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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741138

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus uses its highly glycosylated trimeric Spike protein to bind to the cell surface receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) glycoprotein and facilitate host cell entry. We utilized glycomics-informed glycoproteomics to characterize site-specific microheterogeneity of glycosylation for a recombinant trimer Spike mimetic immunogen and for a soluble version of human ACE2. We combined this information with bioinformatics analyses of natural variants and with existing 3D structures of both glycoproteins to generate molecular dynamics simulations of each glycoprotein both alone and interacting with one another. Our results highlight roles for glycans in sterically masking polypeptide epitopes and directly modulating Spike-ACE2 interactions. Furthermore, our results illustrate the impact of viral evolution and divergence on Spike glycosylation, as well as the influence of natural variants on ACE2 receptor glycosylation. Taken together, these data can facilitate immunogen design to achieve antibody neutralization and inform therapeutic strategies to inhibit viral infection.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 172, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733534

ABSTRACT

No effective drug treatments are available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host-directed therapies targeting the underlying aberrant immune responses leading to pulmonary tissue damage, death, or long-term functional disability in survivors require clinical evaluation. We performed a parallel assigned controlled, non-randomized, phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) infusions in the treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease. The study enrolled 18 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 9 for each group). The treatment group received three cycles of intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs (3 × 107 cells per infusion) on days 0, 3, and 6. Both groups received standard COVID-treatment regimens. Adverse events, duration of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, length of hospitalization, serial chest computed tomography (CT) images, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, dynamics of cytokines, and IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed. No serious UC-MSCs infusion-associated adverse events were observed. Two patients receiving UC-MSCs developed transient facial flushing and fever, and one patient developed transient hypoxia at 12 h post UC-MSCs transfusion. Mechanical ventilation was required in one patient in the treatment group compared with four in the control group. All patients recovered and were discharged. Our data show that intravenous UC-MSCs infusion in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 is safe and well tolerated. Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled, double-blinded trials with long-term follow-up are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of UC-MSCs to reduce deaths and improve long-term treatment outcomes in patients with serious COVID-19.

4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726466

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus uses its highly glycosylated trimeric Spike protein to bind to the cell surface receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) glycoprotein and facilitate host cell entry. We utilized glycomics-informed glycoproteomics to characterize site-specific microheterogeneity of glycosylation for a recombinant trimer Spike mimetic immunogen and for a soluble version of human ACE2. We combined this information with bioinformatics analyses of natural variants and with existing 3D structures of both glycoproteins to generate molecular dynamics simulations of each glycoprotein both alone and interacting with one another. Our results highlight roles for glycans in sterically masking polypeptide epitopes and directly modulating Spike-ACE2 interactions. Furthermore, our results illustrate the impact of viral evolution and divergence on Spike glycosylation, as well as the influence of natural variants on ACE2 receptor glycosylation. Taken together, these data can facilitate immunogen design to achieve antibody neutralization and inform therapeutic strategies to inhibit viral infection.

5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e168, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694341

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify clinical features for prognosing mortality risk using machine-learning methods in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective study of the inpatients with COVID-19 admitted from 15 January to 15 March 2020 in Wuhan is reported. The data of symptoms, comorbidity, demographic, vital sign, CT scans results and laboratory test results on admission were collected. Machine-learning methods (Random Forest and XGboost) were used to rank clinical features for mortality risk. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify clinical features with statistical significance. The predictors of mortality were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and age based on 500 bootstrapped samples. A multivariate logistic regression model was formed to predict mortality 292 in-sample patients with area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0.9521, which was better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.8501) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.4530). An out-sample data set of 13 patients was further tested to show our model (AUROC of 0.6061) was also better than CURB-65 (AUROC of 0.4608) and the machine-learning-based model (AUROC of 0.2292). LDH, CRP and age can be used to identify severe patients with COVID-19 on hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Young Adult
6.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693628

ABSTRACT

To analyze clinical characteristics and potential predictors of disease severity in patients with COVID-19.Clinical data from 64 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 64 patients, 37 were male and 27 were female. Their mean age was 47.8 years, 43 (67.2%) cases were non-severe, 21 (32.8%) were severe, and 2 patients (3.1%) died. Age and serum ferritin were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity. Repeated monitoring of ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactic acid dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during COVID-19 treatment may assist the prediction of disease severity and evaluation of treatment effects. There were no significant differences in the duration of severe illness or the number of days on high-level respiratory support between a low-dose methylprednisolone group and a high-dose methylprednisolone group. The mean number of days in hospital in the high dose group was higher than that in the low-dose group. Repeated monitoring of ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactic acid dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during COVID-19 treatment may assist the prediction of disease severity and evaluation of treatment effects.

7.
Hepatol Int ; 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytokine storm has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examine the incidence of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing compensated chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS: From 20 Jan 2020 to 7 Feb 2020, we studied 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to either Fuyang Second People's Hospital (FYSPH), Anhui or the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (PLAGH) in Beijing, China. Pre-existing CLD includes those with liver cirrhosis assessed by APRI/FIB-4 score and /or ultrasound; NAFLD as identified by either ultrasound or hepatic steatosis index with significant liver fibrosis and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or hepatitis C (CHC) infection. The diagnosis, grading of severity and clinical management of COVID-19 patients complied to the guideline and clinical protocol issued by the China National Health Commission. All patients had liver function test at least twice weekly till discharge with full recovery or death. RESULTS: In total, 3 had liver cirrhosis, 6 patients had CHB, 13 had NAFLD with significant liver fibrosis (one also had CHB). On admission, none had liver decompensation. COVID-19 disease progression was significantly less frequent in non-CLD patients (10/118 8.5%) than CLD patients (13/22 59.1%, p < 0.001). One patient with CLD had acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). CONCLUSION: Disease progression is significantly higher in those COVID-19 patients with CLD as compared to those with no CLD. ACLF can also occur in patient with pre-existing compensated CLD who had severe COVID-19.

8.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(9): 648-655, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed. RESULTS: An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3410, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635899

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235247, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626689

ABSTRACT

China reported a major outbreak of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, from mid-January till mid-March 2020. We review the epidemic virus growth and decline curves in China using a phenomenological logistic growth model to summarize the outbreak dynamics using three parameters that characterize the epidemic's timing, rate and peak. During the initial phase, the number of virus cases doubled every 2.7 days (range 2.2-4.4 across provinces). The rate of increase in the number of reported cases peaked approximately 10 days after suppression measures were started on 23-25 January 2020. The peak in the number of reported sick cases occurred on average 18 days after the start of suppression measures. From the time of starting measures till the peak, the number of cases increased by a factor 39 in the province Hubei, and by a factor 9.5 for all of China (range: 6.2-20.4 in the other provinces). Complete suppression took up to 2 months (range: 23-57d.), during which period severe restrictions, social distancing measures, testing and isolation of cases were in place. The suppression of the disease in China has been successful, demonstrating that suppression is a viable strategy to contain SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(8): 2585-2591.e1, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is dependent on understanding the underlying factors that contribute to the disease severity. In the absence of effective antiviral therapies, other host immunomodulatory therapies such as targeting inflammatory response are currently being used without clear evidence of their effectiveness. Because inflammation is an essential component of host antiviral mechanisms, therapies targeting inflammation may adversely affect viral clearance and disease outcome. OBJECTIVE: To understand whether the persistent presence of the virus is a key determinant in the disease severity during COVID-19 and to determine whether the viral reactivation in some patients is associated with infectious viral particles. METHODS: The data for patients were available including the onset of the disease, duration of viral persistence, measurements of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and C-reactive protein, chest imaging, disease symptoms, and their durations among others. Follow-up tests were performed to determine whether the viral negative status persists after their recovery. RESULTS: Our data show that patients with persistent viral presence (>16 days) have more severe disease outcomes including extensive lung involvement and requirement of respiratory support. Two patients who died of COVID-19 were virus-positive at the time of their death. Four patients demonstrated virus-positive status on the follow-up tests, and these patient samples were sent to viral culture facility where virus culture could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that viral persistence is the key determining factor of the disease severity. Therapies that may impair the viral clearance may impair the host recovery from COVID-19.

13.
Stat. Biopharm. Res. ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-574529

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had and continues to have major impacts on planned and ongoing clinical trials. Its effects on trial data create multiple potential statistical issues. The scale of impact is unprecedented, but when viewed individually, many of the issues are well defined and feasible to address. A number of strategies and recommendations are put forward to assess and address issues related to estimands, missing data, validity and modifications of statistical analysis methods, need for additional analyses, ability to meet objectives and overall trial interpretability.

14.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 477-480, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-537118

ABSTRACT

During a disease pandemic, there is still a requirement to perform postmortem examinations within the context of legal considerations. The management of the dead from COVID-19 should not impede the medicolegal investigation of the death where required by the authorities and legislation but additional health and safety precautions should be adopted for the necessary postmortem procedures. The authors have therefore used the craniotomy box in an innovative way to enable a safe alternative for skull and brain removal procedures on suspected or confirmed COVID-19 bodies. The craniotomy box technique was tested on a confirmed COVID-19 positive body where a full postmortem examination was performed by a team of highly trained personnel in a negative pressure Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) autopsy suite in the National Institute of Forensic Medicine (IPFN) Malaysia. This craniotomy box is a custom-made transparent plastic box with five walls but without a floor. Two circular holes were made in one wall for the placement of arms in order to perform the skull opening procedure. A swab to detect the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was taken from the interior surface of the craniotomy box after the procedure. The result from the test using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) proved that an additional barrier provided respiratory protection by containing the aerosols generated from the skull opening procedure. This innovation ensures procedures performed inside this craniotomy box are safe for postmortem personnel performing high risk autopsies during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Craniotomy/instrumentation , Infection Control/instrumentation , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pathologists , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aerosols , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brain/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Craniotomy/adverse effects , Equipment Contamination , Equipment Design , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protective Clothing , Respiratory Protective Devices , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 329, 2020 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although people of all ages are susceptible to the novel coronavirus infection, which is presently named "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19), there has been relatively few cases reported among children. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and the differences from adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We report one pediatric case of COVID-19. A 14-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a symptom of fever, and was diagnosed with a mild form of COVID-19. The child's mother and grandmother also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, the lymphocyte counts were normal. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed scattered ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe close to the pleura and resorption after the treatment. The patient continued to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharyngeal swabs and stool at 17 days after the disappearance of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The present pediatric case of COVID-19 was acquired through household transmission, and the symptoms were mild. Lymphocyte counts did not significantly decrease. The RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in stool and nasopharyngeal swabs remained positive for an extended period of time after the disappearance of symptoms. This suggests that attention should be given to the potential contagiousness of pediatric COVID-19 cases after clinical recovery.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus , Feces/virology , Fever/etiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , Infant , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(6): 1393-1399, 2020 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to clarify high-risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with multivariate analysis and establish a predictive model of disease progression to help clinicians better choose a therapeutic strategy. METHODS: All consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to Fuyang Second People's Hospital or the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital between 20 January and 22 February 2020 were enrolled and their clinical data were retrospectively collected. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify risk factors associated with progression, which were then were incorporated into a nomogram to establish a novel prediction scoring model. ROC was used to assess the performance of the model. RESULTS: Overall, 208 patients were divided into a stable group (n = 168, 80.8%) and a progressive group (n = 40,19.2%) based on whether their conditions worsened during hospitalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that comorbidity, older age, lower lymphocyte count, and higher lactate dehydrogenase at presentation were independent high-risk factors for COVID-19 progression. Incorporating these 4 factors, the nomogram achieved good concordance indexes of .86 (95% confidence interval [CI], .81-.91) and well-fitted calibration curves. A novel scoring model, named as CALL, was established; its area under the ROC was .91 (95% CI, .86-.94). Using a cutoff of 6 points, the positive and negative predictive values were 50.7% (38.9-62.4%) and 98.5% (94.7-99.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using the CALL score model, clinicians can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce the mortality of COVID-19 with more accurate and efficient use of medical resources.

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