Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 94
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
JMIR public health and surveillance ; 9:e40201, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2215068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, infodemic spread even more rapidly than the pandemic itself. The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has been prevalent worldwide and hindered pandemic exiting strategies. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccines is a vital contributor to vaccine hesitancy. However, no evidence systematically summarized COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. OBJECTIVE(S): This review aims to synthesize the global evidence on misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccines, including its prevalence, features, influencing factors, impacts, and solutions for combating misinformation. METHOD(S): We performed a systematic review by searching 5 peer-reviewed databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO). We included original articles that investigated misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccines and were published in English from January 1, 2020, to August 18, 2022. We excluded publications that did not cover or focus on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. The Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies, version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2), and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklist were used to assess the study quality. The review was guided by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021288929). RESULT(S): Of the 8864 studies identified, 91 observational studies and 11 interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccines covered conspiracy, concerns on vaccine safety and efficacy, no need for vaccines, morality, liberty, and humor. Conspiracy and safety concerns were the most prevalent misinformation. There was a great variation in misinformation prevalence, noted among 2.5%-55.4% in the general population and 6.0%-96.7% in the antivaccine/vaccine hesitant groups from survey-based studies, and in 0.1%-41.3% on general online data and 0.5%-56% on antivaccine/vaccine hesitant data from internet-based studies. Younger age, lower education and economic status, right-wing and conservative ideology, and having psychological problems enhanced beliefs in misinformation. The content, format, and source of misinformation influenced its spread. A 5-step framework was proposed to address vaccine-related misinformation, including identifying misinformation, regulating producers and distributors, cutting production and distribution, supporting target audiences, and disseminating trustworthy information. The debunking messages/videos were found to be effective in several experimental studies. CONCLUSION(S): Our review provides comprehensive and up-to-date evidence on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and helps responses to vaccine infodemic in future pandemics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021288929;https://tinyurl.com/2prejtfa. Copyright ©Sihong Zhao, Simeng Hu, Xiaoyu Zhou, Suhang Song, Qian Wang, Hongqiu Zheng, Ying Zhang, Zhiyuan Hou. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (https://publichealth.jmir.org), 11.01.2023.

2.
Journal of Tissue Engineering ; 14(no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2214444

ABSTRACT

The intestinal tract is a vital organ responsible for digestion and absorption in the human body and plays an essential role in pathogen invasion. Compared with other traditional models, gut-on-a-chip has many unique advantages, and thereby, it can be considered as a novel model for studying intestinal functions and diseases. Based on the chip design, we can replicate the in vivo microenvironment of the intestine and study the effects of individual variables on the experiment. In recent years, it has been used to study several diseases. To better mimic the intestinal microenvironment, the structure and function of gut-on-a-chip are constantly optimised and improved. Owing to the complexity of the disease mechanism, gut-on-a-chip can be used in conjunction with other organ chips. In this review, we summarise the human intestinal structure and function as well as the development and improvement of gut-on-a-chip. Finally, we present and discuss gut-on-a-chip applications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), viral infections and phenylketonuria. Further improvement of the simulation and high throughput of gut-on-a-chip and realisation of personalised treatments are the problems that should be solved for gut-on-a-chip as a disease model. Copyright © The Author(s) 2023.

3.
Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] ; 56(12):1795-1802, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201072

ABSTRACT

Objective: To trace and characterize the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 of confirmed cases in the outbreak of COVID-19 on July 31, 2021 in Henan Province. Method: Genome-wide sequencing and comparative analysis were performed on positive nucleic acid samples of SARS-CoV-2 from 167 local cases related to the epidemic on July 31, 2021, to analyze the consistency and evolution of the whole genome sequence of virus.

4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 29(2):241-56, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2201061

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a serious threat to global health for nearly 3 years. In addition to pulmonary complications, liver injury is not uncommon in patients with novel COVID-19. Although the prevalence of liver injury varies widely among COVID-19 patients, its incidence is significantly increased in severe cases. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand liver injury caused by COVID-19. Clinical features of liver injury include detectable liver function abnormalities and liver imaging changes. Liver function tests, computed tomography scans, and ultrasound can help evaluate liver injury. Risk factors for liver injury in patients with COVID-19 include male sex, preexisting liver disease including liver transplantation and chronic liver disease, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. To date, the mechanism of COVID-19-related liver injury is not fully understood. Its pathophysiological basis can generally be explained by systemic inflammatory response, hypoxic damage, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and drug side effects. In this review, we systematically summarize the existing literature on liver injury caused by COVID-19, including clinical features, underlying mechanisms, and potential risk factors. Finally, we discuss clinical management and provide recommendations for the care of patients with liver injury.

5.
2022 Ieee 24th International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (Mmsp) ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2192021

ABSTRACT

Short videos have become the most popular form of social media in recent years. In this work, we focus on the threat scenario where video, audio, and their text description are semantically mismatched to mislead the audience. We develop self-supervised methods to detect semantic mismatch across multiple modalities, namely video, audio and text. We use state-of-the-art language, video and audio models to extract dense features from each modality, and explore transformer architecture together with contrastive learning methods on a dataset of one million Twitter posts from 2021 to 2022. Our best-performing method benefits from the robustness of Noise-Contrastive loss and the context provided by fusing modalities together using a cross-transformer. It outperforms state-of-the-art by over 9% in accuracy. We further characterize the performance of our system on topic-specific datasets containing COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine related tweets, and shows that it outperforms state-of-the-art by over 17% in accuracy.

6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S182, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189588

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE). Both conditions increase hospital complications and mortality, especially when exhibited concurrently. Unfortunately, both conditions may present similarly, and physicians often have a difficult time finding clinical indicators to suggest pursuing further evaluation of a PE during a COVID-19 infection. Methods. Using a multi-center facility database, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 3,675 COVID-19 patients at Methodist Health System from March 2020 to December 2020. COVID-19 infection was determined via molecular PCR testing and PE was determined by computed tomography (CT) scan with angiography. Patient demographics and laboratory values were determined by a manual review of patient charts. Chi-Square test was used to analyze observed variables. Odds ratios were calculated for variables with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Results. Of the 3,675 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 150 (4.1%) were diagnosed with PE. Elevated D-dimer level had a statistically significant association with increased rate of PE (OR 0.1988, 95% CI 0.0727 - 0.5438, p < 0.001). Factors such as elevated C-reactive protein (p = 0.61), IL-6 (p = 0.26), smoking history (p = 0.70), age over 65 (p=0.54), BMI over 25 (p = 0.42), and history of chronic kidney disease (p = 0.16) did not show a significant association with PE incidence. Of note, patients with PE during admission were seen to have an increased incidence of intubation (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.2660 - 0.6029, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Our study suggests that COVID-19 patients with elevated D-dimer have higher odds of having a PE. This study also suggests that COVID-19 patients that develop a PE during hospitalization are more likely to require intubation.

8.
Age & Ageing ; 51(12):05, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has indirect impacts on patients with chronic medical conditions, which may increase mortality risks for various non-COVID-19 causes. This study updates excess death statistics for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) up to 2022 and evaluates their demographic and spatial disparities in the USA.

9.
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-14, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2186928

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is being used to control SARS-CoV-2 transmission globally, and many countries have relaxed some non-pharmaceutical interventions. It is unclear whether relaxing human mobility restrictions is proper and increases transmission risk. To fill this knowledge gap, we aim to examine if human mobility impairs the role of vaccination on COVID-19 transmission. We apply dynamic panel data models with three lag levels (i.e. 0 day, 7 days, and 14 days) to investigate the relationship between vaccination and COVID-19 transmission and the moderating effects of different kinds of human mobility. Our results show a negative relationship between the percentage of the vaccinated population and daily new COVID-19 cases after controlling for human mobility. We also observe that when people are only vaccinated with one dose, increased human mobility in retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, and workplaces could impair the role of vaccination on COVID-19 transmission, although their moderating effects appear at different lag levels. However, there are no moderating effects of human mobility in transit stations and workplaces at all lag levels when people are fully vaccinated. This finding does not mean that governments may relax restrictions in these two areas since mobility in transit stations and workplaces could affect COVID-19 transmission by themselves directly. Therefore, we recommend that governments still insist on implementing human mobility control measures from the perspective of transmission risk.

10.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres ; 127(24), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2185560

ABSTRACT

Two persistent and heavy haze episodes during the COVID-19 lockdown (from 20 Jan to 22 Feb 2020) still occur in northern China, when anthropogenic emissions, particularly from transportation sources, are greatly reduced. To investigate the underlying cause, this study comprehensively uses in-situ measurements for ambient surface pollutants, reanalysis meteorological data and the WRF-Chem model to calculate the contribution of NOx emission change and weather-climate change to the "unexpectedly heavy” haze. Results show that a substantial NOx reduction has slightly decreased PM2.5 concentration. By contrast, the weakest East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) in the 2019–2020 winter relative to the past decade is particularly important for haze occurrence. A warmer and moister climate is also favorable. Model results suggest that climate anomalies lead to a 25–50 μg m−3 increase of PM2.5 concentration, and atmospheric transport is also an important contributor to two haze episodes. The first haze is closely related to the atmospheric transport of pollutants from NEC to the south, and fireworks emissions in NEC are a possible amplifying factor that warrants future studies. The second one is caused by the convergence of a southerly wind and a mountain wind, resulting in an intra-regional transport within BTH, with a maximal PM2.5 increment of 50–100 μg m−3. These results suggest that climate change and regional transport are of great importance to haze occurrence in China, even with significant emission reductions of pollutants. © 2022. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

11.
Journal of Infection ; 02:02, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180654
12.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 127:26-32, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2179536

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Four seasonal coronaviruses, including human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E and HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1 cause approximately 15-30% of common colds in adults. However, the full landscape of the immune trajectory to these viruses that covers the whole childhood period is still not well understood. Method(s): We evaluated the serological responses against the four seasonal coronaviruses in 1886 children aged under 18 years by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The optical density values against each HCoV were determined from each sample. Generalized additive models were constructed to determine the relationship between age and seroprevalence throughout the whole childhood period. The specific antibody levels against the four seasonal coronaviruses were also tested from the plasma samples of 485 pairs of postpartum women and their newborn babies. Result(s): The immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels of the four seasonal coronaviruses in the mother and the newborn babies were highly correlated (229E: r = 0.63;OC43: r = 0.65;NL63: r = 0.69;HKU1: r = 0.63). The seroprevalences in children showed a similar trajectory in that the levels of IgG in the neonates dropped significantly and reached the lowest level after the age of around 1 year (229E: 1.18 years;OC43: 0.97 years;NL63: 1.01 years;HKU1: 1.02 years) and then resurgence in the children who aged older than 1 year. Using the lowest level from the generalized additive models as our cutoff, the seroprevalences for HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1 were 98.11%, 96.23%, 96.23% and 94.34% at the age of 16-18 years. Conclusion(s): Mothers share HCoV-specific IgGs with their newborn babies and the level of maternal IgGs waned at around 1 year after birth. The resurgence of the HCoV-specific IgGs was found thereafter with the increase in age suggesting repeated infection occurred in children. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s)

13.
Infect Dis Model ; 8(1):192-202, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2179301

ABSTRACT

Background: The current outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 has caused a serious disease burden worldwide. Vaccines are an important factor to sustain the epidemic. Although with a relatively high-vaccination worldwide, the decay of vaccine efficacy and the arising of new variants lead us to the challenge of maintaining a sufficient immune barrier to protect the population. Method: A case-contact tracking data in Hunan, China, is used to estimate the contact pattern of cases for scenarios including school, workspace, etc, rather than ordinary susceptible population. Based on the estimated vaccine coverage and efficacy, a multi-group vaccinated-exposed-presymptomatic-symptomatic-asymptomatic-removed model (VEFIAR) with 8 age groups, with each partitioned into 4 vaccination status groups is developed. The optimal dose-wise vaccinating strategy is optimized based on the currently estimated immunity barrier of coverage and efficacy, using the greedy algorithm that minimizes the cumulative cases, population size of hospitalization and fatality respectively in a certain future interval. Parameters of Delta and Omicron variants are used respectively in the optimization. Results: The estimated contact matrices of cases showed a concentration on middle ages, and has compatible magnitudes compared to estimations from contact surveys in other studies. The VEFIAR model is numerically stable. The optimal controled vaccination strategy requires immediate vaccination on the un-vaccinated high-contact population of age 30–39 to reduce the cumulative cases, and is stable with different basic reproduction numbers (R0). As for minimizing hospitalization and fatality, the optimized strategy requires vaccination on the un-vaccinated of both aged 30–39 of high contact frequency and the vulnerable older. Conclusion: The objective of reducing transmission requires vaccination in age groups of the highest contact frequency, with more priority for un-vaccinated than un-fully or fully vaccinated. The objective of reducing total hospitalization and fatality requires not only to reduce transmission but also to protect the vulnerable older. The priority changes by vaccination progress. For any region, if the local contact pattern is available, then with the vaccination coverage, efficacy, and disease characteristics of relative risks in heterogeneous populations, the optimal dose-wise vaccinating process will be obtained and gives hints for decision-making.

14.
Information Systems and e-Business Management ; : 1-29, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2174423

ABSTRACT

The early identification of COVID-19 is critical to prevent the disease from spreading at the community level. Cloud computing allows healthcare providers to enhance patient care, exchange information more quickly, increase operational efficiency, and save expenses. Thus, this research investigates cloud computing applications in the context of an outbreak. We gathered, summarized, and evaluated scientific papers on cloud computing throughout an outbreak that were released between 2020 and April 2022 for this Systematic Literature Review (SLR). We employed a pre-defined review methodology to examine commonly known electronic datasets. Keywords were used to look for all publications connected to the subject. 18 papers were chosen for this SLR after thoroughly following the research selection method. This review paper offers current state-of-the-art outcomes and methodologies on cloud computing throughout an epidemic, outlining research gaps and providing directions for future research. The results showed that cloud computing plays a crucial role in addressing and relieving side effects in vital situations such as the coronavirus epidemic. We tried to provide a comprehensive study, but non-English articles were not included in this study, so future studies can provide a more comprehensive study by considering all articles in Chinese, Japanese, etc.

15.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163187

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted routine cardiovascular health assessments and services. We aim to depict the temporal trend of catheter ablation (CA) and provide experience in dealing with the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. MethodsData on CA between January 2019, and December 2021, were extracted from the National Center for Cardiovascular Quality Improvement platform. CA alterations from 2019 to 2021 were assessed with a generalized estimation equation. ResultsA total of 347,924 patients undergoing CA were included in the final analysis. The CA decreased remarkably from 122,839 in 2019 to 100,019 (-18.58%, 95% CI: -33.40% to -3.75%, p = 0.02) in 2020, and increased slightly to 125,006 (1.81%, 95% CI: -7.01% to 3.38%, p = 0.49) in 2021. The CA experienced the maximal reduction in February 2020 (-88.78%) corresponding with the peak of monthly new COVID-19 cases and decreased by 54.32% (95%CI: -71.27% to -37.37%, p < 0.001) during the 3-month lockdown and increased firstly in June 2020 relative to 2019. Since then, the CA in 2020 remained unchanged relative to 2019 (-0.06%, 95% CI: -7.01% to 3.38%, p = 0.98). Notably, the recovery of CA in 2021 to pre-COVID-19 levels was mainly driven by the growth of CA in secondary hospitals. Although there is a slight increase (2167) in CA in 2021 relative to 2019, both the absolute number and proportion of CA in the top 50 hospitals nationwide [53,887 (43.09%) vs. 63,811 (51.95%), p < 0.001] and top three hospitals in each province [66,152 (52.73%) vs. 72,392 (59.28%), p < 0.001] still declined significantly. ConclusionsThe CA experienced a substantial decline during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, and then gradually returned to pre-COVID-19 levels. Notably, the growth of CA in secondary hospitals plays an important role in the overall resumption, which implies that systematic guidance of secondary hospitals with CA experience may aid in mitigating the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1):198, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is reported that the adverse impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on the mental health of children and adolescents may lead to psychologically related disorders during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) period. Subject symptoms such as chest pain, chest tightness, and palpitation may be related to increased stress and anxiety in children and adolescents. The present research aimed to determine the number of pediatric consults and etiology of subject symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic period and compared it with the same timelines in 2019 and 2021 to discuss the impact of different periods on the organic disease onset of children with subject symptoms, especially in cardiac involvement. METHODS: Children who visited Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, Qingdao University between January 23 to April 30, 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period), January 23 to April 30, 2020 (COVID-19 period), and January 23 to April 30, 2021 (post-COVID-19 period) presenting chest pain, chest tightness, and palpitation were recruited. Information to determine gender, age, medical history, department for the initial visit, clinical manifestations, time from the latest onset to the visit, and diagnosis were recorded. RESULT: A total of 891 patients were enrolled in the present study (514 males;median age: 7.72). One hundred twenty-three patients presented during the pre-COVID-19 period while 130 during the COVID-19 period, nevertheless, the number substantially increased during the post-COVID-19 period (n = 638). Cardiac etiology accounted for 1.68% (n = 15) of the patient population, including arrhythmias (n = 10, 1.12%), myocarditis (n = 4, 0.44%), and atrial septal defect (n = 1, 0.11%). There was no significant difference among groups in the distribution of organic etiology. The median time from the latest onset to the visit during the pre-COVID-19 period was 7 days compared to 10 days during the COVID-19 period and 3 days during the post-COVID period. CONCLUSION: During the post-COVID-19 period, the median time from the latest onset to the visit was significantly shorter than that in the pre-COVID-19 period or COVID-19 period. The pediatric consult of children with subject symptoms presented increased substantially during the post-COVID-19 period, while there was no significant difference in the number of patients involving the cardiac disease. Clinicians ought to be more careful to screen heart diseases to prevent missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis during special periods.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1):936, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Superspreading events (SSEs) played a critical role in fueling the COVID-19 outbreaks. Although it is well-known that COVID-19 epidemics exhibited substantial superspreading potential, little is known about the risk of observing SSEs in different contact settings. In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of superspreading in different contact settings in Japan. METHOD: Transmission cluster data from Japan was collected between January and July 2020. Infector-infectee transmission pairs were constructed based on the contact tracing history. We fitted the data to negative binomial models to estimate the effective reproduction number (R) and dispersion parameter (k). Other epidemiological issues relating to the superspreading potential were also calculated. RESULTS: The overall estimated R and k are 0.561 (95% CrI: 0.496, 0.640) and 0.221 (95% CrI: 0.186, 0.262), respectively. The transmission in community, healthcare facilities and school manifest relatively higher superspreading potentials, compared to other contact settings. We inferred that 13.14% (95% CrI: 11.55%, 14.87%) of the most infectious cases generated 80% of the total transmission events. The probabilities of observing superspreading events for entire population and community, household, health care facilities, school, workplace contact settings are 1.75% (95% CrI: 1.57%, 1.99%), 0.49% (95% CrI: 0.22%, 1.18%), 0.07% (95% CrI: 0.06%, 0.08%), 0.67% (95% CrI: 0.31%, 1.21%), 0.33% (95% CrI: 0.13%, 0.94%), 0.32% (95% CrI: 0.21%, 0.60%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The different potentials of superspreading in contact settings highlighted the need to continuously monitoring the transmissibility accompanied with the dispersion parameter, to timely identify high risk settings favoring the occurrence of SSEs.

18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2154534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, infodemic spread even more rapidly than the pandemic itself. The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has been prevalent worldwide and hindered pandemic exiting strategies. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccine is a vital contributor to vaccine hesitancy. However, no evidence systematically summarized COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the global evidence on misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccines, including its prevalence, features, influencing factors, impacts, and solutions for combating misinformation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching five peer-reviewed databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO). We included original articles that investigated misinformation related to COVID-19 vaccine and were published in English from January 1, 2020, to August 18, 2022. We excluded publications that did not cover or focus on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation. The Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies, Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool, and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklist were used to assess the study quality. The review was guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021288929). RESULTS: Of 8864 studies identified, 91 observational studies and 11 interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. Misinformation around COVID-19 vaccine covered conspiracy, concerns on vaccine safety and efficacy, no need for vaccine, morality, liberty, and humor. Conspiracy and safety concerns were the most prevalent misinformation. There was a great variation in misinformation prevalence with 2.5~55.4% in general population and 6.0~96.7% in antivaccine/vaccine hesitant groups from survey-based studies, and the prevalence of 0.1~41.3% on general online data and 0.5~56% on antivaccine/vaccine hesitant data from Internet-based studies. Younger age, lower education and economic status, right-wing and conservative ideology, having psychological problems enhanced beliefs in misinformation. The content, format, and source of misinformation influenced its spread. A five-step framework was proposed to address vaccine-related misinformation, including identifying misinformation, regulating producers and distributors, cutting production and distribution, supporting target audiences, and disseminating trustworthy information. The debunking messages/videos were found to be effective in several experimental studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our review provided comprehensive and up-to-date evidence on COVID-19 vaccine misinformation and helps responses to vaccine infodemic in future pandemics.

19.
Small ; : e2205498, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2128310

ABSTRACT

Targeted liposomes, as a promising carrier, have received tremendous attention in COVID-19 vaccines, molecular imaging, and cancer treatment, due to their enhanced cellular uptake and payload accumulation at target sites. However, the conventional methods for preparing targeted liposomes still suffer from limitations, including complex operation, time-consuming, and poor reproducibility. Herein, a facile and scalable strategy is developed for one-step construction of targeted liposomes using a versatile microfluidic mixing device (MMD). The engineered MMD provides an advanced synthesis platform for multifunctional liposome with high production rate and controllability. To validate the method, a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-targeting aptamer modified indocyanine green (ICG)-liposome (Apt-ICG@Lip) is successfully constructed via the MMD. ICG and the PD-L1-targeting aptamer are used as model drug and targeting moiety, respectively. The Apt-ICG@Lip has high encapsulation efficiency (89.9 ± 1.4%) and small mean diameter (129.16 ± 5.48 nm). In vivo studies (PD-L1-expressing tumor models) show that Apt-ICG@Lip can realize PD-L1 targeted photoacoustic imaging, fluorescence imaging, and photothermal therapy. To verify the versatility of this approach, various targeted liposomes with different functions are further prepared and investigated. These experimental results demonstrate that this method is concise, efficient, and scalable to prepare multifunctional targeted liposomal nanoplatforms for molecular imaging and disease theranostics.

20.
International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing ; 23(2):173-182, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2140767

ABSTRACT

As the risk of lung disease increases in people’s daily lives and COVID-19 spreads around the world, lung screening has become critical. Owing to the unique lung tissue, traditional image segmentation methods are difficult to achieve accurate segmentation of lung tissues. In view of the complexity of lung tissue structure, it was found in the experiment that the segmentation accuracy of upper lung and lower lung parenchyma tissue was low. Aiming at this phenomenon, a new network model, new U-NET, was proposed based on the improvement and optimisation of U-NET network model. Experimental data show that the proposed new U-NET network model solves the problem of low segmentation accuracy of the original U-NET network segmentation model at both ends of lung, improves the segmentation accuracy of lung parenchyma on the whole, and verifies that the new U-NET network model is more suitable for parenchyma segmentation. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL