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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 293: 115322, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483561

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Forsythiae Fructuse (FF), the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, is used as a traditional Chinese medicine that has been reported to exert good anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of many lung diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of FF in the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) based on gut-lung axis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALI model was established by the intratracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg LPS in ICR mice. Mice were administered intragastrically with dexamethasone (DEX), and low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose of FF extracts (LFF, MFF and HFF) in addition to the mice of control (CON) and model (MOD) groups. Pathological observation and inflammation scoring of lung tissues were based on HE staining. Limulus lysate assay was used to detect endotoxin levels in serum. Western blot and Real-time quantitative PCR were respectively applied to detect the protein and mRNA expressions in both lung and colon tissues. RESULTS: Lung pathological injury, inflammatory score and inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α) could be effectively suppressed by FF in LPS-induced ALI mice. FF also increased the proteins of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, ZO-1 and Claudin-1) in lung and colon tissues, and decreased colonic inflammatory genes for protecting the epithelial barriers of lung and colon. The protein expression of TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway in lung and colon was significantly inhibited by FF via the regulation of PPAR-γ, a nuclear hormone receptor that forms the heterodimer with RXR-α to inhibit inflammatory gene transcription. More specifically, FF promoted the upregulation of protein, phosphorylated proteins and genes of PPAR-γ/RXR-α in lungs, while inhibited the protein overexpression and phosphorylation of PPAR-γ/RXR-α in colons. CONCLUSIONS: FF exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and protected the epithelial barriers in lungs and colons by regulating PPAR-γ/RXR-α in the treatment of LPS-induced ALI.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108712, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397391

ABSTRACT

Sirtuins (SIRTs), a NAD+ family of dependent deacetylases, are involved in the regulation of various human diseases. Recently, accumulating evidence has uncovered number of substrates and crucial roles of SIRTs in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, systematic reports are still lacking, so this review provides a comprehensive profile of the crucial physiological functions of SIRTs and its role in attenuating ALD, including alcoholic liver steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. SIRTs play beneficial roles in energy/lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, mitochondrial homeostasis, autophagy and necroptosis of ALD via regulating multiple signaling transduction pathways such as AMPK, LKB1, SREBP1, Lipin1, PGC-1α, PPARα/γ, FoxO1/3a, Nrf2/p62, mTOR, TFEB, RIPK1/3, HMGB1, NFATc4, NF-κB, TLR4, NLRP3, P2X7R, MAPK, TGF1ß/Smads and Wnt/ß-catenin. In addition, the mechanism and clinical application of natural/ synthetic SIRTs agonists in ALD are summarized, which provide a new idea for the treatment of ALD and basic foundation for further studies into target drugs.

3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301946

ABSTRACT

Quercetin is the main dietary flavonoid with a wide range of pharmacological activities. However, the poor gastrointestinal absorption and low bioavailability of quercetin curtails its clinical applications.. Enhancement the bioavailability of quercetin focuses on the application of delivery systems technologies such as microparticle delivery systems, solid dispersions, encapsulation, phospholipid complexes, and hydrogels , which have been systematically reviewed .And theirapplications in vitro and in vivo animal experiments also been described, promoting the development and optimization of drug delivery system for clinical applications.

4.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100953

ABSTRACT

Inflammation, as a complex immunopathological process, is the organism's natural defense response to the organism against harmful, foreign, and destructive immune or non-immune factors. It is the main pathological form of various diseases, such as tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, periodontitis, alcoholic steatohepatitis, asthma, and other diseases. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is widely distributed in vivo and up--regulated in various inflammatory pathological states. Studies have shown that milder chronic inflammation is related to a deficiency or inhibition of P2X7R, which is an indispensable part of the pro-inflammatory mechanism in vivo. P2X7R, a unique subtype of seven purinergic P2X receptors, is an ATP-gated nonselective cationic channel. P2X7R will promote the influx of Ca2+ and the outflow of K+ after being stimulated. The influx of Ca2+ is essential for activating the body's innate immune response and inducing the production of inflammatory factors. This paper reviews the regulation of P2X7R on inflammation from the perspectives of innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9938392, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035671

ABSTRACT

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation is an important step in the process of hepatic fibrosis. NOX4 and reactive oxygen species expressed in HSCs play an important role in liver fibrosis. Forsythiaside A (FA), a phenylethanoid glycoside extracted and isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, has significant antioxidant activities. However, it is not clear whether FA can play a role in inhibiting the HSCs activation through regulating NOX4/ROS pathway. Therefore, our purpose is to explore the effect and mechanism of FA on HSCs activation to alleviate liver fibrosis. LX2 cells were activated by TGF-ß1 in vitro. MTT assay and Wound Healing assay were used to investigate the effect of FA on TGF-ß1-induced LX2 cell proliferation and migration. Elisa kit was used to measure the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to investigate the expression of fibrosis-related COLI, α-SMA, MMP-1 and TIMP-1, and inflammation-related TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß. The hydroxyproline content was characterized using a biochemical kit. The mechanism of FA to inhibit HSCs activation and apoptosis was detected by DCF-DA probe, RT-qPCR, western blot and flow cytometry. NOX4 siRNA was used to futher verify the effect of FA on NOX4/ROS pathway. The results showed that FA inhibited the proliferation and migration of LX2 cells and adjusted the expression of MMP-1, TIMP-1, COLI, α-SMA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß as well as promoted collagen metabolism to show potential in anti-hepatic fibrosis. Mechanically, FA down-regulated NOX4/ROS signaling pathway to improve oxidation imbalances, and subsequently inhibited PI3K/Akt pathway to suppress proliferation. FA also promoted the apoptosis of LX2 cells by Bax/Bcl2 pathway. Furthermore, the effects of FA on TGF-ß1-induced increased ROS levels and α-SMA and COLI expression were weaken by silencing NOX4. In conclusion, FA had potential in anti-hepatic fibrosis at least in part by remolding of extracellular matrix and improving oxidation imbalances to inhibit the activation of HSCs and promote HSCs apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Hepatic Stellate Cells/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , NADPH Oxidase 4/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Transfection
6.
Cytokine ; 151: 155809, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fuzi lipid-soluble alkaloids (FLA) is the main bioactive components extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata ("Fuzi" in Chinese), which has promising analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects and the underlying mechanisms of FLA on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been studied. The present study aimed to explore the anti-arthritic effects of FLA and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: To standardize the FLA, UPLC-HR-MS was used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the representative alkaloids. Cell viability was measured by MTT. The anti-inflammatory activity of FLA was examined by analyzing the expression levels of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-1, MMP-3, PGE2, and COX-2 using ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. The Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method was used to detect the apoptosis of HFLS-RA and analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to analyze the expression of NF-κB, MAPKs and mitochondrial apoptosis pathway related proteins. RESULTS: FLA had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HFLS-RA induced by IL-1ß, which was accompanied by decreased expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-1, MMP-3, COX-2 and PGE2. Remarkably, FLA inhibited the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways in IL-1ß-induced HFLS-RA, as well as inducing HFLS-RA apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. CONCLUSIONS: FLA inhibited the expression and synthesis of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways in HFLS-RA, and induced apoptosis of HFLS-RA via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Synoviocytes , Alkaloids/metabolism , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Apoptosis/physiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipids , MAP Kinase Signaling System , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Synoviocytes/metabolism
7.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(8): 1965-1999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961416

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.


Subject(s)
Cell Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 734670, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867343

ABSTRACT

In the prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine for lipid metabolism, Polygoni Multiflori Radix Preparata (ZhiHeShouWu, RPMP) was widely used. In recent years, RPMP ethanol extract has been reported for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of RPMP ethanol extract in the treatment of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we examined the optimal therapeutic dose of RPMP ethanol extracts. Afterward, a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) was treated with RPMP ethanol extract to further evaluate the mechanism of action of RPMP ethanol extract treatment. And the serum lipid metabolism indexes and liver function indexes showed that the RPMP ethanol extract in the 1.35 g/kg dose group exhibited better therapeutic effects than the 2.70 g/kg dose group. Meanwhile, RPMP ethanol extract can regulate the biochemical indicators of serum and liver to normal levels, and effectively reduce liver steatosis and lipid deposition. RPMP ethanol extract treatment restored HFD-induced disruption of the compositional structure of the intestinal microbial (IM) and bile acids (BAs) pools. And restore the reduced expression of intestinal barrier-related genes caused by HFD administration, which also effectively regulates the expression of genes related to the metabolism of BAs in mice. Thus, RPMP ethanol extract can effectively improve the abnormal lipid metabolism and hepatic lipid accumulation caused by HFD, which may be related to the regulation of IM composition, maintenance of intestinal barrier function, and normal cholesterol metabolism in the body.

9.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 36273-36286, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809042

ABSTRACT

We present a novel hollow-core anti-resonant fiber (HC-ARF) with a cladding ring, two nested resonant tubes and two nested silicon tubes. The cladding ring in the fiber contributes to decrease the fundamental mode (FM) loss of x-polarization and enlarge the polarization-extinction ratio (PER). In addition, the nested silicon tubes can improve birefringence greatly. The combination of cladding ring, nested resonant tubes and nested silicon tubes can make the fiber obtain low FM loss, single-polarization, and high birefringence. Specifically, the proposed HC-ARF exhibits total FM loss of x-polarization, PER, and birefringence of 0.89 dB/km, 4432, 3.07×10-4, respectively, at 1.55 µm. Moreover, the y-bend direction has a great influence on the propagation properties of the fiber. The fiber in the x-bend direction has low total bend-loss of 0.004 dB/m for a small bend radius of 5.8 cm.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 742954, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803688

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis is a general pathological phenomenon during severe disturbances to homeostasis, which plays an essential role in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Leonurine (LEO), isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt, showes a crucial role in anticoagulation and vasodilatation. However, the properties and therapeutic mechanisms of this effect have not yet been systematically elucidated. Therefore, the antithrombotic effect of LEO was investigated in this study. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to detect the thrombosis of zebrafish tail. Fluorescence probe was used to detect the reactive oxygen species. The biochemical indexes related to oxidative stress (lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and vasodilator factor (endothelin-1 and nitric oxide) were analyzed by specific commercial assay kits. Besides, we detected the expression of related genes (fga, fgb, fgg, pkcα, pkcß, vwf, f2) and proteins (PI3K, phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt, ERK, phospho-ERK FIB) related to the anticoagulation and fibrinolytic system by quantitative reverse transcription and western blot. Beyond that, metabolomic analyses were carried out to identify the expressions of metabolites associated with the anti-thrombosis mechanism of LEO. Our in vivo experimental results showed that LEO could improve the oxidative stress injury, abnormal platelet aggregation and coagulation dysfunction induced by adrenalin hydrochloride. Moreover, LEO restored the modulation of amino acids and inositol metabolites which are reported to alleviate the thrombus formation. Collectively, LEO attenuates adrenalin hydrochloride-induced thrombosis partly via modulating oxidative stress, coagulation cascade and platelet activation and amino acid and inositol metabolites.

11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684998

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a polarization-independent optoelectronic modulator based on the electrical absorption effect of graphene. Firstly, we use the simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to design the structure, and find via changing the applied voltage on both ends of the graphene that the equivalent refractive index of graphene can be changed, thus changing the light absorption capacity of the modulator. The waveguides in the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes have almost the same extinction coefficient by making a double-layer graphene ridge structure in the center of the silicon-based waveguide, which can achieve approaching modulation depth in the TM and TE modes. At 1550 nm wavelength, the two-dimensional cross-section of the structure is analyzed by the FEM method using COMSOL Multiphysics to obtain the effective refractive index of the structure. The simulation results show that when the distance between the double-layer graphene isolation layer is d = 20 nm, the TE and TM modes can achieve extinction ratios up to 110 dB over the wide communication band by selecting appropriate "ON" and "OFF" switching points. The bandwidth is 173.78 GHz and the insertion loss is only 0.0338 dB.

12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(40): 4160-4170, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a supergene family derived from a platelet growth factor. It plays a pivotal role in regulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. sFlt-1 is a soluble antagonist of VEGF with an essential effect of maintaining the balance of vascular growth. Recently, sFlt-1 has emerged as a new marker for early diagnosis and disease surveillance of angiogenesis-related diseases. However, few comprehensive reviews focus on the relationship between sFlt-1 and related diseases despite that many results have yielded. METHODS: In this review, we analyzed the relationship between sFlt-1 and angiogenesis-related diseases by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and other databases, and summarized our current understanding of the role of sFlt-1 in angiogenesis-related diseases. RESULTS: sFlt-1 is associated with pre-eclampsia, perinatal cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, tumor, atherosclerosis, and other diseases. The mechanisms of sFlt-1 that regulate those diseases are mainly associated with the bioavailability of VEGF and vascular endothelial cell integrity. CONCLUSION: From the summary article, sFlt-1 is a double regulator in angiogenesis-related diseases; too much or too little may cause different diseases. Therefore, maintaining the stability of sFlt-1 content in the body is essential to control the development of related diseases.


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Biomarkers , Female , Humans , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Pregnancy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/metabolism
13.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 4727-4747, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159683

ABSTRACT

Quercetin is the major representative of the flavonoid subgroup of flavones, with good pharmacological activities for the treatment of liver diseases, including liver steatosis, fatty hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and liver cancer. It can significantly influence the development of liver diseases via multiple targets and multiple pathways via antifat accumulation, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, as well as the inhibition of cellular apoptosis and proliferation. Despite extensive research on understanding the mechanism of quercetin in the treatment of liver diseases, there are still no targeted therapies available. Thus, we have comprehensively searched and summarized the different targets of quercetin in different stages of liver diseases and concluded that quercetin inhibited inflammation of the liver mainly through NF-κB/TLR/NLRP3, reduced PI3K/Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress, mTOR activation in autophagy, and inhibited the expression of apoptotic factors associated with the development of liver diseases. In addition, quercetin showed different mechanisms of action at different stages of liver diseases, including the regulation of PPAR, UCP, and PLIN2-related factors via brown fat activation in liver steatosis. The compound inhibited stromal ECM deposition at the liver fibrosis stage, affecting TGF1ß, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs), and apoptosis. While at the final liver cancer stage, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and spread via the hTERT, MEK1/ERK1/2, Notch, and Wnt/ß-catenin-related signaling pathways. In conclusion, quercetin is an effective liver protectant. We hope to explore the pathogenesis of quercetin in different stages of liver diseases through the review, so as to provide more accurate targets and theoretical basis for further research of quercetin in the treatment of liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Liver Diseases , Protective Agents , Quercetin , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Humans , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacology , Signal Transduction
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 899: 174043, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745957

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a common pathological phenomenon when homeostasis is seriously disturbed. Phillygenin (PHI), a lignin component isolated from Forsythiae Fructus, has shown a good anti-inflammatory effect. However, the mechanisms of PHI on anti-inflammation have not yet been systematically elucidated. In this study, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced RAW264.7 cell inflammation model was established to investigate mechanisms of PHI on inflammation. The effect of PHI on the release of IL-1ß and PGE2 inflammatory factors induced by LPS was detected by ELISA, and the mRNA expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α were detected by RT-qPCR. Proteomics studied the signaling pathways that might be affected by PHI and molecular docking technology was subsequently used to study the possible targets on proteomic screened pathways. Western blot was performed ultimately to detect progressive changes in protein expression on the related pathway. Our research showed that PHI significantly inhibited the robust increase of IL-1ß and PGE2 and lowered the transcriptional level of inflammatory genes including IL-6, IL-1ß and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Proteomics results indicated that PHI was involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. Molecular docking results indicated that PHI had an affinity for most proteins in NF-κB pathway. Western blot analysis proved that PHI inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB pathway activation. On the whole, PHI inhibited the activation of NF-κB pathway, thereby inhibiting the expression of related inflammatory genes and the release of cytokines, and showed a remarkable anti-inflammatory effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Lignans/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Animals , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps , Proteomics , RAW 264.7 Cells , Signal Transduction
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113569, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186701

ABSTRACT

Ethnopharmacological relevanceQuercetin is the active component of the higher content in PCP, which exerts various biological activities such as anti-obesity effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). AIM OF THE STUDY: P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role in health and disease, which can be activated by extracellular ATP to induce a variety of downstream events, including lipid metabolism, inflammatory molecule release, oxidative stress. However, whether the mechanism of quercetin on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis via P2X7R-mediated haven't been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Zebrafish transgenic (fabp10: EGFP) larvae were treated with 100 µM, 50 µM, 25 µM quercetin for 48 h at 3 days post fertilization (dpf), then soaked in 350 mmol/L ethanol for 32 h, treated with 1 mM ATP (P2X7R activator) for 30min. Serum lipids, liver steatosis, oxidative stress factors were respectively detected. The mRNA levels in the related pathways were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR (RT-qPCR) to investigate the mechanisms. RESULTS: Quercetin improved the liver function via decreasing ALT, AST and γ-GT level of zebrafish with acute ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated hepatic TG, TC accumulation. Additionally, quercetin significantly reduced the MDA content and suppressed the ethanol-induced reduction of hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers GSH, CAT and SOD and significantly down-regulated the expression of P2X7R, and up-regulated the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Kelch like ECH associated protein1 (Keap1), Nuclear Factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). Moreover, ATP stimulation activated P2X7R, which further mediated the mRNA expressions of PI3K, Keap1 and Nrf2. CONCLUSION: Quercetin exhibited hepatoprotective capacity in zebrafish model, via regulating P2X7R-mediated PI3K/Keap1/Nrf2 oxidative stress signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins/biosynthesis , Fatty Liver/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/biosynthesis , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/biosynthesis , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/biosynthesis , Zebrafish Proteins/biosynthesis , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ethanol/toxicity , Fatty Liver/chemically induced , Fatty Liver/prevention & control , Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists , Quercetin/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Zebrafish
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173655, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068590

ABSTRACT

Liver plays an important role in bile synthesis, metabolic function, degradation of toxins, new substances synthesis in body. However, hepatopathy morbidity and mortality are increasing year by year around the world, which become a major public health problem. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a prominent role in the treatment of liver diseases due to its definite curative effect and small side effects. The hepatoprotective effect of berberine has been extensively studied, so we comprehensively summarize the pharmacological activities of lipid metabolism regulation, bile acid adjustment, anti-inflammation, oxidation resistance, anti-fibrosis and anti-cancer and so on. Besides, the metabolism and toxicity of berberine and its new formulations to improve its effectiveness are expounded, providing a reference for the safe and effective clinical use of berberine.


Subject(s)
Berberine/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Berberine/chemistry , Berberine/therapeutic use , Drug Compounding/methods , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Liver Diseases/pathology
17.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2020: 4875764, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014105

ABSTRACT

Alcohol liver disease (ALD) caused by excessive alcohol consumption is a progressive disease, and alcohol fatty liver disease is the primary stage. Currently, there is no approved drug for its treatment. Abstinence is the best way to heal, but patients' compliance is poor. Unlike other chronic diseases, alcohol fatty liver disease is not caused by nutritional deficiencies; it is caused by the molecular action of ingested alcohol and its metabolites. More and more studies have shown the potential of Penthorum chinense Pursh (PCP) in the clinical use of alcohol fatty liver treatment. The purpose of this paper is to reveal from the essence of PCP treatment of alcohol liver mechanism mainly by the ethanol dehydrogenase (ADH) and microsomal ethanol oxidation system-dependent cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to exert antilipogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and autophagy effects, with special emphasis on its mechanisms related to SIRT1/AMPK, KEAP-1/Nrf2, and TLR4/NF-κB. Overall, data from the literature shows that PCP appears to be a promising hepatoprotective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5462063, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382557

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a type of metabolic syndrome, continues to rise globally. Currently, there is no approved drug for its treatment. Improving lifestyle and exercise can alleviate symptoms, but patients' compliance is poor. More and more studies have shown the potential of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) in the treatment of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, this paper reviews the pharmacological effects of PMR and its main chemical components (tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside, emodin, and resveratrol) on NAFLD. PMR can inhibit the production of fatty acids and promote the decomposition of triglycerides, reduce inflammation, and inhibit the occurrence of liver fibrosis. At the same time, it maintains an oxidation equilibrium status in the body, to achieve the therapeutic purpose of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Although more standardized studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm its efficacy, PMR may be a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD and its complications. However, the occurrence of adverse reactions of PMR has affected its extensive clinical application. Therefore, it is necessary to further study its toxicity mechanism, enhance efficacy and control toxicity, and even reduce toxicity, which will contribute to the safe clinical use of PMR.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Polygonum/chemistry , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Phytochemicals/chemistry
19.
Appl Opt ; 57(20): 5623-5627, 2018 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118073

ABSTRACT

To study the four-wave mixing (FWM) effect and wavelength conversion in a hollow core bandgap photonic crystal fiber filled with Ar, we conducted an experiment using a femtosecond laser with the pulse width of 120 fs, a repetition rate of 76 MHz, and tunable central wavelength from 760 to 980 nm. It is observed that new spectra are generated in both sides of the pump at a special wavelength, which can exactly satisfy the phase matching conditions of FWM. Combining experimental results with theoretical analysis, we find that the experimental phenomenon is mainly caused by FWM, and some other nonlinear phase effects, such as self-phase modulation, stimulated Raman scattering, and the soliton effect, have also occurred in this nonlinear process.

20.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 36(6): 1650-5, 2016 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052365

ABSTRACT

Photonic crystal fiber can generate particular dispersion properties and highly nonlinear, because of the special guiding mechanism and the adjustable structure parameters,which provides new conditions for the study of nonlinear fiber optics. There are rich nonlinear spectral properties produced by a variety of nonlinear physical effect, under different pump light pulse parameters in photonic crystal fibers with different structure and transmission properties. At present many papers have reported the experimental results of nonlinear optical properties in photonic crystal fiber, but there is little theoretical analysis about the produced mechanism and the change rule of the nonlinear spectrum. In the paper, solving nonlinear Schrodinger equation with split-step Fourier method, transmission process of femtosecond laser pulse in photonic crystal fiber is simulated. The relationship between the output spectrum and incident light pulse parameters (the peak power of pump light P, the wavelength of pump light λ, the shape of light pulse, the width of light pulse TFWHM), the structure parameters of optical fiber (the pitch Λ, the hole-to-pitch ratio d/Λ, the length of fiber), the transmission characteristics (the dispersion properties, the nonlinear coefficient) is obtained. The spectral characteristics produced by nonlinear effects of the Raman soliton, dispersive wave, self-phase modulation are analyzed. The nonlinear optical spectrum of cladding note in photonic crystal fiber is studied in experiments, the broadband spectrum of soliton wave and dispersive wave is obtained. There are blue-shift dispersive wave near the wavelength of 0.5 µm, residual pump light near the wavelength of 0.82 µm, soliton wave near the wavelength of 1.1 µm, red-shift broadband dispersion wave near the wavelength of 2 µm in the spectrum obtained both in theory and experiment. The numerical simulation is confirmed through experimental observation. The physics principle of the nonlinear spectrum in photonic crystal fiber is revealed. These are useful and practical to realize the controllable output of broadband spectrum. These provide guidance for the structure design, fabrication, applied research of high nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

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