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1.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 158(10): 458-465, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885985

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have investigated the impacts of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the clinical features and prognosis of confirmed COVID-19 patients with MS during hospitalization and after discharge. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-three COVID-19 patients from the hospitals in 8 cities of Jiangsu, China were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors of severe illness were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results: Forty-five (19.3%) of 233 COVID-19 patients had MS. The median age of COVID-19 patients with MS was significantly higher than non-MS patients (53.0 years vs. 46.0 years, P = 0.004). There were no significant differences of clinical symptoms, abnormal chest CT images, and treatment drugs between two groups. More patients with MS had severe illness (33.3% vs. 6.4%, P < 0.001) and critical illness (4.4% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.037) than non-MS patients. The proportions of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in MS patients were also higher than non-MS patients during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent MS (odds ratio [OR] 7.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.062-19.201, P < 0.001) and lymphopenia (OR 3.315, 95% CI 1.306-8.411, P = 0.012) were independent risk factors of severe illness of COVID-19. At a median follow-up of 28 days after discharge, bilateral pneumonia was found in 95.2% of MS patients, while only 54.7% of non-MS patients presented bilateral pneumonia. Conclusions: 19.3% of COVID-19 patients had MS in our study. COVID-19 patients with MS are more likely to develop severe complications and have worse prognosis. More attention should be paid to COVID-19 patients with MS.


Antecedentes: Pocos estudios han investigado el impacto del síndrome metabólico (SM) en la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Describimos las características clínicas y el pronóstico de los pacientes con COVID-19 confirmados con SM durante la hospitalización y después del alta. Métodos: Se incluyó de forma retrospectiva a 233 pacientes con COVID-19 de los hospitales de 8 ciudades de Jiangsu (China). Se describieron sus características clínicas y se analizaron los factores de riesgo de enfermedad grave mediante un análisis de regresión logística. Resultados: De los 233 pacientes, 45 (19,3%) tenían EM. La mediana de edad de estos pacientes con EM fue significativamente mayor que la de los pacientes sin él (53,0 años frente a 46,0 años; p = 0,004). No hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto a los síntomas clínicos, las imágenes de TC torácica anormales y los fármacos de tratamiento entre los 2 grupos. Hubo más pacientes con EM que tuvieron enfermedades graves (33,3% frente a 6,4%; p < 0,001) y críticas (4,4% frente a 0,5%; p = 0,037) que los pacientes sin EM. Las proporciones de insuficiencia respiratoria y síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda en los pacientes con EM también fueron mayores que en los pacientes sin EM durante la hospitalización. El análisis multivariante mostró que la EM concurrente (odds ratio [OR] 7,668; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 3,062-19,201; p < 0,001) y la linfopenia (OR 3,315; IC del 95%: 1,306-8,411; p = 0,012) eran factores de riesgo independientes de COVID-19 grave. En una mediana de seguimiento de 28 días tras el alta, se encontró neumonía bilateral en el 95,2% de los pacientes con EM, mientras que solo la presentaron el 54,7% de los pacientes sin EM. Conclusiones: El 19,3% de los pacientes con COVID-19 tenían EM en nuestro estudio. Los pacientes con COVID-19 y EM son más propensos a desarrollar complicaciones graves y tienen peor pronóstico. Se debe prestar más atención a los pacientes con COVID-19 y EM.

2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879492

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), especially emerging variants, poses an increased threat to global public health. The significant reduction in neutralization activity against the variants such as B.1.351 in the serum of convalescent patients and vaccinated people calls for the design of new potent vaccines targeting the emerging variant. However, since most vaccines approved and in clinical trials are based on the sequence of the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines based on the B.1.351 variant remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity, induced neutralization activity, and protective efficacy of wild-type spike protein nanoparticle (S-2P) and mutant spike protein nanoparticle (S-4M-2P) carrying characteristic mutations of B.1.351 variant in mice. Although there was no significant difference in the induction of spike-specific IgG responses in S-2P- and S-4M-2P-immunized mice, neutralizing antibodies elicited by S-4M-2P exhibited noteworthy, narrower breadth of reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with neutralizing antibodies elicited by S-2P. Furthermore, the decrease of induced neutralizing antibody breadth at least partly resulted from the amino acid substitution at position 484. Moreover, S-4M-2P vaccination conferred insufficient protection against live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, while S-2P vaccination gave definite protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice. Together, our study provides direct evidence that the E484K substitution in a SARS-CoV-2 subunit protein vaccine limited the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody breadth in mice and, more importantly, draws attention to the unfavorable impact of this mutation in spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants on the induction of potent neutralizing antibody responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 794201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818010

ABSTRACT

This study used the Social Cognitive Theory and Broaden-and-Build Theory to propose and validate a chain mediation model. In total, 417 Chinese college students were studied to explore the effects of parent-child relationships on their academic performance. In addition, we investigated the chain-mediating roles of gratitude and psychological capital. The results showed that (1) the parent-child relationship significantly and positively affected the academic performance of college students; (2) gratitude partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students; (3) psychological capital partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students; and (4) gratitude and psychological capital exerted a chain-mediating effect between parent-child relationships and the academic performance of college students. Based on the results of the study, we conclude that the parent-child relationship not only directly affects the academic performance of college students but also indirectly affects it through the chain mediation of gratitude and psychological capital. Moreover, we proposed reasonable suggestions on how colleges and universities can guide students to deal with parent-child relationships, strengthen gratitude education, and improve psychological capital.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3540-3547, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767364

ABSTRACT

Low temperature and certain humidity are conducive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for long-time survival and long-distance spread during logistics and trades. Contaminated cold-chain or frozen products and outer packaging act as the carrier of SARS-CoV-2, that infects the high-risk population who works in the ports, cold storage or seafood market. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, multiple localized outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 contaminated imported cold-chain products have been reported in China, which brought challenges to COVID-19 prevention and control. Here, we review the evidences of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from six confirmed cold-chain related COVID-19 outbreaks in China, especially in terms of SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing and virus isolation. In addition, we summarize the characteristics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from both six COVID-19 outbreaks in China and the outbreaks suspected cold-chain transmission in other countries. Finally, we analyze the underlying risks of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission and propose the preventive countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors
5.
Cell ; 185(8): 1414-1430.e19, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757193

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are powerful immune modulators that initiate signaling through receptor dimerization, but natural cytokines have structural limitations as therapeutics. We present a strategy to discover cytokine surrogate agonists by using modular ligands that exploit induced proximity and receptor dimer geometry as pharmacological metrics amenable to high-throughput screening. Using VHH and scFv to human interleukin-2/15, type-I interferon, and interleukin-10 receptors, we generated combinatorial matrices of single-chain bispecific ligands that exhibited diverse spectrums of functional activities, including potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by surrogate interferons. Crystal structures of IL-2R:VHH complexes revealed that variation in receptor dimer geometries resulted in functionally diverse signaling outputs. This modular platform enabled engineering of surrogate ligands that compelled assembly of an IL-2R/IL-10R heterodimer, which does not naturally exist, that signaled through pSTAT5 on T and natural killer (NK) cells. This "cytokine med-chem" approach, rooted in principles of induced proximity, is generalizable for discovery of diversified agonists for many ligand-receptor systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-2/pharmacology , Killer Cells, Natural , Ligands , Receptors, Interleukin-10 , SARS-CoV-2
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329581

ABSTRACT

Emerging in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) eventually became a pandemic and has posed a tremendous threat to global public health. However, the origins of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, remain to be determined. It has reported that a certain number of the early case clusters had a contact history with Huanan Seafood Market. Therefore, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 within the market is of vital importance. Herein, we presented the SARS-CoV-2 detection results of 1380 samples collected from the environment and the animals within the market in early 2020. By SARS-CoV-2-specific RT-qPCR, 73 environmental samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and three live viruses were successfully isolated. The viruses from the market shared nucleotide identity of 99.980% to 99.993% with the human isolate HCoV/Wuhan/IVDC-HB-01. In contrast, no virus was detected in the animal swabs covering 18 species of animals in the market. The SARS-COV-2 nucleic acids in the positive environmental samples showed significant correlation of abundance of Homo sapiens with SARS-CoV-2. In summary, this study provided convincing evidence of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the Huanan Seafood Market during the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315348

ABSTRACT

Background: Frontline clinicians working in the emergency department (ED) were at disportionate risk of workplace violence (WPV). This study investigated the prevalence of WPV and its association on quality of life (QOL) among this population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The overall prevalence of WPV was 29.2% (95%CI: 26.5%-31.9%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that having family/friends/colleagues infected with COVID-19 (OR=1.81, P =0.01), current smoking status (OR=3.24, P <0.01) and severity of anxiety symptoms (OR=1.13, P <0.01) were positively associated with WPV. Working in inpatient ED units (OR=0.45, P <0.01) was negatively associated with WPV. After controlling for covariates, clinicians experiencing WPV had a lower overall QOL compared to those without (F (1, 1103) =14.2, P <0.01). Conclusions: Prevalence of workplace violence was common among ED clinicians in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative impact of WPV on QOL and care quality, timely preventive measures should be undertaken for ED clinicians.

8.
Gut ; 71(5): 879-888, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether famotidine improved inflammation and symptomatic recovery in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully remote, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04724720) enrolling symptomatic unvaccinated adult outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 2021 and April 2021 from two US centres. Patients self-administered 80 mg famotidine (n=28) or placebo (n=27) orally three times a day for 14 consecutive days. Endpoints were time to (primary) or rate of (secondary) symptom resolution, and resolution of inflammation (exploratory). RESULTS: Of 55 patients in the intention-to-treat group (median age 35 years (IQR: 20); 35 women (64%); 18 African American (33%); 14 Hispanic (26%)), 52 (95%) completed the trial, submitting 1358 electronic symptom surveys. Time to symptom resolution was not statistically improved (p=0.4). Rate of symptom resolution was improved for patients taking famotidine (p<0.0001). Estimated 50% reduction of overall baseline symptom scores were achieved at 8.2 days (95% CI: 7 to 9.8 days) for famotidine and 11.4 days (95% CI: 10.3 to 12.6 days) for placebo treated patients. Differences were independent of patient sex, race or ethnicity. Five self-limiting adverse events occurred (famotidine, n=2 (40%); placebo, n=3 (60%)). On day 7, fewer patients on famotidine had detectable interferon alpha plasma levels (p=0.04). Plasma immunoglobulin type G levels to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid core protein were similar between both arms. CONCLUSIONS: Famotidine was safe and well tolerated in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Famotidine led to earlier resolution of symptoms and inflammation without reducing anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Additional randomised trials are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Famotidine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev ; 153: 111786, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472162

ABSTRACT

Combating the COVID-19 pandemic has raised the demand for and disposal of personal protective equipment in the United States. This work proposes a novel waste personal protective equipment processing system that enables energy recovery through producing renewable fuels and other basic chemicals. Exergy analysis and environmental assessment through a detailed life cycle assessment approach are performed to evaluate the energy and environmental sustainability of the processing system. Given the environmental advantages in reducing 35.42% of total greenhouse gas emissions from the conventional incineration and 43.50% of total fossil fuel use from landfilling processes, the optimal number, sizes, and locations of establishing facilities within the proposed personal protective equipment processing system in New York State are then determined by an optimization-based site selection methodology, proposing to build two pre-processing facilities in New York County and Suffolk County and one integrated fast pyrolysis plant in Rockland County. Their optimal annual treatment capacities are 1,708 t/y, 8,000 t/y, and 9,028 t/y. The proposed optimal personal protective equipment processing system reduces 31.5% of total fossil fuel use and 35.04% of total greenhouse gas emissions compared to the personal protective equipment incineration process. It also avoids 41.52% and 47.64% of total natural land occupation from the personal protective equipment landfilling and incineration processes.

16.
J Community Psychol ; 50(3): 1269-1281, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437052

ABSTRACT

Conspiracy theories flourish during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic especially regarding vaccinations. As the vaccination reluctancy in Austria is high, it is important to understand the antecedents of vaccination intention at the preapproval stage of the vaccination process. An online survey was conducted in August 2020 in Austria with 217 primarily younger, female, educated participants. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in a sceptics cluster with a clear antivaccination tendency along with a right-wing political position, lower trust in general vaccines and lower education levels and the reference cluster. A considerable percentage of participants reported their reluctancy to have a COVID-19 vaccine. Although vaccination intention can be explained by attitude and subjective norm, this decision-making process is undermined by underlying factors such as conspiracy ideation and political position. Policy makers and health interventionists should take political background into consideration in efforts to increase vaccine compliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Austria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 342, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415923

ABSTRACT

While some individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) present mild-to-severe disease, many SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic. We sought to identify the distinction of immune response between asymptomatic and moderate patients. We performed single-cell transcriptome and T-cell/B-cell receptor (TCR/BCR) sequencing in 37 longitudinal collected peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from asymptomatic, moderate, and severe patients with healthy controls. Asymptomatic patients displayed increased CD56briCD16- natural killer (NK) cells and upregulation of interferon-gamma in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells. They showed more robust TCR clonal expansion, especially in effector CD4+ T cells, but lack strong BCR clonal expansion compared to moderate patients. Moreover, asymptomatic patients have lower interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in general but large interpatient variability, whereas moderate patients showed various magnitude and temporal dynamics of the ISGs expression across multiple cell populations but lower than a patient with severe disease. Our data provide evidence of different immune signatures to SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier State/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. RESULTS: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

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