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1.
Building and Environment ; : 109032, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1757176

ABSTRACT

Employee satisfaction significantly affects health, well-being and productivity, and office layout plays a dominant role in office psychological satisfaction. However, existing studies have not yet proposed a quantitative evaluation method for office layout satisfaction to assist design decisions. This study conducts a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) process of office layout satisfaction from 1,317 staff members at 3 universities in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The proposed office layout feature network supports the questionnaire design and environmental measurement. Based on the survey data, multiple resampling methods are considered to face the imbalanced dataset problem, and feature selection integrates statistical analysis methods and machine learning algorithms. Nine supervised learning algorithms are tested for office layout satisfaction prediction, and the final predictive model is established based on the random forest algorithm. The predictive model explanation is further integrated with original data analysis to extract the quantified impacts of various building characteristics. The workstation adjustment under the background of COVID-19 in an actual staff office is chosen to be an application scenario of the predictive model. The results show that the workstation distance, room depth and room width-depth ratio are dominant in the evaluation of office layout satisfaction. The proposed predictive model achieves 64.5% accuracy, and the prediction results are interpretable, which promotes its application in office design practice. The data processing methods in this study respond to the common data problems in the POE based opinion collection process. The extracted influence mechanisms of building characteristics can directly support user-centered office design.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 240, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Covid-19 patients remains uncertain. Longitudinal serological studies are needed to prevent disease and transmission of the virus. METHODS: In 2020, 414 blood samples were tested, obtained from 157 confirmed Covid-19 patients, in a prospective cohort study in Shanghai. RESULTS: The seropositive rate of IgM peaked at 40.5% (17/42) within 1 month after illness onset and then declined. The seropositive rate of IgG was 90.6% (58/64) after 2 months, remained above 85% from 2 to 9 months and was 90.9% (40/44) after 9 months. Generalized estimating equations models suggested that IgM (P < 0.001) but not IgG significantly decreased over time. Age ≥ 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.531; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.879-10.932), and cigarette smoking (aOR 0.344; 95% CI 0.124-0.951) were associated with IgG, and age ≥ 40 years (aOR 2.820; 95% CI 1.579-5.036) was associated with IgM. After seroconversion, over 90% and 75.1% of subjects were estimated to remain IgG-positive 220 and 254 days, respectively. Of 1420 self-reported symptoms questionnaires, only 5% reported symptoms 9 months after onset. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a history of natural infection, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG is long-lived, being present for at least 9 months after illness onset. The long duration of natural immunity can mitigate and eliminate Covid-19 and the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin M , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316034

ABSTRACT

In many countries and territories, public hospitals play a major role in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. For public hospital managers, on the one hand, they must best utilize their hospital beds to serve the COVID-19 patients immediately. On the other hand, they need to consider the need of bed resources from non-COVID-19 patients, including emergency and elective patients. In this work, we consider two control mechanisms for public hospital managers to maximize the overall utility of patients. One is the dynamic allocation of bed resources according to the evolution process of the COVID-19 pandemic. The other is the usage of a subsidy scheme to move elective patients from the public to private hospitals. We develop a dynamic programming model to study the allocation of isolation and ordinary beds and the effect of the subsidy policy in serving three types of patients, COVID-19, emergency, and elective-care. We first show that the dynamic allocation between isolation and ordinary beds can provide a better utilization of bed resources, by cutting down at least 33.5\% of the total cost compared with the static policy (i.e., keeping a fixed number of isolation beds) when facing a medium pandemic alert. Our results further show that subsidizing elective patients and referring them to private hospitals is an efficient way to ease the overcrowded situation in public hospitals. Our results demonstrate that, by dynamically conducting bed allocation and subsidy scheme in different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, patient overall utility can be greatly improved.

4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 211: 114632, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665218

ABSTRACT

The incidence of depression has increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. This disease is closely associated with serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and often treated by complex prescription containing Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Therefore, we hypothesized that this herb contains bioactive compounds specially binding to the receptor. However, the rapid discovery of new ligands of 5-HT1A receptor is still challenging due to the lack of efficient screening methods. To address this problem, we developed and characterized a novel approach for the rapid screening of ligands by using immobilized 5-HT1A receptor as the chromatographic stationary phase. Briefly, haloalkane dehalogenase was fused at the C-terminal of 5-HT1A receptor, and the modified 5-HT1A receptor was immobilized on amino-microspheres by the reaction between haloalkane dehalogenase and 6-chlorohexanoic acid linker. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photo-electron were used to characterize the morphology and element of the immobilized receptor. The binding of three specific ligands to 5-HT1A receptor was investigated by two different methods. Moreover, we examined the feasibility of 5-HT1A receptor colume in high throughput screening of new ligands from complex systems as exemplified by Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Gweicurculactone, 2-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxybenzene)-7-(4'-hydroxybezene)-heptane and curcuminol F were identified as the ligands of 5-HT1A receptor with the binding energies of -7.06 kcal/mol, -7.77 kcal/mol and -5.26 kcal/mol, respectively. Collectively, these results indicated that the immobilized 5-HT1A receptor was capable of screening bioactive compound from complex system, providing an effective methodology for high throughput screening.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Curcuma/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Ligands , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A
5.
Displays ; 72: 102148, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597394

ABSTRACT

In their continuing battle against the COVID-19 pandemic, medical workers in hospitals worldwide need to wear safety glasses and goggles to protect their eyes from the possible transmission of the virus. However, they work for long hours and need to wear a mask and other personal protective equipment, which causes their protective eye wear to fog up. This fogging up of eye wear, in turn, has a substantial impact in the speed and accuracy of reading information on the interface of electrocardiogram (ECG) machines. To gain a better understanding of the extent of the impact, this study experimentally simulates the fogging of protective goggles when viewing the interface with three variables: the degree of fogging of the goggles, brightness of the screen, and color of the font of the cardiovascular readings. This experimental study on the target recognition of digital font is carried out by simulating the interface of an ECG machine and readability of the ECG machine with fogged eye wear. The experimental results indicate that the fogging of the lenses has a significant impact on the recognition speed and the degree of fogging has a significant correlation with the font color and brightness of the screen. With a reduction in screen brightness, its influence on recognition speed shows a v-shaped trend, and the response time is the shortest when the screen brightness is 150 cd/m2. When eyewear is fogged, yellow and green font colors allow a quicker response with a higher accuracy. On the whole, the subjects show a better performance with the use of green font, but there are inconsistencies. In terms of the interaction among the three variables, the same results are also found and the same conclusion can be made accordingly. This research study can act as a reference for the interface design of medical equipment in events where medical staff wear protective eyewear for a long period of time.

6.
Int J Prod Econ ; 243: 108320, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446711

ABSTRACT

In many countries and territories, public hospitals play a major role in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. For public hospital managers, on the one hand, they must best utilize their hospital beds to serve the COVID-19 patients immediately. On the other hand, they need to consider the need of bed resources from non-COVID-19 patients, including emergency and elective patients. In this work, we consider two control mechanisms for public hospital managers to maximize the overall utility of patients. One is the dynamic allocation of bed resources according to the evolution process of the COVID-19 pandemic. The other is the usage of a subsidy scheme to move elective patients from the public to private hospitals. We develop a dynamic programming model to study the allocation of isolation and ordinary beds and the effect of the subsidy policy in serving three types of patients, COVID-19, emergency, and elective-care. We first show that the dynamic allocation between isolation and ordinary beds can provide a better utilization of bed resources, by cutting down at least 33.5% of the total cost compared with the static policy (i.e., keeping a fixed number of isolation beds) when facing a medium pandemic alert. Our results further show that subsidizing elective patients and referring them to private hospitals is an efficient way to ease the overcrowded situation in public hospitals. Our results demonstrate that, by dynamically conducting bed allocation and subsidy scheme in different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, patient overall utility can be greatly improved.

7.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(7):653-658, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1436123

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the infection status of human coronavirus (HCoV) in acute respiratory infection cases in Shanghai, and provide scientific basis for prevention and control of human infection with coronavirus. Methods A total of 3 531 samples were collected through acute respiratory infection surveillance in Shanghai from 2015 to 2019, and multiplex PCR technology was used to detect common respiratory viruses. Results In the 3 531 samples, the virus detection rate was 39.73% (1 403/3 531). The detection rate of HCoV was 3.14% (111/3 531), ranking 3rd after the detection rates of influenza virus and rhinovirus/enteric virus. The spread subtypes were mainly HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63. Different subtypes of HCoV spread alternately in the population every year. The incidence of co-infection was as high as 36.93% (41/111), and the proportion of co-infection in severe cases was high. Conclusion HCoV is an important pathogen of acute respiratory tract infection in Shanghai. It is necessary to strengthen the etiological surveillance in acute respiratory tract infection cases, especially the co-infection of HCoV and other pathogens.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 641138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344315

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has led to long periods of social isolation for individuals across the world. Although medical students generally have a high prevalence of mental health problems, they have received less attention than other groups concerning the impact of SARS-COV-2. Therefore, the present study investigated the mental health status, risk factors, and protective factors for mental health problems in medical students in North China during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. Methods: A WeChat-based survey, which included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and measures of social demographics, was performed twice. Risk and protective factors were identified by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 702 effective questionnaires were collected in two separate surveys. In total, 24.55% of medical students were suffering anxiety to different degrees of severity, 13.18% were suffering depression in the first survey, and 3.71% wanted to give up working in primary medical care during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic in the second survey. In contrast, during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic, a risk factor for anxiety and depression was gender which is male, while being knowledgeable about the SARS-COV-2 pandemic and having a lower academic burden were both protective factors. Conclusions: Measures are required to prevent increases in mental health problems in medical students. Our findings suggest that increasing knowledge about the SARS-COV-2 pandemic and reducing academic burden in medical students is extremely important during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic.

9.
Air Qual Atmos Health ; 14(8): 1175-1188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169030

ABSTRACT

Emergency response mechanisms were activated throughout China during the COVID-19 outbreak. It is different from the temporary, partial, and limited pollution control measures taken to ensure the regional environmental quality during several important events such as the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). During the COVID-19 epidemic period, extensive movement of people and almost all unnecessary industrial production (necessary industrial production refers to the production of food, epidemic prevention materials, etc.) have been severely restricted, so transportation and industrial production have been greatly reduced. This is a rare extreme emission reduction scenario that presents a unique opportunity for atmospheric research. In this study, based on hourly mass concentration data of NO2 and SO2 from atmospheric monitoring sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the COVID-19 epidemic period, the changes in transportation and industrial production in the region, data statistics, and spatial analysis were used to analyze the pollution changes and their causes. The results indicate that the NO2 and SO2 concentrations in the BTH region decreased significantly during the epidemic period. The spatial distribution pattern of NO2 pollution in the BTH region was "high in the southeast and low in the northwest," and SO2 pollution in the BTH region was high in the southern and eastern parts of Hebei. The initiation of emergency response level 1 had an obvious effect on reducing NO2 and SO2 pollution in the region, while the impact of emergency response level 2 and below was limited. Compared with the single traffic control, the comprehensive control, similar to the emergency response, had a better effect on reducing NO2 pollution in the region. The control of major large cities in the region also had a certain effect on alleviating NO2 and SO2 pollution in the entire region. Moreover, for activities under short-term control, it is particularly important to guard against the "retaliatory growth" after the control is lifted. By reducing and controlling some polluting industries in industrial production, the degree of NO2 and SO2 pollution in the region can be effectively reduced. The manufacturing industry of chemical raw materials and the chemical products and non-metallic mineral products industry made a great contribution to the change in industrial source pollution emissions in the BTH region during the COVID-19 epidemic. Road traffic emissions remained an important source of NO2 emissions in the BTH region during this period. NO2 emission reduction can be effectively achieved by controlling road traffic and transportation.

10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(3): 1205-1214, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119645

ABSTRACT

A series of strict control measures were imposed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in early 2020 to control the spread of COVID-19. These measures have led to a reduction of anthropogenic air pollutants, providing an opportunity to observe the contribution of human activities to local air pollution. In this study, the control period was divided into four stages:the before, early, middle, and later stages. Based on a variety of data including meteorological, traffic, and industrial manufacturing datasets, statistical methods were combined with spatial analysis to evaluate changes in air pollution and associated human impacts during each stage. In addition, suggestions are made for further regional air pollution control in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. Key results are as follows:① Overall, the AQI and the concentrations of six air pollutants, especially SO2, PM10, and NO2, were lower during control period than during the equivalent period in 2019 (reductions of 26.5%, 24.3%, and 16.9%, respectively). From the before to later stages, pollutants (except O3) showed a downward trend while O3 increased significantly during the before stage (by 76.2%) and the growth rate slowed during the middle and later stages; ②During the prior stage, Beijing experienced two periods with heavy air pollution days as a result of the local accumulation of pollutants, secondary transformation, and regional transport. The concentration of PM2.5 in February was nearly 60% lower than in February 2014 under similar meteorological conditions in Beijing; ③ Following an increase in traffic volume and industrial activity, changes in air pollutants tended to be stable or slightly increase during the middle and later stages of the control period. The grey relation coefficients between thermal radiation intensity anomalies and the main pollutants in heavy industrial cities were greater than 0.6, which means that the control of industrial emissions remains key to controlling air pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , China , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 595109, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013337

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has aroused global attention. Studies show the link between obesity and severe outcome of influenza and COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to compare the impacts of obesity on the severity and mortality of influenza and COVID-19 by performing a meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science from January 2009 to July 2020. The protocol was registered onto PROSPERO (CRD42020201461). After selection, 46 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. We found obesity was a risk factor for the severity and mortality of influenza (ORsevere outcome = 1.56, CI: 1.28-1.90; ORmortality = 1.99, CI: 1.15-3.46). For COVID-19, obesity was a significant risk factor only for severe outcome (OR = 2.07, CI: 1.53-2.81) but not for mortality (OR = 1.57, CI: 0.85-2.90). Compared with obesity, morbid obesity was linked with a higher risk for the severity and mortality of both influenza (OR = 1.40, CI: 1.10-1.79) and COVID-19 (OR = 3.76, CI: 2.67-5.28). Thus, obesity should be recommended as a risk factor for the prognosis assessment of COVID-19. Special monitoring and earlier treatment should be implemented in patients with obesity and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Obesity/mortality , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Front Psychol ; 11: 582436, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971101

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 outbreak, many citizens were asked to stay at home in self-quarantine, which can pose a significant challenge with respect to remaining physically active and maintaining mental health. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate physical activity, anxiety, and depression and to explore the relationship of physical activity with anxiety and depression symptoms among Chinese college students during quarantine. METHOD: Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 1,396 Chinese college students. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. The data on physical activity were collected by types of physical activity and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, about 52.3% of Chinese college students had inadequate physical activity. The rates of anxiety and depression symptoms were 31.0 and 41.8%, respectively. A high level of physical activity (ß = -0.121, P < 0.001) was significantly closely associated with low anxiety, while a moderate (ß = -0.095, P = 0.001), or high (ß = -0.179, P < 0.001) level of physical activity was significantly closely associated with reduced depression after adjusting confounding demographic factors. Moreover, specific types of physical activity, such as stretching and resistance training, were negatively correlated with both anxiety and depression; doing household chores was negatively correlated with depression. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight specific levels and types of home-based physical activities that need to be taken into consideration to protect the mental health of college students during the COVID-19 epidemic.

13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(8): 1443-1454, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647644

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia have different clinical characteristics and prognoses than those without significantly abnormal glucose metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 166 COVID-19 patients at Tongji Hospital (Wuhan) from 8 February to 21 March 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes (as of 4 April 2020) were compared among control (group 1), secondary hyperglycaemia (group 2: no diabetes history, fasting plasma glucose levels of ≥7.0 mmol/L once and HbA1c values <6.5%) and patients with diabetes (group 3). RESULTS: Compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 had higher rates of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia and levels of hypersensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin and d-dimer (P < .05 for all). Group 2 patients had higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, prevalence of liver dysfunction and increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) than those in group 1, and a higher prevalence of increased IL-8 was found in group 2 than in group 3 (P < .05 for all). The proportions of critical patients in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher compared with group 1 (38.1%, 32.8% vs. 9.5%, P < .05 for both). Groups 2 and 3 had significantly longer hospital stays than group 1, which was nearly 1 week longer. The composite outcomes risks were 5.47 (1.56-19.82) and 2.61 (0.86-7.88) times greater in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycaemia in both diabetes and secondary hyperglycaemia patients with COVID-19 may indicate poor prognoses. There were differences between patients with secondary hyperglycaemia and those with diabetes. We recommend that clinicians pay more attention to the blood glucose status of COVID-19 patients, even those not diagnosed with diabetes before admission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Hyperglycemia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 909-914, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-21003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After its first occurrence in Wuhan of China from December 2019, COVID-19 rapidly spread around the world. According to the World Health Organization statement on 13 March 2020, there had been over 132 500 confirmed cases globally. Nevertheless, the case reports of children are rare, which results in the lack of evidence for preventing and controlling of children's infection. Here, we report three cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected children diagnosed from 3 February to 17 February 2020 in Tianjin, China. All of these three cases experienced mild illness and recovered soon after the treatment, with the nucleic acid of throat swab turning negative within 14, 11, and 7 days after diagnosis, respectively. However, after been discharged, all three cases were tested SARS-CoV-2 positive in the stool samples within 10 days, in spite of their remained negative nucleic acid in throat swab specimens. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for children cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Child , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feces/virology , Humans , Interferons/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(2): 275-280, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13587

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has occurred unexpectedly and emerged as a health problem worldwide. Despite the rapidly increasing number of cases in subsequent weeks, the clinical characteristics of pediatric cases are rarely described. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 10 hospitals across Hubei province. A total of 25 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19 were collected. The demographic data, epidemiological history, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological data, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 25 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the boy to girl ratio was 1.27:1. The median age was 3 years. COVID-19 cases in children aged <3 years, 3.6 years, and ≥6-years patients were 10 (40%), 6 (24%), and 9 (36%), respectively. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (13 [52%]), and dry cough (11 [44%]). Chest CT images showed essential normal in 8 cases (33.3%), unilateral involvement of lungs in 5 cases (20.8%), and bilateral involvement in 11 cases (45.8%). Clinical diagnoses included upper respiratory tract infection (n=8), mild pneumonia (n=15), and critical cases (n=2). Two critical cases (8%) were given invasive mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin. The symptoms in 24 (96%) of 25 patients were alleviated and one patient had been discharged. It was concluded that children were susceptible to COVID-19 like adults, while the clinical presentations and outcomes were more favorable in children. However, children less than 3 years old accounted for majority cases and critical cases lied in this age group, which demanded extra attentions during home caring and hospitalization treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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