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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1098, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a structural equation model was established to determine the causality of important factors that affect Chinese citizens' COVID-19 prevention behavior. METHODS: The survey in Qingdao covered several communities in 10 districts and used the method of cluster random sampling. The research instrument used in this study is a self-compiled Chinese version of the questionnaire. Of the 1215 questionnaires, 1188 were included in our analysis. We use the rank sum test, which is a non-parametric test, to test the influence of citizens'basic sociodemographic variables on prevention behavior, and the rank correlation test to analyze the influencing factors of prevention behavior. IBM AMOS 24.0 was used for path analysis, including estimating regression coefficients and evaluating the statistical fits of the structural model, to further explore the causal relationships between variables. RESULTS: The result showed that the score in the prevention behavior of all citizens is a median of 5 and a quartile spacing of 0.31. The final structural equation model showed that the external support for fighting the epidemic, the demand level of health information, the cognition of (COVID-19) and the negative emotions after the outbreak had direct effects on the COVID-19 prevention behavior, and that negative emotions and information needs served as mediating variables. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided a basis for relevant departments to further adopt epidemic prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cognition , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337869

ABSTRACT

Background: Observational studies showed home hemodialysis (HHD) to be associated with better survival than facility hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Patients on HHD have reported higher quality of life and independence. HHD is considered to be an economical way to manage end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a significant impact on patients with ESKD. Patients on HHD may have an advantage over in-center HHD patients because of a lower risk of exposure to infection. Participants and Methods: We enrolled hemodialysis patients from our dialysis center. We estabilished HHD training center at first. The training center was approved by Chinese government. Doctors, nurses and engineers train and assess patients separately. There are three forms of patient monitoring: home visit, internet remote monitoring, and out-patient service. Demographic and medical data included age, gender, blood pressure, dialysis related data. Laboratory tests were conducted in our central testing laboratory including hemoglobin (Hgb), serum creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), albumin (Alb), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Results Six patients who underwent regular dialysis in the hemodialysis center of our hospital were selected for HHD training. We enrolled 6 patients, including 4 males and 2 females. The mean age of the patients was 47.5 (34.7–55.7) years, the mean dialysis age was 33.5 (11.2–41.5) months. After an average of 16.0 (11.2–25.5) months of training, Alb, P and BNP were improved compared with baseline values. After training, three patients returned home to begin independent hemodialysis. During the follow-up, there are no serious adverse events leading to hospitalization or death, but there are several adverse events. They have been solved quickly by extra home visits of the technicians or online by remote monitoring. During the time, laboratory indicators of all the patients including Hgb, Alb, Ca, P, PTH, BNP, β2-MG remained stable before and after HHD treatment. Conclusion HHD is feasible and safe for ESRD in China, but larger-scale and longer-term studies are needed to further confirm.

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(10):6282, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857432

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers had to conduct online classes because of the breakdown of school learning. Teacher competence has a great impact on the students' learning outcomes in online learning. Teacher resilience is also important to help teachers survive and achieve a high level of well-being in emergency situations. Previous studies have explored the protective and risk factors of teacher resilience, among which teacher competence in various aspects is included. In addition, teachers' age differences in competence and resilience have been the focus of past studies. However, few studies have investigated the impact of teacher competence on students' online learning outcomes, the mediating role of teacher resilience, and the moderating effect of age when teachers participate in emergent online teaching. To address the above gap, this study explored teachers' perceptions of students' online learning outcomes and how teacher competence in online teaching and resilience can predict these outcomes. The data of 159,203 participants were collected and subjected to correlation analyses and a moderated-mediation effect test. The results indicated that (1) teacher competence in online teaching was positively related to perceived online learning outcomes;(2) teacher resilience was positively related to the teachers' perceived online learning outcomes;(3) teacher resilience played a partial mediating role between teacher competence in online teaching and perceived online learning outcomes;and (4) teachers' age moderated the direct and indirect relation between teacher competence in online teaching and perceived online learning outcomes. The findings imply that teachers should strengthen their own teaching competence and their resilience before conducting online teaching. In addition, this study proposes intervention strategies to enhance teachers' resilience and well-being through teacher competence cultivation and provides suggestions for different age levels of teachers to develop and train their online teaching competence and resilience in the future.

4.
Front Psychol ; 13: 765832, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855419

ABSTRACT

Online learning resources (OLR) play an important role in teaching and learning in the process of online learning. Teachers will be satisfied with selectable and suitable online learning resources, which can promote their self-efficacy to facilitate online teaching and learning. This study proposed a model to examine the effects of the selectivity of online learning resources (SE-OLR) and the suitability of online learning resources (SU-OLR) on teachers' online teaching satisfaction, and the mediating role of technology self-efficacy (TECHN-SE) and online teaching self-efficacy (OT-SE) between them. The results indicated that SE-OLR and SU-OLR positively affected teachers' online teaching satisfaction; TECHN-SE and OT-SE positively influenced teachers' online teaching satisfaction, while TECHN-SE and OT-SE played mediating roles between SE-OLR and SU-OLR and teachers' online teaching satisfaction. The findings have implications for the design and development of online learning resources to improve teachers' satisfaction and facilitate students' learning effectiveness and teachers' online teaching.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335414

ABSTRACT

Environmental parameters have a significant impact on the spread of respiratory viral diseases. Temperature and relative humidity are correlated with viral inactivation in the air, whereas supersaturated air can promote viral deposition in the respiratory tract. This study introduces a new concept, the dynamic virus deposition ratio (α), that reflects the dynamic changes in particle size and viral deposition under varying ambient environments. Moreover, a non-steady-state modified Wells-Riley model is established to predict the infection risk of shared air space under varying environmental parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, and air saturation state. The quanta emission rate of an asymptomatic infector during different respiratory activities (breath, voice, and cough) are explored, and the differences in the infection risk under saturated and unsaturated air conditions are also compared. Finally, six typical exposure scenarios from daily life are also explored, highlighting scenarios of higher risk. The results show that the highest infection risk (R max =5.2%) and the longest risk duration (T terminal =6.8h) are both reached in cold and damp conditions. This study quantitatively reflects how environmental parameters are linked to viral inactivation and particle deposition, affecting transmission risk.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 193-200, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may mediate the association between family functioning and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mediation effects of depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and COVID-related PTSS on the relationship between family functioning and NSSI in adolescents. METHOD: A sample of 5854 adolescents was recruited from June 16 to July 8, 2020. The data for family functioning, depressive symptoms, emotional competence, COVID-related PTSS, and NSSI behavior of adolescents were collected via self-reported questionnaires. A structural equation model was constructed to examine the relationship, and a bootstrap analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediation effects. RESULTS: The reporting rate of adolescent NSSI was 30.2%. The poor family functioning was positively associated with adolescent NSSI (ß = 0.130, 95% CI = 0.093-0.182), which was mediated by depression with effect size of 0.231 (95% CI = 0.201-0.257). The pathway coefficients between emotional competence and NSSI, and depression, COVID-related PTSS and NSSI, though statistically significant were unlikely to be clinically meaning with values of 0.057 and 0.015. There was no mediating effect by COVID-related PTSS. The pathways initially constructed between family functioning and COVID-related PTSS, emotional capacity and COVID-related PTSS were not been verified. LIMITATIONS: It was unclear whether this mediational effect would be supported in a longitudinal design. The application and extension of this model toward other regions and countries, and different ages need to be further explored. CONCLUSION: The interventions of adolescent NSSI should focus on both the family level and individual levels. Improving family environment, screening depressive symptoms, enhancing emotional competence and lessening COVID-related PTSS may reduce NSSI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Emotions , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology
7.
STAR Protoc ; 3(2): 101387, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799656

ABSTRACT

Real-time cell analysis (RTCA) enables high-throughput, quantitative kinetic measurements of cytopathic effect (CPE) in virus-infected cells. Here, we detail a RTCA approach for assessing antibody neutralization. We describe how to evaluate the neutralizing potency of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and identify viral escape mutants to antibody neutralization for severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zost et al. (2020) and Suryadevara et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(1):25-28, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789500

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the temperature sensitivity of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) to provide a basis for SFTSV disinfection and laboratory biosafety protection. We divided SFTSV cell culture supernatants into 250 L PCR vials at 100 L/tube, and placed them in a refrigerator at 4..C, and a metal bath at 25..C, 37..C, 39..C, 56..C, and 70..C. After treatment for predetermined periods of time, the viral titer was determined through indirect immunofluorescence in Vero cells. With increasing temperature, the rate of decline of the viral titer increased. After incubation at 4..C, 25..C, 37..C, and 39..C for 24 h, the titers decreased from 107.25/100 L to 107.00/100 L, 106.75/100 L, 106.50/100 L, and 105.00/100 L, respectively. At the same temperature, with prolonged storage time, the decrease in titer became more pronounced. After SFTSV was placed at 4..C, 25..C, 37..C for 72 h, the viral titer decreased from 107.25/100 L to 106.63/100 L, 106.50/100 L, and 103.38/100 L, respectively. SFTSV lost its infectivity after incubation at 39..C for 72 h. SFTSV was inactivated after exposure to 56..C for 180 min or 70..C for 5 min. We concluded that SFTSV is inactivated after incubation at 70..C for 5 min. However, after 3 days of exposure to 4..C and 25..C, the viral titer did not change significantly. Laboratories and medical staff should focus on personal protection and disinfection of items contaminated by SFTSV.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1058-1071, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752040

ABSTRACT

Safe, efficacious, and deployable vaccines are urgently needed to control COVID-19 in the large-scale vaccination campaigns. We report here the preclinical studies of an approved protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19, ZF2001, which contains tandem-repeat dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein with alum-based adjuvant. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in both mice and non-human primates (NHPs). ZF2001 induced high levels of RBD-binding and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in both mice and non-human primates, and elicited balanced TH1/TH2 cellular responses in NHPs. Two doses of ZF2001 protected Ad-hACE2-transduced mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as detected by reduced viral RNA and relieved lung injuries. In NHPs, vaccination of either 25 µg or 50 µg ZF2001 prevented infection with SARS-CoV-2 in lung, trachea, and bronchi, with milder lung lesions. No evidence of disease enhancement was observed in both animal models. ZF2001 has been approved for emergency use in China, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, and Columbia. The high safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy in both mice and NHPs found in this preclinical study was consistent with the results in human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier Proteins , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315191

ABSTRACT

Bcakground: This study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients combined with or without major chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension or coronary. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 183 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed at First People's Hospital of Jiangxia District (FPHJD) in Wuhan, China attended by Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University supporting medical team from February 1, 2020 to March 15, 2020. Patients were divided into simple COVID-19 group(n=134), COVID-19 combined with diabetes, hypertension or coronary group(n=49). Besides, COVID-19 patients with diabetes, hypertension or coronary were further classified into severe pneumonia group(n=23) and common pneumonia group(n=26), death group(n=17) and survival group(n=32). The prognosis of COVID-19 patients was evaluated by analyzing the clinical data and the results of laboratory tests. Results: 183 patients were included in this study, of whom 166 were discharged and 16 died in hospital. 49 (26.92%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common [37 (20.33%) patients], followed by diabetes [25 (13.74%) patients] and coronary heart disease [4 (2.2%) patients]. Compared with simple COVID-19 group, the proportion of history of chronic respiratory system disease, age, D-dimer, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and mortality rate were significantly higher in COVID-19 combined with chronic diseases group, whereas lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and alanine transferase were significantly lower in COVID-19 combined with chronic diseases group. Among COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases, D-dimer, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, blood urea nitrogen, death rate was significantly higher in severe pneumonia group than common pneumonia group. While lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower in severe pneumonia group than common pneumonia group. Besides, we found that the proportion of history of chronic respiratory system disease, D-dimer, procalcitonin, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, blood urea nitrogen were significantly higher in death group compared with survival group, whereas lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower in survival group. In COVID-19 combined with chronic diseases group, univariate logistic regression showed that the risk for severe pneumonia were D-dimer, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and neutrophil percentage. Univariate logistic regression also showed that the risk for death were D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage and blood urea nitrogen. Multivariate regression logistic showed that lactate dehydrogenase were independent risk factors for death among COVID-19 patients combined with chronic diseases. Cox regression analysis showed that compared with simple COVID-19 group, the RR(95% CI) in COVID-19 patients combined with diabetes, hypertension, and coronary were 2.187 (1.141~4.191) for death (P<0.05). Conclusion: Among COVID-19 patients combined with diabetes, hypertension or coronary, the risk factors for severe pneumonia were D-dimer, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and neutrophil percentage, whereas the risk factors for death were D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, lactate dehydrogenase were independent risk factors for death. The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients combined with diabetes, hypertension or coronary was higher than that of simple COVID-19 patien s.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314204

ABSTRACT

When contagious respiratory diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019, break out, the public can curb the spread of the diseases by wearing filtering facepiece respirators until vaccines and treatments are developed. It is a formidable task for supply chain managers to satisfy the demand;however, the demand for filtering facepiece respirators has been immense and continuous during the pandemic. This research provides a conceptual framework with implementable supply chain management strategies to cope with the surging demand. Our framework is based on the disaster management cycle.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325511

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health of children has been a major concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate suicide, self-harm and general mental health of children before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this longitudinal study, we used data from the Sichuan Positive Youth Development Cohort (SPYD) in Chengdu China. Children aged 6-15 years from 5 schools in urban and suburb Chengdu completed questionnaires at January 2019 before the COVID-19 outbreak, and were followed at June 2020 when schools’ resumption, after months of school closure and social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Questionnaires were used to collect data on suicide, self-harm, anxiety, depression, internet addiction and family function from children and demographics, socio-economic status and mental health status from parents. Mental health outcomes of children were compared before and after the pandemic. Stratified analyses were conducted by demographics and socio-family contextual factors including children’s grade, parent’s mental health and family function status. Findings: Overall 8,124 children (mean age 11·0±2·2, female 48·3%) completed questionnaires both at the wave 1 and wave 2 survey were included in this study. Suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts (Odds ratio 1·65, 95%CI1·38-1·98) and internet addiction (1·13, 1·01-1·26) of children increased significantly during the pandemic period, while self-harm (0·90, 0·83-0·99) and anxiety (0·69, 0·63-0·76) decreased, with no significant change of depression (0·98, 0·89-1·07). However, children of higher grades, with parents of worsened depression or anxiety symptoms were more likely to have worse mental health outcomes mentioned above (p<0·05), while children with improved family function were all better off (p=0·000). Interpretation: There are notable impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s mental health, and children beyond 9 years old with parents of mental health problems are especially vulnerable. Measures to screen and identify these children, support their parents and improve family function are important to protect children’s mental health during the pandemic. Further investigations on risk and protective factors, mediators of mental health of children during the pandemic are warranted to identify vulnerable individuals and inform targeted interventions.Funding Statement: This study was supported by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Longitudinal study of positive youth development 19H0642), the Sichuan University (Research on supportive strategies to promote positive development of primary school students in the anti-epidemic period,YQZX903). And KZ was supported by the China Medical Board Fund (CMB 16-252)Declaration of Interests: Authors declared no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Sichuan University (K2020025).

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325198

ABSTRACT

Background: As we know, some patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may stay longer in the hospital, but whether the different hospitalization days are associated with different clinical features is not clear yet. Methods: : This study is a single-centered, observational and retrospective case series.97 patients with COVID-19 were divided into two groups:patients with hospitalization for more than 20 days (Group1,n=35)and those with hospitalization for less than 20 days (Group2,n=62).Data were collected Results Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome(ARDS) and Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP)were more common in Group1 than in Group2 . There were more patients administered quadruple antiviral therapy in Group1 than in Group2 . In group1, 14.3% patients’ specimens showed positive again after they were discharged from the hospital.Compared with Group2,Group1 had higher percentages of oxygenation index<300mmHg leucopenia and lymphopenia. In Group1, 19 patients were treated with chloroquine phosphate,whose nucleic acid tests were negative soon,but 5 patents who hadn’t used the medicine had positive testing again . Conclusions: : COVID-19 patients with longer hospitalization are more severe and need more quadruple antiviral therapy ;For patients who don't use chloroquine phosphate, the nucleic acid tests are more likely to return to positive again even if they have no symptoms at that time .

14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598043

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound influence on the mental health and well-being of individuals across the globe. Emotional competence, defined as one's ability to recognize, understand, and manage their emotions, has been found linked with mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety) in previous studies. However, there is limited knowledge about the direction of the association between these factors among populations exposed to COVID-19. This study examined the possible mediation relationships between depression, anxiety, emotional competence, and COVID-19 exposure among Chinese adolescents. Methods: Responses from 7,958 Chinese adolescents who had previously taken part in a two-wave study before (December 23, 2019-January 13, 2020) and during COVID-19 (June 16, 2020-July 8, 2020) were analyzed (51.67% males, mean age = 11.74, SD = 2.15). Structural equation modeling with three covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity) was used to test the longitudinal mediation relationships between COVID-19 exposure and depression, anxiety via emotional competence. Results: Results indicated that the prevalence of depression (38.67 to 36.74%) and anxiety (13.02 to 12.77%) decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. The T2 emotional competence significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 anxiety (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.011 [0.004-0.019], p < 0.05). T2 emotional competence also significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 depression (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.013 [0.005-0.022], p < 0.05). The results indicated that T2 emotional competence had a significant and negative influence on T2 anxiety (ß = -0.266, SE = 0.005, p < 0.001), and T2 depression (ß = -0.326, SE = 0.029, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This longitudinal research study demonstrated the crucial role of emotional competence in influencing the severity of long-term mental health problems, and suggested that emotional competence interventions can be conducted to improve mental well-being among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders , Child , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556321

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azides/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thymus Gland , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rats , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/virology
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296421

ABSTRACT

As a crucial technology of solving energy shortage and environment contamination, battery technology is increasingly paid attention to by people. Among various batteries, lithium battery and Zinc-nickel battery are the most competitive and promising ones, especially the Zinc-nickel battery, which will induce shock to current battery industry chain. Meanwhile, the drastic change of exterior environment, such as 5G, Sharing Economy, low-carbon policy, trade protectionism and covid-19 has brought huge challenge to the management of battery industry chain. In this context, this paper set up a battery supply chain, including two zinc-nickel battery manufacturers and a lithium battery manufacturer. Against the background of cooperative promotion of big data and low-carbon policy, this paper constructs a cooperative game model under non cooperative game and demand disturbance respectively, analysing and discussing equilibrium strategy of supply chain. The results show that the price set by the manufacturer increases with the improvement of its technical level when consumers are more sensitive to technical level;with the increase of the Carbon Emission Technology Renewal Coefficient, the optimal price of all the three manufacturers will drop;when the market promotion rate is in the middle range, the price of zinc-nickel battery will be higher than that of lithium battery. In the demand disturbance model, the supply chain determines different optimal prices according to the different ranges of demand disturbance.

18.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(12): 1493-1503, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532765

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) has shown favorable efficacies in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment. We sought confirmation of the safety and efficacy of HUK for AIS in a large population. METHODS: RESK study enrolled patients with AIS of anterior circulation to receive HUK infusion. The primary endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Secondary endpoints assessed neurological and functional improvements and stroke recurrent rate. RESULTS: Of 1206 eligible patients, 1202 patients received at least one dose of HUK infusion and 983 (81.5%) completed the study. The incidence of treatment-emergent AEs and serious AEs were 55.99% and 2.41%, respectively. Pre-specified AEs of special interest occurred in 21.71% of patients, but the majority were mild and unrelated to therapy. Hypertension, age, treatment time, and drug combination were identified to be associated with drug-related blood pressure reduction. Neurological and functional evaluations revealed favorable outcomes from baseline to post-treatment assessment. The cumulative recurrence rate of stroke was 2.50% during the 90-day assessment. CONCLUSION: HUK had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in AIS patients. Besides, HUK demonstrated the neurological and functional improvements in AIS, further confirming its clinical efficacy in a real-world large population.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Kallikreins/pharmacology , Aged , Female , Humans , Kallikreins/administration & dosage , Kallikreins/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534069

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in 2019, COVID-19 has quickly triggered widespread public discussion on social media. From 26 February 2020 to 26 September 2020, this study collected data on COVID-19-related posts in the knowledge Q&A community, identified 220 opinion leaders of this community, and used social network analysis and sentiment analysis to analyze the information exchange behavior and emotional evolution of the opinion leaders during COVID-19. The results show that the COVID-19 topic community could be divided into seven main categories. The information dissemination of opinion leader information dissemination network had low efficiency, multiple paths, and a high degree of control. In addition, the emotional evolution of users showed obvious phased characteristics. User emotion changed from initially strong negative to strong positive over the course of the pandemic and eventually tended to be objective and neutral as time passed and the event stabilized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Emotions , Humans , Information Dissemination , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Societies ; 11(4):136, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1512576

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of vaccines and treatments, filtering facepiece respirators are a primary and effective tool to dampen the spread of COVID-19. To meet the huge and continuous demand for filtering facepiece respirators, this concept paper suggests a supply chain management framework based on the disaster management principle. This concept paper adopts an exploratory and qualitative literature review to provide managerial insights for the supply chain participants. Due to implementation delay and strategic interdependency, the supply chain management strategies need to be systematically integrated. A viable way to integrate strategies is based on the disaster management cycle: mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery phases. Our model integrates innovative and successful but overlooked supply chain management strategies. First, the production capacity should be flexible so that the production mode in emergency and normal situations can be different. Second, the concept paper and development facilities can utilize their capacities for actual production in emergencies. Third, the quality certification process should accommodate the flexible production capacities. Fourth, inventory stockpiling should be renewable. This concept paper contributes to policymakers, healthcare sector decision-makers, stakeholders throughout the FFR supply chain to cope with future crises caused by pandemics by providing a systematic approach to constructing an effective, flexible, and resilient supply chain.

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