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1.
EBioMedicine ; 82: 104138, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines against COVID-19 are needed to overcome challenges associated with mitigating the global pandemic. We report the safety and immunogenicity of V590, a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-part phase 1 study, healthy adults were randomised to receive a single intramuscular dose of vaccine or placebo. In Part 1, younger (18-54 years) and, in Part 2, older (≥55 years) adults seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid received one of four V590 dose levels (5.00 × 105; 2.40 × 106; 1.15 × 107; or 5.55 × 107 plaque-forming units [pfu]) or placebo. In Part 3, a single V590 dose level (5.55 × 107 pfu) or placebo was administered to younger SARS-CoV-2 seropositive adults. Primary endpoints included adverse events (AEs) and for Parts 1 and 2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum neutralising antibody responses measured by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation (PRNT50) assay at Day 28. Registration NCT04569786 [P001-02]. FINDINGS: 232 participants were randomised and 219 completed the study. In seronegative participants, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibody responses to V590 were low and comparable to placebo across the lower dose levels. At the highest dose level (5.55 × 107 pfu), anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific PRNT50 was 2.3-fold higher than placebo. The most frequently reported AEs were injection-site pain (38.4%), headache (15.1%) and fatigue (13.4%). INTERPRETATION: V590 was generally well-tolerated. However, Day 28 anti-SARS-Cov-2 spike-specific antibody responses in seronegative participants following a single intramuscular administration of V590 were not sufficient to warrant continued development. FUNDING: The study was funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(5): 871-876, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437063

ABSTRACT

In the last few months, an unprecedented number of laboratory tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been developed at a remarkable speed. With the rapid adoption of these tests into clinical practice, combined with the widespread publicity they received, questions arose related to the different types of tests, their utility, performance, and regulatory approval status. The aim of this publication is to provide a general landscape of laboratory testing for COVID-19 and offer a historical and regulatory perspective associated with them. Specifically, we aim to elaborate on the regulatory complexities of diagnostic testing in the United States and its implications to the present outbreak, as well as provide a synopsis of laboratory tests that have been developed for COVID-19. We will first address the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 directly by either nucleic acid amplification tests or by the detection of the viral protein for active infections. Subsequently, we will provide an overview of serological tests that can aid not only in diagnosis but additionally help to identify prior infections and potential immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Services/legislation & jurisprudence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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