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1.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 60, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wild birds may harbor and transmit viruses that are potentially pathogenic to humans, domestic animals, and other wildlife. RESULTS: Using the viral metagenomic approach, we investigated the virome of cloacal swab specimens collected from 3182 birds (the majority of them wild species) consisting of > 87 different species in 10 different orders within the Aves classes. The virus diversity in wild birds was higher than that in breeding birds. We acquired 707 viral genomes from 18 defined families and 4 unclassified virus groups, with 265 virus genomes sharing < 60% protein sequence identities with their best matches in GenBank comprising new virus families, genera, or species. RNA viruses containing the conserved RdRp domain with no phylogenetic affinity to currently defined virus families existed in different bird species. Genomes of the astrovirus, picornavirus, coronavirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, circovirus, retrovirus, and adenovirus families which include known avian pathogens were fully characterized. Putative cross-species transmissions were observed with viruses in wild birds showing > 95% amino acid sequence identity to previously reported viruses in domestic poultry. Genomic recombination was observed for some genomes showing discordant phylogenies based on structural and non-structural regions. Mapping the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data respectively against the 707 genomes revealed that these viruses showed distribution pattern differences among birds with different habitats (breeding or wild), orders, and sampling sites but no significant differences between birds with different behavioral features (migratory and resident). CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a highly diverse virome highlights the challenges in elucidating the evolution, etiology, and ecology of viruses in wild birds. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Animals , Animals, Wild , Birds , Cloaca , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/genetics , Virome/genetics , Viruses/genetics
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332762

ABSTRACT

Background: We studied whether comorbid conditions impact strength and duration of immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in a US-based, adult population. Methods: Sera (pre-and-post-BNT162b2 vaccination) were tested serially up to 6 months after two doses of vaccine for SARS-CoV-2-anti-Spike neutralizing capacity by pseudotyping assay in 91 Veterans and 33 healthcare workers;neutralizing titers were correlated to clinical variables with multivariate regression. In 36 participants, post-booster effect was measured. Results: After completion of the primary vaccine series, neutralizing antibody IC-50 titers were high at one month (14-fold increase from pre-vaccination), declined at six months (3.3-fold increase), and increased at one month post-booster (52.5-fold increase). Age >65 years (β=-0.94, p=0.001) and malignancy (β=-0.88, p=0.002) significantly reduced strength of response at 1 month. Both strength and durability of response at 6 months, respectively, were negatively impacted by end-stage renal disease [(β=-1.10, p=0.004);(β=-0.66, p=0.014)], diabetes mellitus [(β=-0.57, p=0.032);(β=-0.44, p=0.028)], and systemic steroid use [(β=-0.066, p=0.032);(β=-0.55, p=0.037)]. Interestingly, the booster neutralizing antibody titer response was unaffected by clinical factors. Conclusion: Multiple clinical factors impacted the strength and duration of post-vaccination serum neutralizing antibodies in this adult population. Response to the booster dose was universally robust, however. This suggests that the antibody response to the booster dose benefits from a sustained and effective anti-Spike memory immune response.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents, who had asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe disease, through two visits at months 6 and 12 post-disease onset. The SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, comprising NAb, IgG, and IgM, were assessed by mutually corroborated assays, i.e. neutralization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay (MCLIA). Meanwhile, the T-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins was tested through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and tetramer staining-based flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively. Furthermore, both antibody and T-cell memory levels of the convalescents were positively associated with their disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunities are durable at least until one year after disease onset.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1638, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathogen SARS-CoV-2 has infected hundreds of millions and caused over 5 million deaths to date. Although multiple vaccines are available, breakthrough infections occur especially by emerging variants. Effective therapeutic options such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are still critical. Here, we report the development, cryo-EM structures, and functional analyses of mAbs that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. By high-throughput single cell sequencing of B cells from spike receptor binding domain (RBD) immunized animals, we identify two highly potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAb clones that have single-digit nanomolar affinity and low-picomolar avidity, and generate a bispecific antibody. Lead antibodies show strong inhibitory activity against historical SARS-CoV-2 and several emerging variants of concern. We solve several cryo-EM structures at ~3 Å resolution of these neutralizing antibodies in complex with prefusion spike trimer ectodomain, and reveal distinct epitopes, binding patterns, and conformations. The lead clones also show potent efficacy in vivo against authentic SARS-CoV-2 in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. We also generate and characterize a humanized antibody to facilitate translation and drug development. The humanized clone also has strong potency against both the original virus and the B.1.617.2 Delta variant. These mAbs expand the repertoire of therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
5.
mBio ; : e0370521, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714363

ABSTRACT

Combinations of direct-acting antivirals are needed to minimize drug resistance mutations and stably suppress replication of RNA viruses. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and testing of a number of drug regimens has led to conflicting results. Here, we show that cobicistat, which is an FDA-approved drug booster that blocks the activity of the drug-metabolizing proteins cytochrome P450-3As (CYP3As) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication. Two independent cell-to-cell membrane fusion assays showed that the antiviral effect of cobicistat is exerted through inhibition of spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. In line with this, incubation with low-micromolar concentrations of cobicistat decreased viral replication in three different cell lines including cells of lung and gut origin. When cobicistat was used in combination with remdesivir, a synergistic effect on the inhibition of viral replication was observed in cell lines and in a primary human colon organoid. This was consistent with the effects of cobicistat on two of its known targets, CYP3A4 and P-gp, the silencing of which boosted the in vitro antiviral activity of remdesivir in a cobicistat-like manner. When administered in vivo to Syrian hamsters at a high dose, cobicistat decreased viral load and mitigated clinical progression. These data highlight cobicistat as a therapeutic candidate for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection and as a potential building block of combination therapies for COVID-19. IMPORTANCE The lack of effective antiviral treatments against SARS-CoV-2 is a significant limitation in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Single-drug regimens have so far yielded limited results, indicating that combinations of antivirals might be required, as previously seen for other RNA viruses. Our work introduces the drug booster cobicistat, which is approved by the FDA and typically used to potentiate the effect of anti-HIV protease inhibitors, as a candidate inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Beyond its direct activity as an antiviral, we show that cobicistat can enhance the effect of remdesivir, which was one of the first drugs proposed for treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, the dual action of cobicistat as a direct antiviral and a drug booster can provide a new approach to design combination therapies and rescue the activity of compounds that are only partially effective in monotherapy.

6.
JAMIA Open ; 4(4): ooab111, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684721

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the risk of hospital admission and mortality from COVID-19 to patients and measure the association of race and area-level social vulnerability with those outcomes. Materials and Methods: Using patient records collected at a multisite hospital system from April 2020 to October 2020, the risk of hospital admission and the risk of mortality were estimated for patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and were admitted to the hospital for COVID-19, respectively, using generalized estimating equations while controlling for patient race, patient area-level social vulnerability, and time course of the pandemic. Results: Black individuals were 3.57 as likely (95% CI, 3.18-4.00) to be hospitalized than White people, and patients living in the most disadvantaged areas were 2.61 times as likely (95% CI, 2.26-3.02) to be hospitalized than those living in the least disadvantaged areas. While Black patients had lower raw mortality than White patients, mortality was similar after controlling for comorbidities and social vulnerability. Discussion: Our findings point to potent correlates of race and socioeconomic status, including resource distribution, employment, and shared living spaces, that may be associated with inequitable burden of disease across patients of different races. Conclusions: Public health and policy interventions should address these social factors when responding to the next pandemic.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729990, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662578

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, represents a global crisis. Most patients developed mild/moderate symptoms, and the status of immune system varied in acute and regulatory stages. The crosstalk between immune cells and the dynamic changes of immune cell contact is rarely described. Here, we analyzed the features of immune response of paired peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from the same patients during acute and regulatory stages. Consistent with previous reports, both myeloid and T cells turned less inflammatory and less activated at recovery phase. Additionally, the communication patterns of myeloid-T cell and T-B cell are obviously changed. The crosstalk analysis reveals that typical inflammatory cytokines and several chemokines are tightly correlated with the recovery of COVID-19. Intriguingly, the signal transduction of metabolic factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is altered at recovery phase. Furthermore, we confirmed that the serum levels of IGF1 and several inflammatory cytokines are apparently dampened after the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, these results reveal several potential detection and therapeutic targets that might be used for COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Communication/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 148: 188-196, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has profoundly affected the work of mental health professionals with many transitioning to telehealth to comply with public health measures. This large international study examined the impact of the pandemic on mental health clinicians' telehealth use. METHODS: This survey study was conducted with mental health professionals, primarily psychiatrists and psychologists, registered with WHO's Global Clinical Practice Network (GCPN). 1206 clinicians from 100 countries completed the telehealth section of the online survey in one of six languages between June 4 and July 7, 2020. Participants were asked about their use, training (i.e., aspects of telehealth addressed), perceptions, and concerns. OUTCOMES: Since the pandemic onset, 1092 (90.5%) clinicians reported to have started or increased their telehealth services. Telephone and videoconferencing were the most common modalities. 592 (49.1%) participants indicated that they had not received any training. Clinicians with no training or training that only addressed a single aspect of telehealth practice were more likely to perceive their services as somewhat ineffective than those with training that addressed two or more aspects. Most clinicians indicated positive perceptions of effectiveness and patient satisfaction. Quality of care compared to in-person services and technical issues were the most common concerns. Findings varied by WHO region, country income level, and profession. INTERPRETATION: Findings suggest a global practice change with providers perceiving telehealth as a viable option for mental health care. Increasing local training opportunities and efforts to address clinical and technological concerns is important for meeting ongoing demands.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
9.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-11, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608679

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, internet use and gaming of adolescents had been elevated. On the one hand, internet use and gaming in the period was a good approach to killing quarantined time. However, the increased use of the internet and game of adolescents may also increase the risk of internet addiction. This study aimed to describe the internet behavior changes of adolescents and to understand the impact of clinical features on internet addiction after the adolescents back to school in COVID-19 period. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study using data collected through online investigation in China. Six hundred and twenty-five adolescents completed the online survey. Results indicated that internet addiction, having gaming use behaviors, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Conduct subscale scores and the SDQ Prosocial subscale scores before the COVID-19 outbreak were significant in predicting the internet addiction after the adolescents back to school. The proportion of internet addiction and gaming behaviors among adolescents in China was changed across the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical features before the COVID-19 pandemic could predict Internet addiction risk after the adolescents back to school.

10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 773510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594815

ABSTRACT

Background: Though many literatures documented burnout and occupational hazard among healthcare workers and frontliners during pandemic, not many adopted a systemic approach to look at the resilience among this population. Another under-studied population was the large numbers of global healthcare workers who have been deployed to tackle the crisis of COVID-19 pandemic in the less resourceful regions. We investigated both the mental wellbeing risk and protective factors of a deployed healthcare workers (DHWs) team in Wuhan, the epicenter of the virus outbreak during 2020. Method: A consensual qualitative research approach was adopted with 25 DHWs from H province through semi-structured interviews after 3 months of deployment period. Results: Inductive-Deductive thematic coding with self-reflexivity revealed multi-layered risk and protective factors for DHWs at the COVID-19 frontline. Intensive working schedule and high-risk environment, compounded by unfamiliar work setting and colleagues; local culture adaptation; isolation from usual social circle, strained the DHWs. Meanwhile, reciprocal relationships and "familial relatedness" with patients and colleagues; organizational support to the DHWs and their immediate families back home, formed crucial wellbeing resources in sustaining the DHWs. The dynamic and dialectical relationships between risk and protective factors embedded in multiple layers of relational contexts could be mapped into a socio-ecological framework. Conclusion: Our multidisciplinary study highlights the unique social connectedness between patient-DHWs; within DHWs team; between deploying hospital and DHWs; and between DHWs and the local partners. We recommend five organizational strategies as mental health promotion and capacity building for DHWs to build a resilient network and prevent burnout at the disaster frontline.

11.
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents, who had asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe disease, through two visits at months 6 and 12 post-disease onset. The SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, comprising NAb, IgG, and IgM, were assessed by mutually corroborated assays, i.e. neutralization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay (MCLIA). Meanwhile, the T-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins was tested through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and tetramer staining-based flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively. Furthermore, both antibody and T-cell memory levels of the convalescents were positively associated with their disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunities are durable at least until one year after disease onset.

13.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 666-670, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399757

ABSTRACT

In a precautionary response to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, China's Ministries permanently banned eating and trading in terrestrial wild (non-livestock) animals on 24 February 2020, and extensively updated the list of Fauna under Special State Protection (LFSSP) in 2020 and 2021, in which pangolins (Manidae spp.) were upgraded to the highest protection level. Examining 509 pangolin prosecution records from China Judgements online prior to these changes (01/01/14-31/12/19), we identified that Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces were hotspots for trade in whole pangolins and their scales. Interrupting trade in these three principal southern provinces would substantially fragment the pangolin trade network and reduce supply of imports from other south-east Asian countries. In the context of the revised legislation and strategies intended to prevent wildlife trade, we conclude that targeting interventions at key trade nodes could significantly reduce illegal trade in pangolins, and that this approach could also be effective with other taxa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crime , Endangered Species/legislation & jurisprudence , Pangolins , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , China , Humans , Retrospective Studies
14.
Glob Ment Health (Camb) ; 8: e33, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Fangcang shelter hospitals were opened in Wuhan, China, to isolate and care for patients with mild or moderate symptoms. The patients and staff in the hospitals faced mental health challenges. This paper reports the experiences and mental health needs from them. METHOD: Following the qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the EastWest Lake Fangcang Shelter Hospital, Wuhan on March 2020. Data collection and analysis was based on grounded theory. Open coding was adapted and a structured codebook was developed through coding seminars. The themes and subthemes were then confirmed through thematic analysis. The findings were further explained and integrated in a theoretical framework. RESULTS: A total of 10 COVID-19 patients and 13 staff, including doctors, nurses, psychiatrists, and policemen participated in the interviews. They have common needs, as well as their own needs. The perspectives from the staff also did complement for needs of the patients. The mental health needs were generalized into four themes, that is, basic needs, information and communication, emotional needs, and social support, each with several subthemes. In addition, there were some external factors that regulated the internal needs, which were summarized in a theoretical framework. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the directions on hospital management, mental health services, policy making, and social work to meet the mental health needs of the inpatients and staff from temporary shelter hospitals like Fangcang in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
EMBO J ; 40(18): e108249, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323479

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that causes dysfunctions in multiple human cells and tissues. Studies have looked at the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells mediated by the viral spike protein and human receptor ACE2. However, less is known about the cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Here, we show that the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host pyroptosis by blocking Gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes show enhanced cellular interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression, but reduced IL-1ß secretion. While SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, GSDMD cleavage and pyroptosis are inhibited in infected human monocytes. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein associates with GSDMD in cells and inhibits GSDMD cleavage in vitro and in vivo. The nucleocapsid binds the GSDMD linker region and hinders GSDMD processing by caspase-1. These insights into how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes cellular inflammatory responses may open new avenues for treating COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , THP-1 Cells
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 566990, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291006

ABSTRACT

Chinese emergency department (ED) staff encountered significant mental stress while fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to investigate the prevalence and associated factors for depressive symptoms among ED staff (including physicians, nurses, allied health, and auxiliary ED staff). A cross-sectional national survey of ED staff who were on duty and participated in combating the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted March 1-15, 2020. A total of 6,588 emergency medical personnel from 1,060 hospitals responded to this survey. A majority of respondents scored above 10 points on the PHQ-9 standardized test, which is associated with depressive symptoms. Those aged 31-45, those working in the COVID-19 isolation unit, and those with relatives ≤ 16 or ≥70 years old at home all had statistically significant associations with scoring >10 points. Depressive symptoms among Chinese emergency medical staff were likely quite common during the response to the COVID-19 pandemic and reinforce the importance of targeted ED staff support during future outbreaks.

17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009683, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282318

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global crisis of unimagined dimensions. Currently, Remedesivir is only fully licensed FDA therapeutic. A major target of the vaccine effort is the SARS-CoV-2 spike-hACE2 interaction, and assessment of efficacy relies on time consuming neutralization assay. Here, we developed a cell fusion assay based upon spike-hACE2 interaction. The system was tested by transient co-transfection of 293T cells, which demonstrated good correlation with standard spike pseudotyping for inhibition by sera and biologics. Then established stable cell lines were very well behaved and gave even better correlation with pseudotyping results, after a short, overnight co-incubation. Results with the stable cell fusion assay also correlated well with those of a live virus assay. In summary we have established a rapid, reliable, and reproducible cell fusion assay that will serve to complement the other neutralization assays currently in use, is easy to implement in most laboratories, and may serve as the basis for high throughput screens to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 virus-cell binding and entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/blood , Cell Fusion , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection , Virus Attachment
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11898, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260952

ABSTRACT

Here we document 47,381 individuals from 38 species, including 31 protected species sold between May 2017 and November 2019 in Wuhan's markets. We note that no pangolins (or bats) were traded, supporting reformed opinion that pangolins were not likely the spillover host at the source of the current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. While we caution against the misattribution of COVID-19's origins, the wild animals on sale in Wuhan suffered poor welfare and hygiene conditions and we detail a range of other zoonotic infections they can potentially vector. Nevertheless, in a precautionary response to COVID-19, China's Ministries temporarily banned all wildlife trade on 26th Jan 2020 until the COVID-19 pandemic concludes, and permanently banned eating and trading terrestrial wild (non-livestock) animals for food on 24th Feb 2020. These interventions, intended to protect human health, redress previous trading and enforcement inconsistencies, and will have collateral benefits for global biodiversity conservation and animal welfare.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , China , Chiroptera/virology , Commerce , Food Safety , Humans , Pangolins/microbiology
19.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 369-375, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189538

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the impact of the biggest health crisis for many decades, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), on opioid treatment programs and the strategies adopted for maintaining opioid treatment programs during the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: The difficulty of access to opioid treatment services and the mental health problems accompanying opioid use disorders are the two main challenges to maintaining accessible and effective opioid treatment. Many countries and institutions issued guidance and recommendations to address these challenges. General coping strategies, loosening of policies, telemedicine, and depot buprenorphine are four main strategies to cope with the challenges posed by the pandemic. SUMMARY: There were considerable obstacles to maintaining opioid intervention programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Strategies addressing the obstacles are identified. Research in this area needs to be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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