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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 297: 115528, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926631

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Eurya chinensis(Chinese Dagang Tea)have been consumed as herbal tea for centuries in Guangdong, China, and have also been used to prevent influenza and treat colds and fevers in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there are no reports on the chemical profile and efficacy of its leaves for the treatment of fever and viral infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical constituents of Eurya chinensis leaves were isolated and identified by phytochemical study and spectroscopic data, E. chinensis extracts and compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activities by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction and antibody-based EC50 assay. The antiviral effect of the main component was confirmed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virtual screening and docking enzyme inhibition experiments were performed to analyze the anti-coronavirus mechanisms of the compounds from E. chinensis leaves. RESULTS: In this study, we found for the first time that E. chinensis leaf extract exhibited inhibitory effects against coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 in vitro. Among 23 monomer compounds isolated from E. chinensis leaf extract, the triterpenoids (betulinic acid, α-amyrin) and the flavonoids (naringenin, eriodictyol and quercetin) showed marked antiviral activity. Microscopic optical analyses further demonstrated that betulinic acid can remove virus particles from HCoV-OC43 infected cells. Virtual screening and docking analysis towards the coronavirus in vogue revealed that betulinic acid was able to bind well to PLpro and Nsp14N7-MTase, and that the flavonoids prefer to bind with PLpro, Nsp3MES, NspP14N7-MTase, Nsp16GTA, and Nsp16SAM. The enzyme inhibition experiments demonstrated that betulinic acid (1) exhibited significant inhibition of PLpro and N7-MTase activity of SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: This study proposes E. chinensis and its triterpenoids and flavonoids as promising potential treatments for coronaviruses.

2.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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