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1.
Artificial Satellites ; 57(s1):290-299, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2198285

ABSTRACT

On seanonal timescale, the variation of Earth rotation is mainly regulated by angular momentum exchanges between the solid Earth and the fluidal atmosphere, ocean and hydrosphere. In the 2nd EOP PCC, we developed Dill2019's method for polar motion prediction, using piecewise autoagressive parameters. The maximum prediction errors within 90 days are 36 and 16 mas for polar motion x and y components, respectively. Compared with Bulletin A, the mean absolute error of polar motion y prediction is improved by 20% in all timescale, and with a maximum improvement of 49% on the 5th day. Whereas, for polar motion x, the performance is slightly better (2% - 8%) within 30 days but worse (−7%~ −19%) within 30~90 days. We found that the prediction accuracy is very sensitive to the quality of the angular momentum data. For example, on average, the prediction of polar motion y is around 2 times better than polar motion x. In addition, we found the accuracy of 30-90 days prediction is dramatically decreased in the year 2020. We suspect that such deterioration might be due to the pandemic of coronavirus COVID-19, which suppressed global airline activities by more than 60%, then result in a lose of air-borne meteorological data, which are important for weather forecast.

3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 6695-6701, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141130

ABSTRACT

Background: "Pneumonia Prevention No.1" belongs to 'traditional Chinese medicine prescription for prevention of viral pneumonia and influenza' was urgently formulated by Notice on Printing the Novel Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment Scheme for COVID-19 (Trial Version 3) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment Scheme for COVID-19 in Hubei Province (Trial). Because the prescription drug has the bidirectional regulation function of human immune function, moderate improvement of immune function can effectively resist virus invasion, while excessive immune function will produce immune overresponse. Excessive immune response will aggravate the condition of patients with COVID-19, resulting in the death of severe patients. Methods: Twenty medical workers aged 20-60 years old, who had no immune disease, no current disease and healthy physical examination, were selected as participants. The participants took Hubei "Pneumonia Prevention No.1" decoction, one dosage each day, twice a day, for 7 consecutive days. With the before-after control method, blood samples were collected from the median cubital veins before and after medication. Immunoglobulin IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by immunoturbidimetry, and T lymphocyte subsets CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 were measured by flow cytometry. The changes of indexes before and after medication were compared with SPPS 13.0 statistical software. The data were expressed by (mean ± standard deviation). T-test was adopted, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of this study show that in healthy participants, the immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets did not differ significantly before and after drug administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Under normal drug administration circumstances, "Pneumonia Prevention No. 1" had no significant regulating effect on the immune system in a healthy population and did not increase the immune system capacity beyond a reasonable range. It is safe to be used as a prophylactic measure in healthy populations.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 157: 114018, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120479

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic lung disease characterised by alveolar inflammatory injury, alveolar septal thickening, and eventually fibrosis. Patients with severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have left a certain degree of pulmonary fibrosis. PF is commonly caused by oxidative imbalance and inflammatory damage. S-allylmercapto-N-acetylcysteine (ASSNAC) exhibits anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in other diseases. However, the pharmacodynamics of ASSNAC remain unclear for PF. This investigation aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of ASSNAC against PF. The PF model was established by TGF-ß1 stimulating HFL-1 cells in vitro. ASSNAC exhibited the potential to inhibit fibroblast transformation into myofibroblasts. Also, in the PF mice model with bleomycin (BLM), the sodium salt of ASSNAC (ASSNAC-Na) inhalation was treated. ASSNAC remarkably improved mice's lung tissue structure and collagen deposition. The important indicator proteins of PF, collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ, and α-SMA significantly decreased in the ASSNAC treated groups. Besides, ASSNAC attenuated oxidative stress by reversing glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and interfering with Nrf2/NOX4 signaling pathways. ASSNAC showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the number of inflammatory cells and inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, and blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway. ASSNAC inhibited fibroblast differentiation by blocking the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. This study implicates that ASSNAC alleviates pulmonary fibrosis through fighting against oxidative stress, reducing inflammation and inhibiting fibroblast differentiation.

5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(12): 443, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103917

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of infectious diseases caused by contagious pathogens is a life-threatening hazard to the entire human population worldwide. A timely and accurate diagnosis is the critical link in the fight against infectious diseases. Aptamer-based biosensors, the so-called aptasensors, employ nucleic acid aptamers as bio-receptors for the recognition of target pathogens of interest. This review focuses on the design strategies as well as state-of-the-art technologies of aptasensor-based diagnostics for infectious pathogens (mainly bacteria and viruses), covering the utilization of three major signal transducers, the employment of aptamers as recognition moieties, the construction of versatile biosensing platforms (mostly micro and nanomaterial-based), innovated reporting mechanisms, and signal enhancement approaches. Advanced point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious disease diagnostics are also discussed highlighting some representative ready-to-use devices to address the urgent needs of currently prevalent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pressing issues in aptamer-based technology and some future perspectives of aptasensors are provided for the implementation of aptasensor-based diagnostics into practical application.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis
6.
J Med Chem ; 64(24): 17601-17626, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084518

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules selected in vitro that can bind to a broad range of targets with high affinity and specificity. As promising alternatives to conventional anti-infective agents, aptamers have gradually revealed their potential in the combat against infectious diseases. This article provides an overview on the state-of-art of aptamer-based antibacterial and antiviral therapeutic strategies. Diverse aptamers targeting pathogen-related components or whole pathogenic cells are summarized according to the species of microorganisms. These aptamers exhibited remarkable in vitro and/or in vivo inhibitory effect for pathogenic invasion, enzymatic activities, or viral replication, even for some highly drug-resistant strains and biofilms. Aptamer-mediated drug delivery and controlled drug release strategies are also included herein. Critical technical barriers of therapeutic aptamers are briefly discussed, followed by some future perspectives for their implementation into clinical utility.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biofilms , Humans , Structure-Activity Relationship
7.
International Journal of Logistics Management ; 33(4):1408-1436, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2078070

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Logistics capability is an important enabler of supply chain resilience (SCR). However, few studies have analyzed the underlying influence mechanism of logistics capability on SCR in extreme conditions, such as those of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the role of logistics capabilities in constituting a resilient supply chain.Design/methodology/approach>Drawing upon the dynamic capability perspective and contingency theory, the proposed conceptual framework aims to demonstrate the relationship between a firm's logistics capabilities and SCR. Furthermore, the conceptual framework is illustrated by empirical evidence from a case study of a Chinese manufacturing company, which focuses on extracting practical lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic.Findings>The findings suggest that digitalization, innovativeness, and modularization comprise potential mediating pathways for firm logistics capability to affect SCR and government policies, risk management culture, trust and cooperation moderate the effect positively. The potential associations are identified and elucidated by detecting the corresponding strategies and practices of a Chinese manufacturer that performed well amid the COVID-19 pandemic.Practical implications>This study provides specific guidelines for logistics managers to enhance SCR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seeing SCR as a dynamic capability, the framework is also instructive for manufacturers, supply chain members, and policymakers to achieve the sustained competitive advantage of supply chains.Originality/value>The findings expand the understanding of enhancing SCR in a logistics approach. The empirical validation of propositions in the case study reveals a new vista for research on SCR.

8.
Eval Rev ; : 193841X221132125, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079149

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty is an overarching aspect of life that is particularly pertinent to the present COVID-19 pandemic crisis; as seen by the pandemic's rapid worldwide spread, the nature and level of uncertainty have possibly increased due to the possible disconnects across national borders. The entire economy, especially the tourism industry, has been dramatically impacted by COVID-19. In the current study, we explore the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and pandemic uncertainty (PU) on inbound international tourism by using data gathered from Italy, Spain, and the United States for the years 1995-2021. Using the Quantile on Quantile (QQ) approach, the study confirms that EPU and PU negatively affected inbound tourism in all states. Wavelet-based Granger causality further reveals bi-directional causality running from EPU to inbound tourism and unidirectional causality from PU to inbound tourism in the long run. The overall findings show that COVID-19 has had a strong negative effect on tourism. So resilient skills are required to restore a sustainable tourism industry.

9.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073977

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. With the coronavirus continuously mutating, Omicron has replaced Delta as the most widely reported variant in the world. Studies have shown that the plasma of some vaccinated people does not neutralize the Omicron variant. However, further studies are needed to determine whether plasma neutralizes Omicron after one- or two-dose vaccine in patients who have recovered from infection with the original strain. Methods The pseudovirus neutralization assays were performed on 64 plasma samples of convalescent COVID-19 patients, which were divided into pre-vaccination group, one-dose vaccinated group and two-dose vaccinated group. Results In the three groups, there were significant reductions of sera neutralizing activity from WT to Delta variant (B.1.617.2), and from WT to Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) (ps<0.001), but the difference between Delta and Omicron variants were not significant (p>0.05). The average neutralization of the Omicron variant showed a significant difference between pre-vaccination and two-dose vaccinated convalescent individuals (p<0.01). Conclusions Among the 64 plasma samples of COVID-19 convalescents, whether vaccinated or not, Omicron (B.1.1.529) escaped the neutralizing antibodies, with a significantly decreased neutralization activity compared to WT. And two-dose of vaccine could significantly raise the average neutralization of Omicron in convalescent individuals.

10.
Sci Adv ; 8(38): eabm6668, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053083

ABSTRACT

Viruses exploit host cell machinery to support their replication. Defining the cellular proteins and processes required for a virus during infection is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of virally induced disease and designing host-directed therapeutics. Here, we perform a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-based screening in lung epithelial cells infected with the PR/8/NS1-GFP virus and use GFPhi cell as a unique screening marker to identify host factors that inhibit influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We discovered that APOE affects influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Cell deficiency in APOE conferred substantially increased susceptibility to IAV; mice deficient in APOE manifested more severe lung pathology, increased virus load, and decreased survival rate. Mechanistically, lack of cell-produced APOE results in impaired cell cholesterol homeostasis, enhancing influenza virus attachment. Thus, we identified a previously unrecognized role of APOE in restraining IAV infection.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , Apolipoproteins , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Cholesterol , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Virus Replication
11.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(9): nwac122, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051501

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has an extremely broad host range that includes hippopotami, which are phylogenetically closely related to whales. The cellular ACE2 receptor is one of the key determinants of the host range. Here, we found that ACE2s from several marine mammals and hippopotami could efficiently bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and facilitate the transduction of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses into ACE2-expressing cells. We further resolved the cryo-electron microscopy complex structures of the minke whale ACE2 and sea lion ACE2, respectively, bound to the RBDs, revealing that they have similar binding modes to human ACE2 when it comes to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD. Our results indicate that marine mammals could potentially be new victims or virus carriers of SARS-CoV-2, which deserves further careful investigation and study. It will provide an early warning for the prospective monitoring of marine mammals.

12.
China Geology ; 5(3):402-410, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2044359

ABSTRACT

This study investigated water samples collected from the surface water and groundwater in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in different stages of the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (hereinafter referred to as COVID-19) in the city, aiming to determine the distribution characteristics of antiviral drugs in the city’s waters. The results are as follows. The main hydrochemical type of surface water and groundwater in Wuhan was Ca-HCO3. The major chemical components in the groundwater had higher concentrations and spatial variability than those in the surface water. Two antiviral drugs and two glucocorticoids were detected in the surface water, groundwater, and sewage during the COVID-19 outbreak. Among them, chloroquine phosphate and cortisone had higher detection rates of 32.26% and 25.80%, respectively in all samples. The concentrations of residual drugs in East Lake were higher than those in other waters. The main drug detected in the waters in the later stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan was chloroquine phosphate, whose detection rates in the surface water and the groundwater were 53.85% and 28.57%, respectively. Moreover, the detection rate and concentration of chloroquine phosphate were higher in East Lake than in Huangjia Lake. The groundwater containing chloroquine phosphate was mainly distributed along the river areas where the groundwater was highly vulnerable. The residual drugs in the surface water and the groundwater had lower concentrations in the late stage of the COVID-19 outbreak than in the middle of the outbreak, and they have not yet caused any negative impacts on the ecological environment.©2022 China Geology Editorial Office.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer show greater susceptibility and vulnerability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, data on the vaccination status among patients with breast cancer and any structured analysis of the factors influencing patients' decisions regarding vaccines are lacking. METHODS: This cross-sectional study on patients with breast cancer in China was conducted from 1 June 2022, to 17 June 2022. Every participant completed an online questionnaire about their vaccination status and any adverse reactions, and a scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) to assess the vaccination status of respondents and their willingness to receive following doses or boosters. RESULTS: Among the 1132 participants, 55.2% had received a COVID-19 vaccine. The incidence of adverse events per dose was around 40%. Vaccine hesitancy of 61.9% was observed among patients who had not fully received three doses of vaccine or boosters. The only variable found to be associated with vaccine hesitancy was time since diagnosis (p < 0.05). In the HBM scale, vaccine hesitancy was closely related to a low level of perceived susceptibility, a low level of perceived benefit, a high level of perceived barriers and a low level of agreement with doctors' advice. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, benefits and barriers should be prioritized, and the advice from authoritative doctors is a vital cue to action.

14.
Sustainable Development ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2041241

ABSTRACT

Countries around the world are facing enormous challenges in their economic and social development as COVID-19 continues to spread, resulting in slower economic recovery in the post-pandemic era. Considering the impact of economic growth on future sustainable development in this new era, green economic recovery (GER) can achieve a win-win situation between economic recovery and environmental improvement and bring forth environmentally sustainable economic growth. This research first lists related COVID-19 literature surveys and GER policies in the post-pandemic era in China. Based on a comparative study of the international experience of GER policy practices, this paper then analyzes the opportunities and challenges China faces for GER and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions on how to promote its sustainable development in the post-epidemic era. We believe our research presents useful enlightenments for sustainable economic and social development in the post-epidemic era.

15.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4658-4668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025287

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic. Intermediate horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are hosts of RaTG13, the second most phylogenetically related viruses to SARS-CoV-2. We report the binding between intermediate horseshoe bat ACE2 (bACE2-Ra) and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), supporting the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. A 3.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the bACE2-Ra/SARS-CoV-2 RBD complex was determined. The interaction networks of Patch 1 showed differences in R34 and E35 of bACE2-Ra compared to hACE2 and big-eared horseshoe bat ACE2 (bACE2-Rm). The E35K substitution, existing in other species, significantly enhanced the binding affinity owing to its electrostatic attraction with E484 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Furthermore, bACE2-Ra showed extensive support for the SARS-CoV-2 variants. These results broaden our knowledge of the ACE2/RBD interaction mechanism and emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of intermediate horseshoe bats to prevent spillover risk.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chiroptera , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Protein Binding
16.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0081422, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001773

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted between humans and minks, and some mutations in the spike (S) protein, especially in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), have been identified in mink-derived viruses. Here, we examined binding of the mink angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to mink-derived and important human-originating variants, and we demonstrated that most of the RBD variants increased the binding affinities to mink ACE2 (mkACE2). Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the mkACE2-RBD Y453F (with a Y-to-F change at position 453) and mkACE2-RBD F486L complexes helped identify the key residues that facilitate changes in mkACE2 binding affinity. Additionally, the data indicated that the Y453F and F486L mutations reduced the binding affinities to some human monoclonal antibodies, and human vaccinated sera efficiently prevented infection of human cells by pseudoviruses expressing Y453F, F486L, or N501T RBD. Our findings provide an important molecular mechanism for the rapid adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in minks and highlight the potential influence of the main mink-originating variants for humans. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a broad range of hosts. Mink-derived SARS-CoV-2 can transmit back to humans. There is an urgent need to understand the binding mechanism of mink-derived SARS-CoV-2 variants to mink receptor. In this study, we identified all mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike (S) protein from mink-derived SARS-CoV-2, and we demonstrated the enhanced binding affinity of mink angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to most of the mink-derived RBD variants as well as important human-originating RBD variants. Cryo-electron microscopy structures revealed that the Y453F and F486L mutations enhanced the binding forces in the interaction interface. In addition, Y453F and F486L mutations reduced the binding affinities to some human monoclonal antibodies, and the SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses with Y453F, F486L, or N501T mutations were neutralized by human vaccinated sera. Therefore, our results provide valuable information for understanding the cross-species transmission mechanism of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/veterinary , Mink , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4958, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000890

ABSTRACT

Omicron SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading worldwide. To delineate the impact of emerging mutations on spike's properties, we performed systematic structural analyses on apo Omicron spike and its complexes with human ACE2 or S309 neutralizing antibody (NAb) by cryo-EM. The Omicron spike preferentially adopts the one-RBD-up conformation both before and after ACE2 binding, which is in sharp contrast to the orchestrated conformational changes to create more up-RBDs upon ACE2 binding as observed in the prototype and other four variants of concern (VOCs). Furthermore, we found that S371L, S373P and S375F substitutions enhance the stability of the one-RBD-up conformation to prevent exposing more up-RBDs triggered by ACE2 binding. The increased stability of the one-RBD-up conformation restricts the accessibility of S304 NAb, which targets a cryptic epitope in the closed conformation, thus facilitating the immune evasion by Omicron. These results expand our understanding of Omicron spike's conformation, receptor binding and antibody evasion mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 955237, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987479

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), had already resulted in widespread epidemics worldwide and millions of people's deaths since its outbreak in 2019. COVID-19 had also been demonstrated to affect people's cardiac function. However, the specific mechanism and influence of this damage were not clear yet. The purpose of the present study was to provide a bibliometric analysis of the current studies related to cardiac involvement after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A bibliometric literature search was performed on the web of science. The number and type of publications, countries, institutional sources, journals, and citation patterns were analyzed. In addition, qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out to visualize the scientific achievements in this field by using the VOSviewer software. Results: Web of science had recorded 2,24,097 documents on COVID-19 at the time of data collection (May 12, 2022). A total of 2,025 documents related to cardiac involvement were recorded at last. The countries with the most published articles were the United States of America (USA) (n =747, 36.9%), Italy (n =324, 16%), and England (n =213, 10.5%). Although the countries and institutions that published the most articles were mainly from the USA, the top three authors were from Germany, England, and Poland. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine was the journal with the most studies (65 3.2%), followed by ESC Heart Failure (59 2.9%) and Journal of Clinical Medicine (56 2.8%). We identified 13,739 authors, among which Karin Klingel and Amer Harky had the most articles, and Shaobo Shi was co-cited most often. There existed some cooperation between different authors, but the scope was limited. Myocarditis and heart failure (HF) were the main research hotspots of COVID-19 on cardiac dysfunction and may be crucial to the prognosis of patients. Conclusions: It was the first bibliometric analysis of publications related to COVID-19-associated cardiac disorder. This study provided academics and researchers with useful information on the most influential articles of COVID-19 and cardiac dysfunction. Cooperation between countries and institutions must be strengthened on myocarditis and HF during COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Applied Sciences ; 12(15):7910, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1979101

ABSTRACT

Advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of antimicrobial technology of nanomaterials. In recent years, photocatalytic antibacterial disinfection methods with ZnO-based nanomaterials have attracted extensive attention in the scientific community. In addition, recently widely and speedily spread viral microorganisms, such as COVID-19 and monkeypox virus, have aroused global concerns. Traditional methods of water purification and disinfection are inhibited due to the increased resistance of bacteria and viruses. Exploring new and effective antimicrobial materials and methods has important practical application value. This review is a comprehensive overview of recent progress in the following: (i) preparation methods of ZnO-based nanomaterials and comparison between methods;(ii) types of nanomaterials for photocatalytic antibacterials in water treatment;(iii) methods for studying the antimicrobial activities and (iv) mechanisms of ZnO-based antibacterials. Subsequently, the use of different doping strategies to enhance the photocatalytic antibacterial properties of ZnO-based nanomaterials is also emphatically discussed. Finally, future research and practical applications of ZnO-based nanomaterials for antibacterial activity are proposed.

20.
J Cell Biol ; 221(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960887

ABSTRACT

ß-coronaviruses reshape host cell endomembranes to form double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) for genome replication and transcription. Ectopically expressed viral nonstructural proteins nsp3 and nsp4 interact to zipper and bend the ER for DMV biogenesis. Genome-wide screens revealed the autophagy proteins VMP1 and TMEM41B as important host factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we demonstrated that DMV biogenesis, induced by virus infection or expression of nsp3/4, is impaired in the VMP1 KO or TMEM41B KO cells. In VMP1 KO cells, the nsp3/4 complex forms normally, but the zippered ER fails to close into DMVs. In TMEM41B KO cells, the nsp3-nsp4 interaction is reduced and DMV formation is suppressed. Thus, VMP1 and TMEM41B function at different steps during DMV formation. VMP1 was shown to regulate cross-membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) distribution. Inhibiting PS synthesis partially rescues the DMV defects in VMP1 KO cells, suggesting that PS participates in DMV formation. We provide molecular insights into the collaboration of host factors with viral proteins to remodel host organelles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Replication Compartments , Autophagy/genetics , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Organelles/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
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