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1.
Clothing and Textiles Research Journal ; : 0887302X21994207, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1093901

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created lots of uncertainties that force clothing and textile (C&T) companies to question their current practices and make urgent changes to navigate their future Given that this period represents an unprecedented market situation with almost no prior research on how an industry can recover from such a crisis and reshape its value chain, this study aims to present new possibilities with C&T value chain by evaluating specific industry responses The global value chain framework and resource-based theory of the firm were used as the theoretical framework in this study Based on case study analysis and extensive literature review, this study develops a conceptual model illustrating the connections among various value chain segments in C&T that have been affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic The findings provide actionable considerations for C&T practitioners when implementing appropriate strategies during times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 outbreak

2.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077969

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among adolescents in mainland China under COVID-19. The direct effects of the perceived threat of COVID-19 and positive youth development (PYD) qualities, as well as the moderating effect of PYD qualities on PTSD symptoms, were studied. METHODS: Five schools in Chengdu, Sichuan, China, participated in this study. Two waves of data were collected before school lockdown (Wave 1, between December 2019 and January 2020) and after school resumption (Wave 2, between June 2020 and July 2020), respectively. A total of 4,981 adolescents aged above 11 years (Mean age = 13.15, SD = 1.32 at Wave 1, 51.5% girls) completed questionnaires at both waves. Students responded to measures of PYD qualities at both waves and perceived threat and PTSD symptoms at Wave 2. RESULTS: A total of 517 adolescents (10.4%) could be regarded as having PTSD. Results indicated significant unique main effects of perceived threat (ß = .13, p < .001) and Wave 1 PYD qualities (ß = -.16, p < .001) on PTSD symptoms. Besides, results showed a significant moderating effect of PYD qualities in mitigating the negative impact of perceived threat on PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the protective effect of PYD attributes in reducing the negative influence of traumatic situations such as COVID-19 on adolescent mental health. Results underscore the importance of promoting PYD qualities in adolescents in mainland China via effective PYD programs.

3.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4440

ABSTRACT

New coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by 2019 new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection The disease is highly contagious and people are generally susceptible to it New coronavirus pneumonia is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets and close contact, but there is also a possibility of aerosol infection At present, the outbreak of new coronavirus pneumonia has spread rapidly to all parts of the world However, there is still no specific drug in clin treatment After the outbreak, the National Health Commission organized relevant experts to launch a series of diagnosis and treatment programs, including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment programs from the 3rd edition Chinese medicine injections were applied from the 4th edition In this paper, the applications of Chinese medicine injections, which were recommended in the current edition of coronavirus pneumonia diagnosis and treatment therapy, in respiratory infectious diseases were summarized Besides, the potential roles of Chinese medicine injections in the treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia were discussed, in order to provide theor basis for the reasonable application of Chinese medicine injection in new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID19) treatment

4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 294, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997816

ABSTRACT

Understanding the processes of immune regulation in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for improving treatment. Here, we performed longitudinal whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 18 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their treatment, convalescence, and rehabilitation. After analyzing the regulatory networks of differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between the different clinical stages, we found that humoral immunity and type I interferon response were significantly downregulated, while robust T-cell activation and differentiation at the whole transcriptome level constituted the main events that occurred during recovery from COVID-19. The formation of this T cell immune response might be driven by the activation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) related signaling pathway and was weakly affected by other clinical features. These findings uncovered the dynamic pattern of immune responses and indicated the key role of T cell immunity in the creation of immune protection against this disease.


Subject(s)
/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , /epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA-Seq , /pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics
5.
Liver Int ; 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic. Although COVID-19 is caused by infection in the respiratory tract, extrapulmonary manifestations including dysregulation of the immune system and hepatic injury have been observed. Given the high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in China, we sought to study the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HBV coinfection in patients. METHODS: Blood samples of 50 SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfected patients, 56 SARS-CoV-2 mono-infected patients, 57 HBeAg-negative chronic HBV patient controls and 57 healthy controls admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were collected in this study. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry panels including markers indicative of liver functions were performed. Cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were evaluated. T cell, B cell and NK cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection did not significantly affect the outcome of the COVID-19. However, at the onset of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfected patients showed more severe monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia as well as more disturbed hepatic function in albumin production and lipid metabolism. Most of the disarrangement could be reversed after recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: While chronic HBV infection did not predispose COVID-19 patients to more severe outcomes, our data suggest SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection poses a higher extent of dysregulation of host functions at the onset of COVID-19. Thus, caution needs to be taken with the management of SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfected patients.

7.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; : 1-7, 2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922879

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current study was to explore the physical activity and screen time status among Chinese adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown and their association with mood disturbance and conflicts with parents. A total of 1,680 7th to 12th grade students enrolled at a large middle-high school located in Southwest China completed an online survey measuring mood states, physical activity, screen time, conflicts with parents, and body height and weight. Physical activity, particularly of at least 150 minutes' duration each week, significantly decreased the likelihood of negative mood among adolescents during lockdown. Screen time, specifically other than that spent on online study, had a negative association with mood, after controlling for the relevant variables (i.e., physical activity and body mass index). Less screen time and accumulating 150 minutes of physical activity were associated with fewer conflicts with parents. With the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, local school districts, school leaders, and health professionals should develop greater awareness of potential problems with, and engage parents in developing specific guidance on controlling, screen time and promoting physical activity in a time-sensitive manner. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.].

9.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(9):843-848, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-890726

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the current situation of anxiety and depression in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and suspected patients, and to analyze the influencing factors

10.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 3(1): 93-97, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847791

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, an outbreak of the Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, has become a public health emergency of international concern. The high fatality of aged cases caused by SARS-CoV-2 was a need to explore the possible age-related phenomena with non-human primate models. Methods: Three 3-5 years old and two 15 years old rhesus macaques were intratracheally infected with SARS-CoV-2, and then analyzed by clinical signs, viral replication, chest X-ray, histopathological changes and immune response. Results: Viral replication of nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs and lung in old monkeys was more active than that in young monkeys for 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Monkeys developed typical interstitial pneumonia characterized by thickened alveolar septum accompanied with inflammation and edema, notably, old monkeys exhibited diffuse severe interstitial pneumonia. Viral antigens were detected mainly in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 caused more severe interstitial pneumonia in old monkeys than that in young monkeys. Rhesus macaque models infected with SARS-CoV-2 provided insight into the pathogenic mechanism and facilitated the development of vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
Antiviral Res ; 173: 104646, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829317

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are important pathogens that cause upper respiratory tract infections and have neuroinvasive abilities; however, little is known about the dynamic infection process of CoVs in vivo, and there are currently no specific antiviral drugs to prevent or treat HCoV infection. Here, we verified the replication ability and pathogenicity of a reporter HCoV-OC43 strain expressing Renilla luciferase (Rluc; rOC43-ns2DelRluc) in mice with different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6 and BALB/c). Additionally, we monitored the spatial and temporal progression of HCoV-OC43 through the central nervous system (CNS) of live BALB/c mice after intranasal or intracerebral inoculation with rOC43-ns2DelRluc. We found that rOC43-ns2DelRluc was fatal to suckling mice after intranasal inoculation, and that viral titers and Rluc expression were detected in the brains and spinal cords of mice infected with rOC43-ns2DelRluc. Moreover, viral replication was initially observed in the brain by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging before the infection spread to the spinal cord of BALB/c mice, consistent with its tropism in the CNS. Furthermore, the Rluc readout correlated with the HCoV replication ability and protein expression, which allowed quantification of antiviral activity in live mice. Additionally, we validated that chloroquine strongly inhibited rOC43-ns2DelRluc replication in vivo. These results provide new insights into the temporal and spatial dissemination of HCoV-OC43 in the CNS, and our methods provide an extremely sensitive platform for evaluating the efficacy of antiviral therapies to treat neuroinvasive HCoVs in live mice.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/virology , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Luciferases, Renilla/genetics , Luciferases, Renilla/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Imaging , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 647, 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The family cluster is one of most important modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission throughout China, and more details are needed about how family clusters cause the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CASE PRESENTATION: We retrospectively reviewed 7 confirmed cases from one family cluster. Both clinical features and laboratory examination results were described. Patient 1 had been in close contact with someone who was later confirmed to have COVID-19 in Wuhan City before he returned back to his hometown. He had dinner with 6 other members in his family. All the persons developed COVID-19 successively except for one older woman who neither had dinner with them nor shared a sleeping room with her husband. Six patients had mild or moderate COVID-19 but one older man with underlying diseases progressed into the severe type. After general and symptomatic treatments, all the patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: In a family cluster, having dinner together may be an important mode for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In this setting, most cases are mild with a favorable prognosis, while elderly patients with underlying diseases may progress into the severe type. For someone who has close contact with a confirmed case, 14-day isolation is necessary to contain virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Health , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies
15.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-267781

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and its causative pathogen SARS-CoV-2 have rushed the world into a staggering pandemic in a few months and a global fight against both is still going on. Here, we describe an analysis procedure where genome composition and its variables are related, through the genetic code, to molecular mechanisms based on understanding of RNA replication and its feedback loop from mutation to viral proteome sequence fraternity including effective sites on replicase-transcriptase complex. Our analysis starts with primary sequence information and identity-based phylogeny based on 22,051 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences and evaluation of sequence variation patterns as mutation spectrum and its 12 permutations among organized clades tailored to two key mechanisms: strand-biased and function-associated mutations. Our findings include: (1) The most dominant mutation is C-to-U permutation whose abundant second-codon-position counts alter amino acid composition toward higher molecular weight and lower hydrophobicity albeit assumed most slightly deleterious. (2) The second abundance group includes: three negative-strand mutations U-to-C, A-to-G, G-to-A and a positive-strand mutation G-to-U generated through an identical mechanism as C-to-U. (3) A clade-associated and biased mutation trend is found attributable to elevated level of the negative-sense strand synthesis. (4) Within-clade permutation variation is very informative for associating non-synonymous mutations and viral proteome changes. These findings demand a bioinformatics platform where emerging mutations are mapped on to mostly subtle but fast-adjusting viral proteomes and transcriptomes to provide biological and clinical information after logical convergence for effective pharmaceutical and diagnostic applications. Such thoughts and actions are in desperate need, especially in the middle of the War against COVID-19.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3910, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697036

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, has rapidly spread across the world, highlighting its high transmissibility, but the underlying morphogenesis and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the replication dynamics, cell tropism and morphogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in organotypic human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently and infects both ciliated and secretory cells in HAE cultures. In comparison, HCoV-NL63 replicates to lower titers and is only detected in ciliated cells. SARS-CoV-2 shows a similar morphogenetic process as other coronaviruses but causes plaque-like cytopathic effects in HAE cultures. Cell fusion, apoptosis, destruction of epithelium integrity, cilium shrinking and beaded changes are observed in the plaque regions. Taken together, our results provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism, replication and morphogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Morphogenesis/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory System/pathology , Tropism , Virus Replication
18.
Int. J. Ophthalmol. ; 7(13): 1161-1163, 20200718.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-657037
19.
Jpn J Radiol ; 38(10): 942-952, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594903

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To explore the dynamic changes and correlation between CT imaging manifestations and cellular immunity of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review analyzed 23 patients with COVID-19, including 13 males and 10 females aged 27-70 years, with an average age of 48 years. Patients were divided into two groups: group A with 11 critical-severe patients, and group B with 12 common-mild patients. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ decreased, while NEU (%), CRP, and CT scores increased in all patients, WBC in group A increased. In group A, on day 10-12 after disease onset, CT scores and CRP reached the highest point, and day 13-15 LYM, LYM (%) reached the lowest but NEU (%) and WBC reached the highest, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ were at the lowest on day 10-15. In group B, on day 7-9, CT scores, NEU (%) and CRP reached the peak, but LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ reached the lowest. In all patients, CT scores had a significantly negative correlation with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, LYM (%), and LYM (p = 0.001, r = - 0.797; p = 0.008, r = - 0.698; p = 0.002, r = - 0.775; p < 0.001, r = - 0.785; p = 0.021, r = - 0.571, respectively), and a significantly positive correlation with WBC and NEU (%) (p < 0.001, r = 0.785; p = 0.003, r = 0.691, respectively). CONCLUSION: Dynamic changes of CT manifestations and cellular immunity of patients with COVID-19 were regular and correlation was high between these two parameters.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
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