group, 295 in the hesitancy group, and 252 in the refusal group. The vaccination rate was 12.63% (95% CI 10.25-15.02%) and 37.23% (95% CI 27.48-47.82%) patients reported adverse reactions. The vaccination hesitancy/refusal rate was 73.52% (95% CI 70.19-76.66%), which was independently associated with current endocrine or targeted therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24), no notification from communities or units (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.69-3.59) and self-perceived feel (general vs. good, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13; bad vs. good, OR = 4.75, 95% CI 1.85-12.16). In the hesitancy/refusal group, the primary reason was "I did not know who to ask whether I can get vaccinated" (46.07%), the person who would most influence decisions of patients was the doctor in charge of treatment (35.83%). Effective interaction between doctors and patients, simple and consistent practical guidelines on vaccination, and timely and positive information from authoritative media could combat misinformation and greatly reduce vaccine hesitancy among breast cancer survivors.

2.
Front Nutr ; 8: 649422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485085

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a global pandemic, increasing numbers of reports have linked obesity to more severe COVID-19 illness and death. However, almost all the studies focused on an increased risk of mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) admission among hospitalized obese patients with COVID-19. Is obesity also associated with the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) in the patients with COVID-19? How about underweight patients? The answer is lacking. Therefore, our following research will answer the above two questions. Methods: We collected and analyzed epidemiologic, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 193 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, between January 1, 2020, and March 13, 2020. They were followed up until April 15, 2020. Underweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) lower than 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight by 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight by 24.0-27.9 kg/m2, and obesity as ≥28 kg/m2. Results: Among these patients, 5.70% were underweight, 58.03% were normal weight, 27.98% were overweight, and 8.29% were obese. Underweight patients were more likely to have a headache (P = 0.029). Obese patients were more likely than other groups to experience a decline in lymphocyte counts (P = 0.038), an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP; P = 0.023), bilateral multiple mottling, and ground glass opacity in the lungs (P = 0.007). Besides, the proportion of patients receiving human immunoglobulin + systematic corticosteroids treatment is the highest among the obese group compared with other BMI groups. After adjusting for potential confounders, underweight patients had a 6.483-fold higher (P = 0.012), and obese patients showed a 5.965-fold higher odds for developing ALI than normal-weight patients (P = 0.022). In addition, underweight patients were 3.255 times more likely than normal-weight patients to develop secondary infections (P = 0.041). Conclusions: Our study showed that both underweight and obese patients with COVID-19 tend to develop ALI compared with normal-weight patients. Underweight patients were more likely to develop a secondary infection than other patients.

3.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a worldwide health threat. Early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients was important for reducing death rate and controlling this disease. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 301 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in Wuhan from 8 February to 10 April 2020 were included. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets in COVID-19 patients were investigated. The receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was used in discriminating the mild and severe/critical cases. RESULTS: There were difference in blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets among mild, severe and critical patients, which were also influenced by comorbidities and duration of disease. The area under the ROC of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were 0.718, 0.721, 0.718, and 0.670, which were higher than that of other hematological parameters. The optimal threshold was 1205, 691, 402, and 177 per µl, respectively. Patients with higher counts of lymphocyte, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+ T cells were correlated with shorter length of stay in hospital (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed disease severity, CD3+ T cells counts and time when the nucleic acid turned negative were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets correlated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Young Adult
4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 746292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459524

ABSTRACT

Technology acceptance and usage become obligatory for people when their work modes change as a result of an unexpected but irresistible force. This is especially true for teachers who are reluctant technology adopters compared with their students. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese government issued national policies to enforce online teaching and learning. As the success of online teaching largely depends on university faculties' readiness and intentions, how they perceive and practice technology adoption becomes an issue that warrants in-depth research. Unlike their students who grow up with technology and can be seen as digital natives, university faculties may lack competence in using technology, whether to teach or do other tasks. Previous studies on faculties' technology adoption were all conducted in situations where they made volitional decisions to use technology, but their mandatory technology use received scant attention. In addition, although studies suggested that teachers demonstrated features of digital natives, it remains unknown whether or to what extent their digital nativity correlates with technology intentions. To address these research gaps, the current study examined Chinese university faculties' intentions to use technology for online teaching by incorporating digital nativity and computer self-efficacy as key determinants into technology acceptance variables. Results suggested that digital nativity was a key factor that affected university faculties' online teaching, as evidenced by the fact that 67% of the variance could be explained by perceived usefulness, attitudes and digital nativity. In addition, it was also found that computer efficacy significantly influenced perceived ease of use.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108242, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treatment among cancer patients has been shown to have antiviral effects by reactivating exhausted T cells. However, they could also trigger inflammatory storm. Therefore, prior exposure to ICIs may influence the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and subsequent mortality. Recent results from studies of ICIs treatment on incidence and mortality of COVID-19 are controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched databases PubMed, Embase, ISI of Knowledge, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), as well as pre-print databases (MedRxiv and BioRxiv) for retrospective and prospective studies comparing ICIs versus other antitumor treatments in cancer patients in the area of COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was the incidence of COVID-19. The secondary outcomes were mortality of COVID-19. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies with a total of 117,735 patients were selected. Compared with other antitumor treatments, prior exposure to ICIs had not an increased risk of incidence [Odds ratio (OR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-1.18; P = 0.32] and mortality (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.91-1.62; P = 0.18) of COVID-19 infectioin. Our subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated that prior exposure to ICIs may reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in metastatic cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference on incidence and mortality of COVID-19 between prior exposure to ICIs with other anti-tumor treatments. ICIs may reduce infection susceptibility of COVID-19 in metastatic cancer patients.

7.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been inducing an ongoing global health and economic emergency. Although viral pneumonia is the most striking presentation for COVID-19 patients, it has been noticed that some patients may also be accompanied with an abnormal liver function. METHODS: CT was performed in both lungs, and routine bloodwork and the blood metabolic panel were measured. RESULTS: Here, we report on a young male patient without any history of live diseases who suffered simultaneously both SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and hepatitis as evidenced by increased serum bilirubin together with increased serum transaminases. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on mechanisms whereby SARS-CoV-2 causing liver damages might provide more information about the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and help management of this global health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100165, 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401933
10.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
11.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
12.
Zhongguo Yaolixue yu Dulixue Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology ; - (1):1, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1239450

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic has led to the urgent need to develop therapeutic drugs to respond to disease progression and treatment of patients. Drug repurposing is one of the potential ways to rapidly find treatments for emerging viral infection. Favipiravir is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral drug that has been approved for new and re-emerging pandemic influenza. As a potential drug against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)infection, favipiravir is currently under clinical trials in several countries and has shown promising results in clinical studies. This paper reviews the clinical studies on the treatment of COVID-19 with favipiravir or combination with other drugs by focusing on the data about dose, trial design, efficacy and safety in China, Japan, Russia and India. Favipiravir with proven safety profiles has proved to be effective in improving viral RNA clearance or clinical recovery in patients with mild and moderate symptoms. This review will help gain insights into the evidence based role of favipiravir in antiviral therapy of COVID-19.

13.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 776-784, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217480

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by a new coronavirus has posed a great threat to public health. Identifying safe and effective antivirals is of urgent demand to cure the huge number of patients. Virus-encoded proteases are considered potential drug targets. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir) has been recommended in the global Solidarity Trial in March launched by World Health Organization. However, there is currently no experimental evidence to support or against its clinical use. We evaluated the antiviral efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir along with other two viral protease inhibitors in vitro, and discussed the possible inhibitory mechanism in silico. The in vitro to in vivo extrapolation was carried out to assess whether lopinavir/ritonavir could be effective in clinical. Among the four tested compounds, lopinavir showed the best inhibitory effect against the novel coronavirus infection. However, further in vitro to in vivo extrapolation of pharmacokinetics suggested that lopinavir/ritonavir could not reach effective concentration under standard dosing regimen [marketed as Kaletra®, contained lopinavir/ritonavir (200 mg/50 mg) tablets, recommended dosage is 400 mg/10 mg (2 tablets) twice daily]. This research concluded that lopinavir/ritonavir should be stopped for clinical use due to the huge gap between in vitro IC50 and free plasma concentration. Nevertheless, the structure-activity relationship analysis of the four inhibitors provided further information for de novel design of future viral protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Lopinavir/blood , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Ritonavir/blood , Vero Cells , Viral Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
14.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(1): 159-165, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168424

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to find the association between COVID-19 and cardiovascular complications. We conducted a systematic literature search of the PubMed and Embase databases from 01 December 2019 to 30 November 2020. We then statistically analyzed the incidence of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients. We included 3044 confirmed COVID-19 cases from 12 studies. The most common cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients were myocardial injury (21.2%, 95% CI 12.3-30.0%) and arrhythmia (15.3%, 95% CI 8.4-22.3%), followed by heart failure (14.4%, 95% CI 5.7-23.1%) and acute coronary syndrome (1.0%, 95% CI 0.5-1.5%). The pooled incidence of heart failure, arrhythmia and myocardial injury in non-survivors were 47.8% (95% CI 41.4-54.2%), 40.3% (95% CI 1.6-78.9%) and 61.7% (95% CI 46.8-76.6%), respectively. Also, the data separately showed significantly higher incidence of heart failure and cardiac injury in non-survivors (relative risks = 5.13, 95% CI 2.46-10.7, Z = 4.36, P = 0.017) and (relative risks = 6.91, 95% CI 3.19-14.95, Z = 4.91, P = 0.009). Myocardial injury and arrhythmia were the most common complications in COVID-19 patients. Myocardial injury and heart failure were more common in patients who died, regardless of a history of cardiovascular disease. The incidence of heart failure and myocardial injury were higher in non-survivors compared to the survivors. Accordingly, in addition to basic support, cardiac reactions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 with or without underlying cardiovascular diseases should be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928837, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. To further reveal the pathologic associations between coronavirus and hypoxemia, we report the findings of 4 complete systematic autopsies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive individuals who died of multiple organ failure caused by severe hypoxemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined the donated corpses of 4 deceased patients who had been diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. A complete post-mortem examination was carried out on each corpse, and multiple organs were macroscopically examined. RESULTS The 4 corpses were 2 males and 2 females, with an average age of 69 years. Bilateral lungs showed various degrees of atrophy and consolidation, with diffusely tough and solid texture in the sections. A thromboembolism was found in the main pulmonary artery extending into the atrium in 1 corpse, and significant atherosclerotic plaques tagged in the inner wall of the aortic arch were found in 2 corpses. Two corpses were found to have slightly atrophied bilateral renal parenchyma. Atrophic changes in the spleen were found in 2 corpses. Notably, there were significantly expanded alveolar septa and prominent fibroblastic proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The laboratory data of these corpses showed a progressive decrease in blood oxygen saturation, followed by refractory and irreversible hypoxemia. Clinical and laboratory information and autopsy and histologic presentations of multiple organs showed insufficient air exchange due to abnormalities in the respiratory system, and reduced erythropoiesis in bone marrow may play a role.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Aggregation , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mucus/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Necrosis , Pneumonia/complications , Thoracic Cavity/pathology
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932092, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148747

ABSTRACT

This manuscript has been retracted due to the identification of undeclared duplication of content, including Figure images, from a -previous publication by some of the authors: Wang C, Xie J, Zhao L, Fei X, Zhang H, Tan Y, Nie X, Zhou L, Liu Z, Ren Y, Yuan L, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Liang L, Chen X, Liu X, Wang P, Han X, Weng X, Chen Y, Yu T, Zhang X, Cai J, Chen R, Shi ZL, Bian XW. Alveolar macrophage dysfunction and cytokine storm in the pathogenesis of two severe COVID-19 patients. EBioMedicine. 2020; 57: 102833. All authors are requested to declare that manuscripts submitted to this journal are original. This journal makes clear that research fraud of any kind will not be tolerated and will result in immediate retraction.

17.
Cytokine ; 142: 155500, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141708

ABSTRACT

We quantified the serum levels of 34 cytokines/chemokines in 30 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated levels of IP-10 and IL-7 were detected in the acute and convalescent stages of the infection and were highly associated with disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Interleukin-7/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(12): 1868-1878, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087785

ABSTRACT

Systematic autopsy and comprehensive pathological analyses of COVID-19 decedents should provide insights into the disease characteristics and facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, we report the autopsy findings from the lungs and lymphatic organs of 12 COVID-19 decedents-findings that evaluated histopathological changes, immune cell signature and inflammatory factor expression in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Here we show that the major pulmonary alterations included diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial fibrosis and exudative inflammation featured with extensive serous and fibrin exudates, macrophage infiltration and abundant production of inflammatory factors (IL-6, IP-10, TNFα and IL-1ß). The spleen and hilar lymph nodes contained lesions with tissue structure disruption and immune cell dysregulation, including lymphopenia and macrophage accumulation. These findings provide pathological evidence that links injuries of the lungs and lymphatic organs with the fatal systematic respiratory and immune malfunction in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

20.
Cell Rep ; 34(4): 108666, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064915

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are under development, the antigen epitopes on the virus and their immunogenicity are poorly understood. Here, we simulate the 3D structures and predict the B cell epitopes on the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using structure-based approaches and validate epitope immunogenicity by immunizing mice. Almost all 33 predicted epitopes effectively induce antibody production, six of these are immunodominant epitopes in individuals, and 23 are conserved within SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and bat coronavirus RaTG13. We find that the immunodominant epitopes of individuals with domestic (China) SARS-CoV-2 are different from those of individuals with imported (Europe) SARS-CoV-2, which may be caused by mutations on the S (G614D) and N proteins. Importantly, we find several epitopes on the S protein that elicit neutralizing antibodies against D614 and G614 SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to vaccine design against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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