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1.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(9): 2401-2410, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019055

ABSTRACT

The natural flavonoids luteolin and luteoloside have anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, hypolipidemic, cholesterol lowering and neuroprotective effects, but their poor water solubility limits their application in industrial production and the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside, a new compound that was prepared by succinyl glycosylation of luteolin by the organic solvent tolerant bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FJ18 in an 8.0% DMSO (v/v) system, was obtained and identified. Its greater water solubility (2293 times that of luteolin and 12 232 times that of luteoloside) provides the solution to the application problems of luteolin and luteoloside. The conversion rate of luteolin (1.0 g l-1 ) was almost 100% at 24 h, while the yield of luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside reached 76.2%. In experiments involving the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury model of mouse hippocampal neuron cells, the cell viability was significantly improved with luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside dosing, and the expressions of the anti-oxidant enzyme HO-1 in the nucleus increased, providing a neuroprotective effect for ischemic cerebral cells. The availability of biosynthetic luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside, which is expected to replace luteolin and luteoloside, would effectively expand the clinical application value of luteolin derivatives.


Subject(s)
Luteolin , Neuroprotective Agents , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Glucosides , Luteolin/pharmacology , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Solubility , Water
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 915716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993878

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak that resurged in Yangzhou and to simulate the impact of different control measures at different regional scales. Methods: We collected personal information from 570 laboratory-confirmed cases in Yangzhou from 28 July to 26 August 2021, and built a modified susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) model and an agent-based model. Results: The SEIR model showed that for passengers from medium-high risk areas, pre-travel nucleic acid testing within 3 days could limit the total number of infected people in Yangzhou to 50; among elderly persons, a 60% increase in vaccination rates could reduce the estimated infections by 253. The agent-based model showed that when the population density of the chess and card room dropped by 40%, the number of infected people would decrease by 54 within 7 days. A ventilation increase in the chess and card room from 25 to 50% could reduce the total number of infections by 33 within 7 days; increasing the ventilation from 25 to 75% could reduce the total number of infections by 63 within 7 days. Conclusions: The SEIR model and agent-based model were used to simulate the impact of different control measures at different regional scales successfully. It is possible to provide references for epidemic prevention and control work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans
3.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1259-1269, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972611

ABSTRACT

Pangolins are the most trafficked wild animal in the world according to the World Wildlife Fund. The discovery of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins has piqued interest in the viromes of these wild, scaly-skinned mammals. We sequenced the viromes of 161 pangolins that were smuggled into China and assembled 28 vertebrate-associated viruses, 21 of which have not been previously reported in vertebrates. We named 16 members of Hunnivirus, Pestivirus and Copiparvovirus pangolin-associated viruses. We report that the L-protein has been lost from all hunniviruses identified in pangolins. Sequences of four human-associated viruses were detected in pangolin viromes, including respiratory syncytial virus, Orthopneumovirus, Rotavirus A and Mammalian orthoreovirus. The genomic sequences of five mammal-associated and three tick-associated viruses were also present. Notably, a coronavirus related to HKU4-CoV, which was originally found in bats, was identified. The presence of these viruses in smuggled pangolins identifies these mammals as a potential source of emergent pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Pangolins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
JMIR Nurs ; 5(1): e40348, 2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the uptake of digital health innovations due to the availability of various technologies and the urgent health care need for treatment and prevention. Although numerous studies have investigated digital health adoption and the associated challenges and strategies during the pandemic, there is a lack of evidence on the impact on the nursing workforce. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the impact of digital health transformation driven by COVID-19 on nurses. METHODS: The online software Covidence was used to follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Relevant scientific health and computing databases were searched for papers published from January 2020 to November 2021. Using the 8D sociotechnical approach for digital health in health care systems, the papers were analyzed to identify gaps in applying digital health in nursing practice. RESULTS: In total, 21 papers were selected for content analysis. The analysis identified a paucity of research that quantifies the impact of the digital health transformation on nurses during the pandemic. Most of the initiatives were teleconsultation, followed by tele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU), and only 1 (5%) study explored electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Among the sociotechnical elements, the human-related factor was the most explored and the system measurement was the least studied item. CONCLUSIONS: The review identified a significant gap in research on how implementing digital health solutions has impacted nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This gap needs to be addressed by further research to provide strategies for empowering the nursing workforce to be actively involved in digital health design, development, implementation, use, and evaluation.

5.
Clinical eHealth ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936135

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic acute infectious disease, especially with the features of possible asymptomatic carriers and high contagiousness. Currently, it is difficult to quickly identify asymptomatic cases or COVID-19 patients with pneumonia due to limited access to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nucleic acid tests and CT scans. Goal This study aimed to develop a scientific and rigorous clinical diagnostic tool for the rapid prediction of COVID-19 cases based on a COVID-19 clinical case database in China, and to assist doctors to efficiently and precisely diagnose asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and cases who had a false-negative RT-PCR test result. Methods With online consent, and the approval of the ethics committee of Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University (NCT04275947, B2020-032R) to ensure that patient privacy is protected, clinical information has been uploaded in real-time through the New Coronavirus Intelligent Auto-diagnostic Assistant Application of cloud plus terminal (nCapp) by doctors from different cities (Wuhan, Shanghai, Harbin, Dalian, Wuxi, Qingdao, Rizhao, and Bengbu) during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. By quality control and data anonymization on the platform, a total of 3,249 cases from COVID-19 high-risk groups were collected. The effects of different diagnostic factors were ranked based on the results from a single factor analysis, with 0.05 as the significance level for factor inclusion and 0.1 as the significance level for factor exclusion. Independent variables were selected by the step-forward multivariate logistic regression analysis to obtain the probability model. Findings We applied the statistical method of a multivariate regression model to the training dataset (1,624 cases) and developed a prediction model for COVID-19 with 9 clinical indicators that are accessible. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.89) in the training dataset and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.86) in the validation dataset (1,625 cases). Discussion With the assistance of nCapp, a mobile-based diagnostic tool developed from a large database that we collected from COVID-19 high-risk groups in China, frontline doctors can rapidly identify asymptomatic patients and avoid misdiagnoses of cases with false-negative RT-PCR results.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892898

ABSTRACT

Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) has great potential in Cd phytoextraction, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. Two contrasting broomcorn millet varieties, 'Ningmi6' (Cd-sensitive variety) and '4452' (Cd-tolerant variety), were investigated through morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses to determine the factors responsible for their differential Cd tolerance and translocation. The Cd-tolerant variety can accumulate more Cd, and its cell wall and vacuole component Cd proportions were higher compared with the Cd-sensitive variety. Under Cd stress, the glutathione content and peroxidase activity of the Cd-tolerant variety were significantly higher than those of the Cd-sensitive variety. Additionally, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed hub modules that were associated with Cd stress and/or variety. Notably, genes involved in these hub modules were significantly enriched for roles in glutathione metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ABC transport, and metal ion transport process. These results suggested that regulation of genes associated with cell wall precipitation and vacuole compartmentalization may increase Cd tolerance and reduce Cd translocation in the Cd-tolerant variety, although it can absorb more Cd. This study provides a foundation for exploring molecular mechanisms of Cd tolerance and transport in broomcorn millet and new insights into improving Cd phytoremediation with this crop through genetic engineering.


Subject(s)
Panicum , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/toxicity , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glutathione/genetics , Panicum/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Transcriptome
7.
Psychology in the Schools ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1802559

ABSTRACT

Given the serious effects of coronavirus disease 2019 on academic burnout, this study aims to examine the multiple mediating roles of negative emotions and phubbing in the relationship between parental marital conflict and academic burnout. A total of 1353 college students participated in this study. The results showed that parental marital conflict not only had a direct effect on academic burnout but also affected academic burnout through three indirect paths: parental marital conflict‐negative emotions‐academic burnout, parental marital conflict‐phubbing‐academic burnout, and parental marital conflict‐negative emotions‐phubbing‐academic burnout. The parental marital conflict increased the risk of negative emotions and phubbing in college students and had a subsequent impact on academic burnout. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Psychology in the Schools is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 764305, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785389

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the effect of combining traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine in hemodialysis patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: This study was conducted from 27 January 2020 to 17 March 2020 in Wuhan Third Hospital Guanggu Branch, Wuhan, China. Fifty-three patients were included and divided into a control group (CG), which received Western medicine and a combined treatment group, which received TCM and Western medicine (TG). Clinical and laboratory data, TCM symptom scores, and chest computed tomography results were extracted and compared between the two groups. Results: The TG included 21 (67.7%) men and 10 (32.3%) women with a mean age of 61.02 (standard deviation [SD] 15.07, range 26-89) years. The mean dialysis duration in the TG was 49 (SD 31) months. Of all patients in the TG, 27 (87.1%) had fatigue, 18 (58.1%) had dry cough, 16 (51.6%) had anorexia, 11 (35.5%) had dyspnea, and 11 (35.5%) had fever. The CG included 14 (63.6%) men and 8 (36.4%) women with a mean age of 61.45 (SD 13.78, range 36-84) years. The mean dialysis duration in the CG was 63 (SD 46) months. Of all patients in the CG, 21 (95.5%) had fatigue, 12 (54.5%) had dry cough, 17 (77.3%) had anorexia, 12 (54.5%) had dyspnea, and 7 (31.8%) had fever. After treatment, the TCM symptom scores of the two groups decreased; the anorexia scores were lower in the TG than in the CG (p < 0.05). After treatment, albumin increased and D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase levels decreased in the TG. The d-dimer levels were lower and the albumin level was higher in the TG than in the CG after treatment (p < 0.05). The cure rate was higher, and the mortality rate was lower in the TG than in the CG (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A combination of TCM and Western medicine in hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 could relieve symptoms and help recovery. Further evidence from larger randomized controlled trials is needed to confirm our results.

9.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
10.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 786464, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599609

ABSTRACT

Natural flavonoids, formononetin and ononin, possess antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Many complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 make patients difficult to recover. Flavonoids, especially formononetin and ononin, have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 and improve myocardial injury. However, their poor water solubility, poor oral absorption, high toxicity, and high-cost purification limit industrial practical application. Succinylation modification provides a solution for the above problems. Formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (FMP), a new compound, was succinyl glycosylated from formononetin by the organic solvent tolerant bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FJ18 in a 10.0% DMSO (v/v) system. The water solubility of the new compound was improved by over 106 times compared with formononetin, which perfectly promoted the application of formononetin and ononin. The conversion rate of formononetin (0.5 g/L) was almost 94.2% at 24 h, while the yield of formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside could achieve 97.2%. In the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute ischemia mice model, the myocardial injury was significantly improved with a high dose (40 mg/kg) of formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside. The lactate dehydrogenase level was decreased, and the catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were increased after formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside treatment. Thus, formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside has high water solubility, low toxicity, and shows significant antimyocardial ischemia effects.

11.
MedComm ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1567268

ABSTRACT

SARS‐CoV‐2 is an enveloped positive‐sense RNA virus that depends on host factors for all stages of its life. Membrane receptor ACE2 is a well‐established factor for SARS‐CoV‐2 docking. In addition to ACE2, whole‐genome genetic screens have identified additional proteins, such as endosomal trafficking regulators SNX27 and retromer, as key host factors required for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. However, it is poorly understood how SARS‐CoV‐2 utilize host endocytic transport pathways to produce productive infection. Here, we report that SNX27 interacts with the SARS‐CoV‐2 spike (S) protein to facilitate S protein surface expression. Interestingly, S protein binds to the PDZ domain of SNX27, although it does not contain a PDZ‐binding motif (PDZbm). Either abrogation of the SNX27 PDZ domain or S protein “MTSC” motif, which is critical for SNX27 binding, decreases surface expression of S protein and viral production. Collectively, our study highlights a novel approach utilized by SARS‐CoV‐2 to facilitate virion trafficking to establish virus infection. Proposed model showing SNX27 promotes intracellular trafficking of S protein and viral production. (a) SNX27, via its PDZ domain, interacts with S protein and promotes endosome‐to‐plasma membrane trafficking of S protein. SNX27 could also promote the production of SARS‐CoV‐2 virions in host cells, although the mechanism remains poorly defined. (b) Depletion of SNX27 impairs endosome‐to‐plasma membrane trafficking of S protein, leading to its lysosomal degradation.

12.
World J Pediatr ; 17(6): 590-596, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A series of public health preventive measures has been widely implemented in Beijing to control the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic since January 2020. An evaluation of the effects of these preventive measures on the spread of other respiratory viruses is necessary. METHODS: Respiratory specimens collected from children with acute respiratory infections were tested by NxTAG™ respiratory pathogen panel assays during January 2017 and December 2020. Specimens characterized as rhinoviruses (RVs) were sequenced to identify the RV species and types. Then, the epidemiology results of respiratory pathogens in 2020 were compared with those from 2017 to 2019 using SPSS statistics 22.0. RESULTS: The positive rates of adenovirus (ADV), influenza virus (flu), RVs, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) dropped abruptly by 86.31%, 94.67%, 94.59%, and 92.17%, respectively, from February to May 2020, compared with the average level in the same period during 2017-2019. Positive rates of RVs then steeply increased from June 2020 (13.77%), to an apex (37.25%) in August 2020, significantly higher than the average rates (22.51%) in August 2017-2019 (P = 0.005). The increase, especially in group ≥ 3 years, was accompanied by the reopening of schools and kindergartens after the 23rd and 24th week of 2020 in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the abrupt drop in viral pathogen positive rates from February to May 2020 revealed the remarkable effects of the COVID-19 preventive measures, the sharp increase in positive rates of RVs from the 23rd week of 2020 might be explained by the reopening of schools and kindergartens in Beijing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Beijing/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 9233-9238, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of treatment for intestinal tuberculosis (TB), which remains a common disease worldwide, has not yet been established. The proposed randomized controlled study will aim to compare the efficacy of short-term six-month with nine-month anti-TB therapy for treating intestinal TB. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted in the Affiliated Hangzhou Chest Hospital of Zhejiang University will include a total of 80 patients. Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly assigned to either the six-month (n=40) or nine-month (n=40) treatment group. The primary outcome will be complete response, which is defined as endoscopy displaying active lesion healing at the end of treatment. Participants will be scheduled for follow-up visits once a month in the first three months, then once every three months until the end of the treatment. The last follow-up will be one year after the treatment. Recurrence will be assessed one year after the end of treatment, which is defined as endoscopy displaying recurrent lesions after complete response. DISCUSSION: In addition to the reports of tuberculous lymphadenitis and spinal TB, there are few appropriate randomized trials for the treatment of extrapulmonary TB with appropriate clinical endpoints. We believe that the proposed randomized controlled trial will provide further data on the efficacy of short-term six-month anti-TB therapy in intestinal TB patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial will be registered on ClinicalTrial.gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047227, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 outbreak resurged in Beijing and to assess the effects of three non-pharmaceutical interventions. DESIGN: Descriptive and modelling study based on surveillance data of COVID-19 in Beijing. SETTING: Outbreak in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: The database included 335 confirmed cases of COVID-19. METHODS: To conduct spatiotemporal analyses of the outbreak, we collected individual records on laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 from 11 June 2020 to 5 July 2020 in Beijing, and visitor flow and products transportation data of Xinfadi Wholesale Market. We also built a modified susceptible-exposed-infected-removed model to investigate the effect of interventions deployed in Beijing. RESULTS: We found that the staff working in the market (52.2%) and the people around 10 km to this epicentre (72.5%) were most affected, and the population mobility entering-exiting Xinfadi Wholesale Market significantly contributed to the spread of COVID-19 (p=0.021), but goods flow of the market had little impact on the virus spread (p=0.184). The prompt identification of Xinfadi Wholesale Market as the infection source could have avoided a total of 25 708 (95% CI 13 657 to 40 625) cases if unnoticed transmission lasted for a month. Based on the model, we found that active screening on targeted population by nucleic acid testing alone had the most significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: The non-pharmaceutical interventions deployed in Beijing, including localised lockdown, close-contact tracing and community-based testing, were proved to be effective enough to contain the outbreak. Beijing has achieved an optimal balance between epidemic containment and economic protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 1295-1300, 2021 Aug.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristic of coagulation, possible causes and countermeasures of patients with severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of the 142 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 at Wuhan Third Hospital in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to February 16, 2020 were collected and analyzed retrospective. Among the patients, 17 cases of dead patients were divided into observe group, and 125 cases of cured patients were divided into control group. The clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, influencing factors, anticoagulant therapy, embolization and bleeding events of the two groups were observed. RESULTS: The average hospital stay time in 142 patients was 22 d. For the 17 dead patients in the observe group, the average hospital stay time was 9.9 d, and the D-dimer, prothrombin time, WBC count and Padua score of the patients in the observe group were significantly higher as compared with the patients in the control group. PT(OR=1.064, 95%CI 1.012-1.119) and D-D(OR=1.045, 95%CI 1.027-1.064) were the independent risk factors that causing the death of COVID-19 patients. Among the patients, 36(25.4%) patients received low-molecular-weight heparin for anticoagulant therapy, with the average course of 9.6 d. The cumulative incidence of the embolism of the patients in the observe group was 7(41.2%), while 2(11.8%) patients developed to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), 3 (17.6%) patients occurred acute cerebral infarction and 2 (11.8%) patients occurred acute myocardial infarction. 3 (17.6%) dead patients revealed dominant disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). CONCLUSION: Most patients with severe COVID-19 shows a variety of risk factors for thrombus, and those with coagulation dysfunction shows a high dead rate and rapid disease progression. Therefore, coagulation indicators should be dynamically monitored, and mechanical and drug prevention should be actively carried out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Anticoagulants , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020513, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging the public health response system worldwide, especially in poverty-stricken, war-torn, and least developed countries (LDCs). METHODS: We characterized the epidemiological features and spread dynamics of COVID-19 in Niger, quantified the effective reproduction number (Rt ), evaluated the impact of public health control measures, and estimated the disease burden. RESULTS: As of 4 July 2020, COVID-19 has affected 29 communes of Niger with 1093 confirmed cases, among whom 741 (67.8%) were males. Of them 89 cases died, resulting in a case fatality rate (CFR) of 8.1%. Both attack rates and CFRs were increased with age (P < 0.0001). Health care workers accounted for 12.8% cases. Among the reported cases, 39.3% were isolated and treated at home, and 42.3% were asymptomatic. 74.6% cases were clustered in Niamey, the capital of Niger. The Rt fluctuated in correlation to control measures at different outbreak stages. After the authorities initiated the national response and implemented the strictest control measures, Rt quickly dropped to below the epidemic threshold (<1), and maintained low level afterward. The national disability-adjusted life years attributable to COVID-19 was 1267.38 years in total, of which years of life lost accounted for over 99.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Classic public health control measures such as prohibition of public gatherings, travelling ban, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine at home, are proved to be effective to contain the outbreak in Niger, and provide guidance for controlling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in LDCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Adult , Developing Countries , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Niger/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085096

ABSTRACT

Western countries are experiencing surges in COVID-19 cases and deaths due to increasing public transportation during holiday seasons. This study aimed to explore whether mainland China will face an epidemic rebound during the Spring Festival holiday, when millions of Chinese people travel across the country, and investigate which nucleic acid testing (NAT) strategy is optimal to contain the epidemic. A microsimulation model was used to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission among railway travelers and evaluated the effects of various NAT strategies. An extended susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model was built to forecast local transmission during the Spring Festival period under different scenarios of testing strategies. The total number of infections, testing burden, and medical expenditure were calculated to devise an optimal strategy during the Spring Festival travel rush. Assuming the daily incidence of 20 per 10 million persons, our model simulated that there would be 97 active infections on the day of travel among 10 million railway passengers without NAT and symptom screening. Pre-travel testing could reduce the number of active infections. Compared with no NAT, testing passengers from risk tier 2-4 regions 3 days before travelling could significantly reduce the risk of transmission, and it is more economical and efficient than testing for all passengers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Holidays , Travel , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Seasons
18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5381

ABSTRACT

A review on challenges and countermeasures of clin. testing in the COVID-19 epidemic.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000266

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide are putting themselves at high risks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by treating a large number of patients while lacking protective equipment. We aim to provide a scientific basis for preventing and controlling the COVID-19 infection among HCWs. We used data on COVID-19 cases in the city of Wuhan to compare epidemiological characteristics between HCWs and non-HCWs and explored the risk factors for infection and deterioration among HCWs based on hospital settings. The attack rate (AR) of HCWs in the hospital can reach up to 11.9% in Wuhan. The time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis in HCWs and non-HCWs dropped rapidly over time. From mid-January, the median time interval of HCW cases was significantly shorter than in non-HCW cases. Cases of HCWs and non-HCWs both clustered in northwestern urban districts rather than in rural districts. HCWs working in county-level hospitals in high-risk areas were more vulnerable to COVID-19. HCW cases working in general, ophthalmology, and respiratory departments were prone to deteriorate compared with cases working in the infection department. The AR of COVID-19 in HCWs are higher than in non-HCWs. Multiple factors in hospital settings may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19. Effective measures should be enhanced to prevent HCWs from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23293, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is spreading worldwide. Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC) is a commonly used drug in the treatment of COVID-19. However, there is insufficient evidence for clinical efficacy and safety. METHODS: Two authors will independently search the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, Wanfang database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Science, in English and Chinese. All analysis will be performed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 16.0 software will be used to analyze the eligible data. RESULTS: This protocol will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature listed above, and reliable outcomes about the clinical efficacy and safety of SFJDC in the treatment of COVID-19 will be obtained. CONCLUSIONS: These findings will provide guidance for clinicians and patients using SFJDC for COVID-19 treatment. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020185764.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design
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