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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335490

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore whether Lymphocyte-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) can differentiate disease severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and its value as an assistant screening tool for admission to the hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 184 adult COVID-19 patients from the COVID-19 Treatment Center in Heilongjiang Province at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University between January 2020 and March 2021 were included in this study. Patients were divided into asymptomatic infection group, mild group, moderate group, severe group, and critical group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (9th edition). Demographic and clinical data including gender, age, comorbidities, severity of COVID-19, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil proportion (NEUT%), lymphocyte count (LYMPH), lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet (PLT), C-reaction protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum creatinine (SCr), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), and D-Dimer were obtained and collated from medical records at admission, from which sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and LCR were calculated, and all above indicators were compared among groups. Multiple clinical parameters, including LYMPH, CRP and LCR, showed significant differences among groups. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe and critical groups included age, number of comorbidities, WBC, LCR, and AST. Among these factors, number of comorbidities showed the greatest effect, and only WBC and LCR were protective factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe and critical groups was 0.176. The cut-off value of LCR, and the sensitivity and specificity of ROC curve were 1780.7050, 84.6% and 66.2%, respectively. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups included number of comorbidities, PLT, LCR, and SOFA score. Among these factors, SOFA score showed the greatest effect, and LCR was the only protective factor. The area under ROC curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups was 0.106. The cut-off value of LCR and the sensitivity and specificity of ROC curve were 571.2200, 81.3% and 90.0%, respectively. In summary, LCR can differentiate disease severity of COVID-19 patients and serve as a simple and objective assistant screening tool for hospital and ICU admission.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332832

ABSTRACT

The potential for future coronavirus outbreaks highlights the need to develop strategies and tools to broadly target this group of pathogens. Here, using an epitope-agnostic approach, we identified six monoclonal antibodies that bound to spike proteins from all seven human-infecting coronaviruses. Epitope mapping revealed that all six antibodies target the conserved fusion peptide region adjacent to the S2' cleavage site. Two antibodies, COV44-62 and COV44-79, broadly neutralize a range of alpha and beta coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.2, albeit with lower potency than RBD-specific antibodies. In crystal structures of Fabs COV44-62 and COV44-79 with the SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptide, the fusion peptide epitope adopts a helical structure and includes the arginine at the S2' cleavage site. Importantly, COV44-79 limited disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in a Syrian hamster model. These findings identify the fusion peptide as the target of the broadest neutralizing antibodies in an epitope-agnostic screen, highlighting this site as a candidate for next-generation coronavirus vaccine development.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331897

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

4.
Multimed Syst ; : 1-19, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756814

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused outbreaks of new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) around the world. Rapid and accurate detection of COVID-19 coronavirus is an important step in limiting the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. To solve this problem, radiography techniques (such as chest X-rays and computed tomography (CT)) can play an important role in the early prediction of COVID-19 patients, which will help to treat patients in a timely manner. We aimed to quickly develop a highly efficient lightweight CNN architecture for detecting COVID-19-infected patients. The purpose of this paper is to propose a robust deep learning-based system for reliably detecting COVID-19 from chest X-ray images. First, we evaluate the performance of various pre-trained deep learning models (InceptionV3, Xception, MobileNetV2, NasNet and DenseNet201) recently proposed for medical image classification. Second, a lightweight shallow convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture is proposed for classifying X-ray images of a patient with a low false-negative rate. The data set used in this work contains 2,541 chest X-rays from two different public databases, which have confirmed COVID-19 positive and healthy cases. The performance of the proposed model is compared with the performance of pre-trained deep learning models. The results show that the proposed shallow CNN provides a maximum accuracy of 99.68% and more importantly sensitivity, specificity and AUC of 99.66%, 99.70% and 99.98%. The proposed model has fewer parameters and low complexity compared to other deep learning models. The experimental results of our proposed method show that it is superior to the existing state-of-the-art methods. We believe that this model can help healthcare professionals to treat COVID-19 patients through improved and faster patient screening.

5.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-486173

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

6.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 17, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692628

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlights the need of developing vaccines with broad protection. Here, according to the immune-escape capability and evolutionary convergence, the representative SARS-CoV-2 strains carrying the hotspot mutations were selected. Then, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mutI-tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, which combined heterologous RBDs from different representative strains into a hybrid immunogen and integrated immune-escape hotspots into a single antigen. When compared with a homo-tri-RBD vaccine candidate in the stage of phase II trial, of which all three RBDs are derived from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain, mutI-tri-RBD induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta and Beta variants, and maintained a similar immune response against the prototype strain. Pseudo-virus neutralization assay demonstrated that mutI-tri-RBD also induced broadly strong neutralizing activities against all tested 23 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The in vivo protective capability of mutI-tri-RBD was further validated in hACE2-transgenic mice challenged by the live virus, and the results showed that mutI-tri-RBD provided potent protection not only against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also against the Delta and Beta variants.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315226

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has adverse effects on patients’ respiratory system. Therefore the pulmonary rehabilitation is particularly necessary for COVID-19 patients. A recent qualitative study indicated that patients perceived the impact of fatigue on their daily lives to be a key factor in decreasing their quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and needs of physical fitness and breathing training, and to explore the impact of physical fitness and breathing training on COVID-19 patients. Methods: From Feb 16, 2020 to Apr 6, 2020, a self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge and needs of physical fitness and breathing training in COVID-19 inpatients. And then the participants received an intervention about physical fitness and breathing training which lasted 2 weeks. The 9-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale (FACIT-F) was used to measure COVID-19 related fatigue before and after the intervention. Findings: According to a 5-point Likert scale, the 133 COVID-19 patients had only an "not really" and "uncertain" knowledge of physical fitness and breathing training (2.47±1.17). 86.98% of the patients expected to receive guidance of physical fitness and breathing training through video teaching. Differences were observed in fatigue, General fatigue component (15.0(8.0) vs. 19.0(10.0), P<0.01);Functional ability component (4.0 (3.0) vs. 7 .0(4.0), P<0.01);Psychological component (6.0(5.0) vs. 7.0 (5.0), P<0.01), after the intervention, Moderate degree (36.09% vs. 28.57% ) alleviated to mild degree (51.12% vs. 66.91%). SpO2-% 86 ((75, 89) vs. 92(89, 98), P<0.001), and Oxygen flow-L/min (2(0,4) vs. 8(3,9), P<0.001). In our study, 130 healthcare professionals took part in this program. None of the participants reported covid-19 related symptoms. When the participants returned home, they all tested negative for SARSCoV- 2 specific nucleic acids and IgM or IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.7%). Interpretation COVID-19 patients had insufficient knowledge of physical fitness and breathing training for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients should be guided to receive training, which can be benefit for patients.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310227

ABSTRACT

Objective: To elucidate the current situation of breastfeeding in neonates in China and to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted through the mother’s milk.DesignA nationwide cross-sectional surveySettingThree hundred and forty-four member hospitals of the Chinese Neonatologist Association network from 31 provinces in China.SampleNine hundred and fourteen neonatologistsMain outcome measuresThese included (1) breastfeeding practices in the obstetrics ward;(2) breastfeeding implementation for neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU);(3) presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the breast milk of COVID-19 positive mothers based on the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT) test results.ResultsBreastfeeding was undermined during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 344 hospitals, 153 (44.48%) centers received breast milk from milk banks to feed babies in NICU. Eight (2.33%) Level III centers performed SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests on breast milk from 15 mothers with COVID-19 and found no SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence in breast milk. Moreover, none of the mothers engaged in breastfeeding. Further, only 52 (5.69%) neonatologists supported breastfeeding in mothers with COVID-19.ConclusionsBased on the available evidence, the benefits of breastfeeding for both infants and mothers outweigh the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through breast milk. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, medical staff should encourage breastfeeding, in keeping with normal infant feeding guidelines, and provide skilled support to all mothers who choose to breastfeed.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 786464, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599609

ABSTRACT

Natural flavonoids, formononetin and ononin, possess antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Many complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 make patients difficult to recover. Flavonoids, especially formononetin and ononin, have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 and improve myocardial injury. However, their poor water solubility, poor oral absorption, high toxicity, and high-cost purification limit industrial practical application. Succinylation modification provides a solution for the above problems. Formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (FMP), a new compound, was succinyl glycosylated from formononetin by the organic solvent tolerant bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FJ18 in a 10.0% DMSO (v/v) system. The water solubility of the new compound was improved by over 106 times compared with formononetin, which perfectly promoted the application of formononetin and ononin. The conversion rate of formononetin (0.5 g/L) was almost 94.2% at 24 h, while the yield of formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside could achieve 97.2%. In the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute ischemia mice model, the myocardial injury was significantly improved with a high dose (40 mg/kg) of formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside. The lactate dehydrogenase level was decreased, and the catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were increased after formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside treatment. Thus, formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside has high water solubility, low toxicity, and shows significant antimyocardial ischemia effects.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296434

ABSTRACT

Background: The onset of various kidney diseases have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. However, detailed clinical and pathological examination of kidney injury in patients receiving inactivated vaccines are lacking.<br><br>Methods: We screened and analyzed patients with newly diagnosed kidney diseases after inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Peking University First Hospital from January 2021 to August 2021. We obtained samples of blood, urine, and renal biopsy tissues. Clinical and laboratory information, as well as light microscopy, immunostaining and ultrastructural observation were described. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein and Nucleoprotein were stained using immune-fluorescence technique in the kidney biopsy samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were tested using magnetic particle chemiluminescence immunoassay.<br><br>Findings: The study group included 17 patients, including immune complex mediated kidney diseases (IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis), podocytopathy (minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and others (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, anti-GBM nephritis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, and thrombotic microangiopathy). Seven patients (41.18%) developed renal disease after the first dose and 10 (58.82%) after the second dose. We found no definitive evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleoprotein deposition in the kidney biopsy samples. Serological markers implicated abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. Treatment and follow-up (median = 86 days) showed that biopsy diagnosis informed treatment and prognosis in all patients.<br><br>Interpretation: We observed various kidney diseases following inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. Our findings provide an evidence against direct vaccine protein deposition as the major pathomechanism, but implicate abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. These findings expand our understanding of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine renal safety.<br><br>Funding: This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91742205, 82170711, 81800636, 82070733, 81625004), Clinical Medicine Plus X—Young Scholars Project of Peking University (PKU2021LCXQ017), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-5-046), Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010, China), and Beijing Young Scientist Program (BJJWZYJH01201910001006).<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the institutional review board of Peking University First Hospital (2021-352) and the Committee on Human Subject Research and Ethics of Yunnan University (CHSRE2021020). Written Informed Consent Form was obtained from each participant.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 770656, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518506

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, coronavirus (CoV) has emerged frequently in the population. Three CoVs (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) have been identified as highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HP-hCoVs). Particularly, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 warns that HP-hCoVs present a high risk to human health. Like other viruses, HP-hCoVs interact with their host cells in sophisticated manners for infection and pathogenesis. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the interference of HP-hCoVs in multiple cellular processes and their impacts on viral infection. HP-hCoVs employed various strategies to suppress and evade from immune response, including shielding viral RNA from recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), impairing IFN-I production, blocking the downstream pathways of IFN-I, and other evasion strategies. This summary provides a comprehensive view of the interplay between HP-hCoVs and the host cells, which is helpful to understand the mechanism of viral pathogenesis and develop antiviral therapies.

12.
Mol Biomed ; 1(1): 14, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515460

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted extensive drug searching interets for the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Although currently several of clinically used "old" drugs have been repurposed to this new disease for the urgent clinical investigation, there is still great demand for more effective therapies for the anti-infections. Here we report the discovery that an "old" drug Emetine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus replication and displayed virus entry blocking effect in Vero cells at low dose. In addition, Emetine could significantly reduce the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein level and moderately reduce the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) protein level in the M1 polarized THP-1 macrophages. In vivo animal pharmacokinetics (PK) study revealed that Emetine was enriched in the lung tissue and had a long retention time (over 12 h). With 1 mg/kg single oral dose, the effective concentration of Emetine in lung was up to 1.8 µM (mice) and 1.6 µM (rats) at 12 h, which is over 200-fold higher than the EC50 of the drug. The potent in vitro antiviral replication efficacy and the high enrichment in target tissue, combining with the well documented safety profiles in human indicate that low dose of Emetine might be a potentially effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection therapy.

13.
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(616): eabj5413, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406601

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern threatens the efficacy of existing vaccines and therapeutic antibodies and underscores the need for additional antibody-based tools that potently neutralize variants by targeting multiple sites of the spike protein. We isolated 216 monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 from plasmablasts and memory B cells collected from patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The three most potent antibodies targeted distinct regions of the receptor binding domain (RBD), and all three neutralized the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta variants. The crystal structure of the most potent antibody, CV503, revealed that it binds to the ridge region of SARS-CoV-2 RBD, competes with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, and has limited contact with key variant residues K417, E484, and N501. We designed bispecific antibodies by combining nonoverlapping specificities and identified five bispecific antibodies that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection at concentrations of less than 1 ng/ml. Through a distinct mode of action, three bispecific antibodies cross-linked adjacent spike proteins using dual N-terminal domain­RBD specificities. One bispecific antibody was greater than 100-fold more potent than a cocktail of its parent monoclonals in vitro and prevented clinical disease in a hamster model at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Two bispecific antibodies in our panel comparably neutralized the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants and wild-type virus. Furthermore, a bispecific antibody that neutralized the Beta variant protected hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 expressing the E484K mutation. Thus, bispecific antibodies represent a promising next-generation countermeasure against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(6): 2107-2119, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345193

ABSTRACT

The virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected over 190 million people to date, causing a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 relies on binding of its spike glycoprotein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for infection. In addition to fever, cough, and shortness of breath, severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in the rapid overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This overactive immune response is known as a cytokine storm, which leads to several serious clinical manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and myocardial injury. Cardiovascular disorders such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure not only enhance disease progression at the onset of infection, but also arise in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Tissue-specific differentiated cells and organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) serve as an excellent model to address how SARS-CoV-2 damages the lungs and the heart. In this review, we summarize the molecular basis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the current clinical perspectives of the bidirectional relationship between the cardiovascular system and viral progression. Furthermore, we also address the utility of hPSCs as a dynamic model for SARS-CoV-2 research and clinical translation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cardiovascular System/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pluripotent Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(21): 5955-5962, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a highly contagious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is wreaking havoc around the world due to continuous spread among close contacts mainly via droplets, aerosols, contaminated hands or surfaces. Therefore, centralized isolation of close contacts and suspected patients is an important measure to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. At present, the quarantine duration in most countries is 14 d due to the fact that the incubation period of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is usually identified as 1-14 d with median estimate of 4-7.5 d. Since COVID-19 patients in the incubation period are also contagious, cases with an incubation period of more than 14 d need to be evaluated. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine of The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University on April 5 due to a cough with sputum and shortness of breath. On April 10, the patient was transferred to the Fever Clinic for further treatment due to close contact to one confirmed COVID-19 patient in the same room. During the period from April 10 to May 6, nucleic acid and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were tested 7 and 4 times, respectively, all of which were negative. On May 7, the patient developed fever with a maximum temperature of 39℃, and his respiratory difficulties had deteriorated. The results of nucleic acid and antibody detection of SARS-CoV-2 were positive. On May 8, the nucleic acid and antibody detection of SARS-CoV-2 by Heilongjiang Provincial Center for Disease Control were also positive, and the patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 and reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of the SARS-CoV-2 incubation period. Further epidemiological investigations and clinical observations are urgently needed to identify the optimal incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 and formulate rational and evidence-based quarantine policies for COVID-19 accordingly.

18.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(20): 5420-5426, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328292

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is a major public health emergency characterized by fast spread, a wide range of infections, and enormous control difficulty. Since the end of December 2019, Wuhan has become the first core infection area of China's COVID-19 outbreak. Since March 2020, the domestic worst-hit areas have moved to the Heilongjiang Province due to the increased number of imported COVID-19 cases. Herein, we reported the major COVID-19 outbreak, which caused a rebound of the epidemic in Harbin, China. After the rebound, different levels of causes for the recurrence of COVID-19, including city-level, hospital-level, and medical staff-level cause, were investigated. Meanwhile, corresponding countermeasures to prevent the recurrence of the epidemic were also carried out on the city level, hospital level, and medical staff level, which eventually showed the effect of infection control function in a pandemic. In this study, we described the complete transmission chain, analyzed the causes of the outbreak, and proposed corresponding countermeasures from our practical clinical experience, which can be used as a valuable reference for COVID-19 control.

19.
Gene ; 801: 145854, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Both COVID-19 and influenza are viral respiratory tract infections and the epidemics of viral respiratory tract infections remain highly prevalent with lethal consequences in susceptible individuals. Expression of ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium recruits leukocytes which initiates inflammation. IL-6 induces ICAM-1. Both ICAM-1 and IL-6 can be enhanced in influenza virus infection and COVID-19 patients. Besides initiation of virus entry host cells, whether HA alone, instead of whole virus, of influenza has the effects on expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in vascular endothelium with injury in the lungs, remains to be demonstrated. METHODS: RT-qPCR and Western blot as well as histopathologic examination were used to examine mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 as well as pathological injury in the lung tissues, respectively. RESULTS: After incubation of the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) with HA of H1N1 for 24 h, the mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs were increased in group of 5 µg/ml concentration with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice was shown 12 h after tail intravenous injection with 100 µl of HA (50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml in normal saline), including widened alveolar spaces with angiotelectasis in alveolar wall, alveolar luminal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, alveolar luminal erythrocyte effusion. CONCLUSIONS: HA alone, instead of whole H1N1 virus, induced more expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6, two molecules involving in pathological and inflammatory responses, in HUVECs and pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice. This knowledge provides a new HA-targeted potential direction for prevention and treatment of disease related to H1N1 infection.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Front Med ; 16(1): 102-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303365

ABSTRACT

Consecutively hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China were retrospectively enrolled from January 2020 to March 2020 to investigate the association between the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RAS-I) and the outcome of this disease. Associations between the use of RAS-I (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)), ACEI, and ARB and in-hospital mortality were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models in overall and subgroup of hypertension status. A total of 2771 patients with COVID-19 were included, with moderate and severe cases accounting for 45.0% and 36.5%, respectively. A total of 195 (7.0%) patients died. RAS-I (hazard ratio (HR)= 0.499, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.325-0.767) and ARB (HR = 0.410, 95% CI 0.240-0.700) use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19. For patients with hypertension, RAS-I and ARB applications were also associated with a reduced risk of mortality with HR of 0.352 (95% CI 0.162-0.764) and 0.279 (95% CI 0.115-0.677), respectively. RAS-I exhibited protective effects on the survival outcome of COVID-19. ARB use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
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