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1.
Anal Chem ; 94(15): 5909-5917, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882715

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 cellular infection is mediated by the heavily glycosylated spike protein. Recombinant versions of the spike protein and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) are necessary for seropositivity assays and can potentially serve as vaccines against viral infection. RBD plays key roles in the spike protein's structure and function, and thus, comprehensive characterization of recombinant RBD is critically important for biopharmaceutical applications. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been widely used to characterize post-translational modifications in proteins, including glycosylation. Most studies of RBDs were performed at the proteolytic peptide (bottom-up proteomics) or released glycan level because of the technical challenges in resolving highly heterogeneous glycans at the intact protein level. Herein, we evaluated several online separation techniques: (1) C2 reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), (2) capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), and (3) acrylamide-based monolithic hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) to separate intact recombinant RBDs with varying combinations of glycosylations (glycoforms) for top-down mass spectrometry (MS). Within the conditions we explored, the HILIC method was superior to RPLC and CZE at separating RBD glycoforms, which differ significantly in neutral glycan groups. In addition, our top-down analysis readily captured unexpected modifications (e.g., cysteinylation and N-terminal sequence variation) and low abundance, heavily glycosylated proteoforms that may be missed by using glycopeptide data alone. The HILIC top-down MS platform holds great potential in resolving heterogeneous glycoproteins for facile comparison of biosimilars in quality control applications.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, Liquid , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Mass Spectrometry , Polysaccharides/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
2.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 46, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that mediate antitumour and antiviral responses. However, very little is known about how ageing influences human NK cells, especially at the single-cell level. METHODS: We applied single-cell sequencing (scRNA-seq) to human lymphocytes and NK cells from 4 young and 4 elderly individuals and then analysed the transcriptome data using Seurat. We detected the proportion and phenotype of NK cell subsets in peripheral blood samples from a total of 62 young and 52 elderly healthy donors by flow cytometry. We also used flow cytometry to examine the effector functions of NK cell subsets upon IFN-α/IL-12+IL-15/K562/IL-2 stimulation in vitro in peripheral blood samples from a total of 64 young and 63 elderly healthy donors. We finally studied and integrated single-cell transcriptomes of NK cells from 15 young and 41 elderly COVID-19 patients with those from 12 young and 6 elderly healthy control individuals to investigate the impacts of ageing on NK cell subsets in COVID-19 disease. RESULTS: We discovered a memory-like NK subpopulation (NK2) exhibiting the largest distribution change between elderly and young individuals among lymphocytes. Notably, we discovered a unique NK subset that was predominantly CD52+ NK2 cells (NK2.1). These memory-like NK2.1 cells accumulated with age, exhibited proinflammatory characteristics, and displayed a type I interferon response state. Integrative analyses of a large-cohort COVID-19 dataset and our datasets revealed that NK2.1 cells from elderly COVID-19 patients are enriched for type I interferon signalling, which is positively correlated with disease severity in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a unique memory-like NK cell subset that accumulates with ageing and correlates with disease severity in COVID-19. Our results identify memory-like NK2.1 cells as a potential target for developing immunotherapies for infectious diseases and for addressing age-related dysfunctions of the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transcriptome , Aged , Aging/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325265

ABSTRACT

Background: The optimal vaccination is an essential public health strategy to control the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the virus epidemic by developing an age-specific model based on the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China.Methods: An age-specific mathematical model based on the data of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019 to March 16, 2020 was developed, with two scenarios for controlling transmission and reducing severity to estimate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy.Findings: Before the lockdown of the Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 was among 14-44 years old (effective reproduction number, Reff = 4·28), followed by 14-44 to 45-64 years old (Reff = 2·61), and 14-44 to ≥ 65 years old (Reff = 1·69). We found that the first priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate nearly 90% individuals of 14-44 years old, followed by 90% individuals of 45-64 years old. However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing severity defined individuals ≥ 65 years old in vaccination priority groups, followed by 14-44 years old groups.Interpretation: The scenario analyses suggested that the optimal vaccination strategy aimed at controlling the transmission of COVID-19 might be to vaccinate about 90% of 15-44 years old individuals;while for reducing severity, the vaccination priority should focus on the older population. Furthermore, we also presented evidence about the heterogeneity of age-specific transmission and vaccination in different areas.Funding Statement: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Science and Technology Program of Fujian Province.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306232

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since 2019,the COVID-19(a1) epidemic has rapidly spread across China,and the global spread trendappeared,which not only endangered people’s health, but also had a huge impact on the social economy.Infective endocarditis (IE(a2)) is aninflammation of the inner wall of the cardiac valves or ventricle caused by direct infection of bacteria,fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms. It is related to several and the main etiological agents are the Gram-positive cocci. At present,there is limited evidence in the literature for both conditions. Case presentation Here,we report a case of Infective endocarditis concomitant with COVID-19. A blood culture results and toe secretions culture indicated MRSA(a3) strain infection.Because it has no special past history,we consider that is communityassociated (CA-MRSA )strain. TTE(a4) did not identify endocardial vegetations. TEE(a5) was then performed and outlined IE of anterior mitral valve leaflet. CT scan of the patient revealed multiple diffuse abscesses. We tried high-flow nasal cannula(HFNC(a6)) for COVID-19,and we used a combined anti-infection approach(daptomycin, Fosfomycin, linezolid). Conclusion With aggressive anti-infective therapy,our case has achieved a good treatment outcome.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 787190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686566

ABSTRACT

As a major public health emergency, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge impact on economies all over the world. The experience of post-COVID-19 economic recovery is of great significance for achieving sustainable and high-quality economic development. Taking the economic development of China as an example, based on the theory of resilient economy and related measurement methods, this article selects five major indicators that are generally recognized as closely connected with economic resilience to construct a system of economic resilience indicators. In addition, the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is used to predict gross domestic product (GDP) under the scenario of no epidemic. The actual value of China's GDP is compared with the predicted value in the absence of the epidemic, verifying that strong economic resilience plays an important role in the country's economic response to major shocks. Based on the results, policy recommendations are made for countries to strengthen their economic resilience in the postepidemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Economic Development , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 268: 118844, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509576

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the effects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on air quality in cities in southwest China, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and other online equipments were used to measure the air pollution in Chengdu, one of the megacities in this area, before and during the lockdown period. It was found that the concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) decreased by 38.6%, 77.5%, 47.0%, 35.1% and 14.1%, respectively, while the concentration of ozone (O3) increased by 57.5% from the time before to the time during lockdown. All particles collected during the study period could be divided into eight categories: biomass burning (BB), coal combustion (CC), vehicle emissions (VE), cooking emissions (CE), Dust, K-nitrate (K-NO3), K-sulfate (K-SO4) and K-sulfate-nitrate (K-SN) particles, and their contributions changed significantly after the beginning of lockdown. Compared to before lockdown, the contribution of VE particles experienced the largest reduction (by 14.9%), whereas the contributions of BB and CE particles increased by 7.0% and 7.3%, respectively, during the lockdown period. Regional transmission was critical for pollution formation before lockdown, whereas the pollution that occurred during the lockdown period was caused mainly by locally emitted particles (such as VE, CE and BB particles). Weighted potential source contribution function (WPSCF) analysis further verified and emphasized the difference in the contribution of regional transmission for pollution formation before and during lockdown. In addition, the potential source area and intensity of the particles emitted from different sources or formation mechanisms were quite different.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480778

ABSTRACT

Background: This study determined the knowledge and attitudes regarding COVID-19 and assessed the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among the Chinese population. Methods: An online and offline cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 18 June 2021 among the Chinese population. Demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, values, impact, and autonomy regarding the COVID-19 vaccine were collected using questionnaire. The variables in our study were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and chi-square test. Results: A total of 93.8% participants were willing to be vaccinated, 2.7% refused, and 3.5% hesitated. In regards to knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, 94.3% citizens surveyed knew about the spread of droplets and 65% had knowledge about surfaces touched by an infected person. In addition, 93.8% of participants had knowledge of the common symptoms related to COVID-19, such as fever and cough (93.8%), shortness of breath/anorexia/fatigue/nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (80.2%), and panic and chest tightness (69.4%). Most participants had a strong self-prevention awareness, such as washing hands regularly (92.1%) and wearing a facemask (94.1%). Besides, over ninety percent of respondents would report exposure to SARS-CoV-2 (96.6%) and exposure to symptoms possibility related to COVID-19 (92.9%). If necessary, most respondents would agree to isolate at home (93.5%) or an isolation in hospital (96.3%). Knowledge of COVID-19, including transmission, symptoms, protective measures, and vaccines itself, is associated with vaccination attitude. Values, perceived impacts, knowledge, and autonomy, assessed by the scale of DrVac-COVID19S, have also been revealed as important determinants to vaccine acceptance. Conclusions: Almost 93% of Chinese people surveyed in this study showed a willing attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination. Based on the above results, government and social workers can take measures from these perspectives to improve the vaccination attitude, so as to increase vaccine immunization rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 747450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477852

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, a nucleotide analog prodrug, has displayed pharmacological activity against SARS-CoV-2. Recently, eicosanoids are widely involved in regulating immunity and inflammation for COVID-19 patients. Rats were intravenously administered remdesivir at a dose of 5 mg/kg, and series of blood samples were collected before and after treatment. Targeted metabolomics regarding the eicosanoid profile were investigated and quantitated simultaneously using the previously reported reliable HPLC-MS/MS method. Additionally, interplay relationship between metabolomics and pharmacokinetic parameters was performed using the Pearson correlation analysis and PLS model. For the longitudinal metabolomics of remdesivir, metabolic profiles of the same rat were comparatively substantial at discrete sampling points. The metabolic fingerprints generated by individual discrepancy of rats were larger than metabolic disturbance caused by remdesivir. As for the transversal metabolomics, the prominent metabolic profile variation was observed between the baseline and treatment status. Except for TXB2, the inflammatory- and immunology-related eicosanoids of resolvin D2, 5-HEPE, 5-HETE, and DHA were significantly disturbed and reduced after single administration of remdesivir (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). Moreover, the metabolite of PGE2 correlated with GS-441524 (active metabolite of remdesivir) concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, and CL significantly. Eicosanoid metabolic profiles of remdesivir at both longitudinal and transversal levels were first revealed using the robust HPLC-MS/MS method. This initial observational eicosanoid metabolomics may lighten the therapy for fighting COVID-19 and further provide mechanistic insights of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.

9.
Front Neurol ; 12: 673703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441124

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Thousands of designated COVID-19 hospitals have been set up in China to fight the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Anecdotal reports indicate a falling rate of acute stroke diagnoses in these hospitals during the COVID-19 period. We conducted an exploratory single-center analysis to estimate the change in acute stroke presentation at the designated COVID-19 hospitals. Methods: This retrospective observational study included all patients admitted to Yongchuan Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University with acute stroke between January 24 and March 10, 2020. Patient demographics, characteristics of the stroke, treatment details, and clinical outcomes were compared with those of patients admitted in the corresponding period in the year before (2019, "the pre-COVID-19 period"). Subgroup analysis was performed in the ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke groups. Results: A total of 110 patients presented with acute stroke symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with 173 patients in the pre-COVID-19 period. A higher proportion of stroke patients presented to the hospital via emergency medical services during the pandemic (48.2 vs. 31.8%, p = 0.006). There was a lower proportion of ischemic stroke patients (50.9 vs. 65.3%, p = 0.016) than in the preceding year. There were significantly fewer patients with 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 in the COVID-19 period compared with the pre-COVID-19 period (17.3 vs. 30.6%, p = 0.012). Among patients with ischemic stroke, the mean time from patient arrival to vessel puncture for emergency endovascular therapy in the COVID-19 period was shorter than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (109.18 ± 71.39 vs. 270.50 ± 161.51 min, p = 0.002). Among patients with hemorrhagic stroke, the rate of emergency surgical operation in the COVID-19 period was higher than that in the pre-COVID-19 period (48.1 vs. 30.0%, p = 0.047). The mean time from patient arrival to emergency surgical operation (15.31 ± 22.89 vs. 51.72 ± 40.47 min, p = 0.002) was shorter in the COVID-19 period than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Conclusions: Although fewer acute stroke patients sought medical care in this designated COVID-19 hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, this type of hospital was more efficient for timely treatment of acute stroke. Recognizing how acute strokes presented in designated COVID-19 hospitals will contribute to appropriate adjustments in strategy for dealing with acute stroke during COVID-19 and future pandemics.

10.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(2): 85-96, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299806

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19 confirmed patients in a single center in Beijing, China. Methods The study retrospectively included 19 patients with nucleic acid-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at our hospital from January 20 to March 5, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 14, 2020. The epidemiologic and clinical information was obtained through direct communication with the patients or their family members. Laboratory results retrieved from medical records and radiological images were analyzed both qualitatively by two senior chest radiologists as well as quantitatively via an artificial intelligence software. Results We identified 5 family clusters (13/19, 68.4%) from the study cohort. All cases had good clinical prognoses and were either mild (3/19) or moderate (16/19) clinical types. Fever (15/19, 78.9%) and dry cough (11/19, 57.9%) were common symptoms. Two patients received negative results for more than three consecutive viral nucleic acid tests. The longest interval between an initial CT abnormal finding and a confirmed diagnosis was 30 days. One patient's nucleic acid test turned positive on the follow-up examination after discharge. The presence of radiological abnormalities was non-specific for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 patients with mild or no clinical symptoms are common in Beijing, China. Radiological abnormalities are mostly non-specific and massive CT examinations for COVID-19 screening should be avoided. Analyses of the contact histories of diagnosed cases in combination with clinical, radiological and laboratory findings are crucial for the early detection of COVID-19. Close monitoring after discharge is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253753, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to the mental health and sleep quality of front-line medical staff (FMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep quality of FMS during the COVID-19 outbreak in China and analyze the relationship between mental health and sleep quality of FMS. METHODS: From February 24, 2020 to March 22, 2020, a cross-sectional study was performed with 543 FMS from a medical center in Western China. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data anonymously. The following tests were used: The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) for symptoms of anxiety, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depressive symptoms, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality assessment. RESULTS: Of the 543 FMS, 216 (39.8%) were classified as subjects with poor sleep quality. Anxiety (P<0.001), depression (P<0.001), and the prevalence of those divorced or widowed (P<0.05) were more common in FMS with poor sleep quality than in participants with good sleep quality. The FMS exhibiting co-occurrence of anxiety and depression were associated with worse scores on sleep quality than those medical staff in the other three groups/categories. The difference in sleep quality between the FMS with only depression and the FMS experiencing co-occurrence of anxiety and depression was statistically significant (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in sleep quality between the FMS experiencing only anxiety and the FMS with co-occurrence of anxiety and depression (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a noteworthy increase in the prevalence of negative emotions and sentiments among the medical staff, along with poor overall sleep quality. We anticipate that this study can stimulate more research into the mental state of FMS during outbreaks and other public health emergencies. In addition, particular attention must be paid to enhance the sleep quality of FMS, along with better planning and support for FMS who are continuously exposed to the existing viral epidemic by virtue of the nature of their profession.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Staff/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 48, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed an enormous threat to public health around the world. Some severe and critical cases have bad prognoses and high case fatality rates, unraveling risk factors for severe COVID-19 are of significance for predicting and preventing illness progression, and reducing case fatality rates. Our study focused on analyzing characteristics of COVID-19 cases and exploring risk factors for developing severe COVID-19. METHODS: The data for this study was disease surveillance data on symptomatic cases of COVID-19 reported from 30 provinces in China between January 19 and March 9, 2020, which included demographics, dates of symptom onset, clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, laboratory findings, radiographic findings, underlying disease history, and exposure history. We grouped mild and moderate cases together as non-severe cases and categorized severe and critical cases together as severe cases. We compared characteristics of severe cases and non-severe cases of COVID-19 and explored risk factors for severity. RESULTS: The total number of cases were 12 647 with age from less than 1 year old to 99 years old. The severe cases were 1662 (13.1%), the median age of severe cases was 57 years [Inter-quartile range(IQR): 46-68] and the median age of non-severe cases was 43 years (IQR: 32-54). The risk factors for severe COVID-19 were being male [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5]; fever (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 2.0-2.7), cough (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), fatigue (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), and chronic kidney disease (aOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.6), hypertension (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) and diabetes (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.6-2.4). With the increase of age, risk for the severity was gradually higher [20-39 years (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.8-8.4), 40-59 years (aOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 3.6-16.3), ≥ 60 years (aOR = 20.4, 95% CI: 9.5-43.7)], and longer time from symtem onset to diagnosis [3-5 days (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7), 6-8 days (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5-2.1), ≥ 9 days(aOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.6-2.3)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed the risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 with large sample size, which included being male, older age, fever, cough, fatigue, delayed diagnosis, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney diasease, early case identification and prompt medical care. Based on these factors, the severity of COVID-19 cases can be predicted. So cases with these risk factors should be paid more attention to prevent severity.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6236-6246, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune responses, hyper-inflammation or immunosuppression, may be closely related to COVID-19 progression. We aimed to evaluate the changes of frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs, a population of cells with potent immunosuppressive capacity, in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The levels of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs were determined by flow cytometry in 27 COVID-19 patients, and their association with clinical characteristics and laboratory data were analyzed. RESULTS: The frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs was elevated in COVID-19 patients, particularly severe patients. A follow-up comparison revealed a decline of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs percentages in most patients 1 day after testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, but the levels of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs were still greater than 50.0% in 3 ICU patients 4-10 days after negative SARS-CoV-2 results. Elevated frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs was positively correlated with oropharyngeal viral loads and length of hospital stay, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte counts and serum albumin. Moreover, strong correlations were observed between the frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs and T cell subsets, NK cell counts, and B cell percentages. The frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs could be used as a predictor of COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: A high frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs, especially in severe patients, may indicate an immunoparalysis status and could be a predictor of disease severity and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/analysis , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6236-6246, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune responses, hyper-inflammation or immunosuppression, may be closely related to COVID-19 progression. We aimed to evaluate the changes of frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs, a population of cells with potent immunosuppressive capacity, in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The levels of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs were determined by flow cytometry in 27 COVID-19 patients, and their association with clinical characteristics and laboratory data were analyzed. RESULTS: The frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs was elevated in COVID-19 patients, particularly severe patients. A follow-up comparison revealed a decline of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs percentages in most patients 1 day after testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, but the levels of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs were still greater than 50.0% in 3 ICU patients 4-10 days after negative SARS-CoV-2 results. Elevated frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs was positively correlated with oropharyngeal viral loads and length of hospital stay, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte counts and serum albumin. Moreover, strong correlations were observed between the frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs and T cell subsets, NK cell counts, and B cell percentages. The frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs could be used as a predictor of COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: A high frequency of CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg MDSCs, especially in severe patients, may indicate an immunoparalysis status and could be a predictor of disease severity and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/analysis , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5385

ABSTRACT

The authors reported treatment of a pregnant patient with COVID-19. Lopinavir-ritonavir tablet, interferon α2b spray and methylprednisolone i.v. injection were used.

18.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(21): 5188-5202, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia of uncertain cause has been reported in Wuhan, China since the beginning of early December 2019. In early January 2020, a novel strain of ß-coronavirus was identified by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from the pharyngeal swab specimens of patients, which was recently named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is evidence of human-to-human transmission and familial cluster outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The World Health Organization(WHO) recently declared the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic a global health emergency. As of February 17, 2020, 71329 laboratory-confirmed cases (in 25 countries, including the United States and Germany) have been reported globally. Other than its rapid transmission, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. In December 2019, coronavirus disease (named COVID-19 by the WHO) associated with the SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China and spread quickly across the country. AIM: To analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of confirmed cases of this disease in Liaoning province, a Chinese region about 1800 km north of Wuhan. METHODS: The clinical data of 56 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases due to 2019-nCoV infection were analyzed. The cases originated from eight cities in Liaoning province. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 45 years, and 57.1% of them were male. No patient had been in direct contact with wild animals. Among them, 23 patients (41.1%) had resided in or traveled to Wuhan, 27 cases (48.2%) had been in contact with confirmed COVID-19 patients, 5 cases (8.9%) had been in contact with confirmed patients with a contact history to COVID-19 patients, and 1 case (1.8%) had no apparent history of exposure. Fever (75.0%) and cough (60.7%) were the most common symptoms. The typical manifestations in lung computed tomography (CT) included ground-glass opacity and patchy shadows, with 67.8% of them being bilateral. Among the patients in the cohort, 78.6% showed reduction in their lymphocyte counts, 57.1% showed increases in their C-reactive protein levels, and 50.0% showed decreases in their blood albumin levels. Eleven patients (19.6%) were admitted to intensive care unit, 2 patients (3.5%) progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome, 4 patients (7.1%) were equipped with non-invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1 patient (1.8) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. There were 5 mild cases (5/56, 8.9%), 40 moderate cases (40/56, 71.4%), 10 severe cases (10/56, 17.9%), and 1 critical case (1/56, 1.8%). No deaths were reported. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted among humans. Most COVID-19 patients show symptoms of fever, cough, lymphocyte reduction, and typical lung CT manifestations. Most are moderate cases. The seriousness of the disease (as indicated by blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, oxygenation index, blood lymphocyte count, and lesions shown in lung CT) is related to history of living in or traveling to Wuhan, underlying diseases, admittance to intensive care unit, and mechanical ventilation.

19.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 30(17):2583-2587, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-923199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively observe the clinical effect of integrated Chinese and Western medicine combined with millimeter wave therapy on treatment of non-critical COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 47 patients with COVID-19 who were treated in the People's Hospital of Hong'an County from Feb 2, 2020 to Feb 19, 2020 were enrolled in the study, the patients were given integrated Chinese and Western medicine therapies such as oxygen therapy, antiviral treatment, supportive treatment and Chinese patent medicine, and the millimeter wave therapy was applied to the acupoints twice a day. The respiratory function indexes such as oxygenation index and oxyhemoglobin saturation, chest CT, number of times of cough in a day and blood test indexes were collected after the millimeter wave treatment system was used for 1 day (T1), 3 days (T2), 10 days (T3) and 14 days (T4). RESULTS: The oxygenation index and blood oxygen saturation of the 47 patients were significantly higher at T2, T3 and T4 than at T1 after the integrated Chinese and Western medicine combined with millimeter wave therapy (P<0.05). There was significant difference in the percentage of the patients with grade 3 chest CT among all the time points except for T2 and T1 (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the number of times of cough and body temperature between the time points and T1 (P<0.05). The lactic dehydrogenase(LDH) level was slowly reduced, and there was significant difference between T4 and T1 (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the white blood cell, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, potassium, sodium and chlorine at the admission. 4 patients were tested positive at T4, and the negative conversion ratio was 91.5%. CONCLUSION: The integrated Chinese and Western medicine combined with millimeter wave therapy can achieve remarkable effect on improvement of clinical symptoms of the COVID-19 patients such as oxygenation index and promote the nucleic acid to turn negative, and it has certain clinical application value.

20.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(1): 100006, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Chinese government implemented a metropolitan-wide quarantine of Wuhan city on 23rd January 2020 to curb the epidemic of the coronavirus COVID-19. Lifting of this quarantine is imminent. We modelled the effects of two key health interventions on the epidemic when the quarantine is lifted. METHODS: We constructed a compartmental dynamic model to forecast the trend of the COVID-19 epidemic at different quarantine lifting dates and investigated the impact of different rates of public contact and facial mask usage on the epidemic. RESULTS: We projected a declining trend of the COVID-19 epidemic if the current quarantine strategy continues, and Wuhan would record the last new confirmed cases in late April 2020. At the end of the epidemic, 65,733 (45,722-99,015) individuals would be infected by the virus, among which 16,166 (11,238-24,603, 24.6%) were through public contacts, 45,996 (31,892-69,565, 69.7%) through household contact, and 3,571 (2,521-5,879, 5.5%) through hospital contacts (including 778 (553-1,154) non-COVID-19 patients and 2,786 (1,969-4,791) medical staff). A total of 2,821 (1,634-6,361) would die of COVID-19 related pneumonia in Wuhan. Early quarantine lifting on 21st March is viable only if Wuhan residents sustain a high facial mask usage of ≥85% and a pre-quarantine level public contact rate. Delaying city resumption to mid/late April would relax the requirement of facial mask usage to ≥75% at the same contact rate. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of a second epidemic is viable after the metropolitan-wide quarantine is lifted but requires a sustaining high facial mask usage and a low public contact rate.

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