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2.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783818

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination is an important preventive measure against the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to examine the willingness to vaccination and influencing factors among college students in China. Methods From March 18 to April 26, 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among college students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The survey was composed of the sociodemographic information, psychological status, experience during pandemic, the willingness of vaccination and related information. Students’ attitudes towards vaccination was classified as ‘vaccine acceptance’, ‘vaccine hesitancy’, and ‘vaccine resistance’. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the influencing factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Results Among 23,143 students who completed the survey, a total of 22,660 participants were included in the final analysis with an effective rate of 97.9% after excluding invalid questionnaires. A total of 60.6% of participants would be willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine, 33.4% were hesitant to vaccination, and 6.0% were resistant to vaccination. Social media platforms and government agencies were the main sources of information vaccination. Worry about the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccine were the top two common reason of vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis identified that participants who worried about the adverse effects of vaccination were more likely to be vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 2.30, 2.58) and resistance (aOR = 2.71, 95% CI = 2.4, 3.05). Conclusion More than half of college students are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, whereas nearly one-third college students are still hesitant or resistant. It is crucial to provide sufficient and scientific information on the efficacy and safety of vaccine through social media and government agencies platforms to promote vaccine progress against COVID-19 and control the pandemic in China.

3.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 836862, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775720

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Computer-aided diagnostic methods were used to compare the characteristics of the Original COVID-19 and its Delta Variant. Methods: This was a retrospective study. A deep learning segmentation model was applied to segment lungs and infections in CT. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction was used to create 3D models of the patient's lungs and infections. A stereoscopic segmentation method was proposed, which can subdivide the 3D lung into five lobes and 18 segments. An expert-based CT scoring system was improved and artificial intelligence was used to automatically score instead of visual score. Non-linear regression and quantitative analysis were used to analyze the dynamic changes in the percentages of infection (POI). Results: The POI in the five lung lobes of all patients were calculated and converted into CT scores. The CT scores of Original COVID-19 patients and Delta Variant patients since the onset of initial symptoms were fitted over time, respectively. The peak was found to occur on day 11 in Original COVID-19 patients and on day 15 in Delta Variant patients. The time course of lung changes in CT of Delta Variant patients was redetermined as early stage (0-3 days), progressive and peak stage (4-16 days), and absorption stage (17-42 days). The first RT-PCR negative time in Original COVID-19 patients appeared earlier than in Delta Variant patients (22 [17-30] vs. 39 [31-44], p < 0.001). Delta Variant patients had more re-detectable positive RT-PCR test results than Original COVID-19 patients after the first negative RT-PCR time (30.5% vs. 17.1%). In the early stage, CT scores in the right lower lobe were significantly different (Delta Variant vs. Original COVID-19, 0.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.3 ± 0.6, p = 0.039). In the absorption stage, CT scores of the right middle lobes were significantly different (Delta Variant vs. Original COVID-19, 0.6 ± 0.7 vs. 0.3 ± 0.4, p = 0.012). The left and the right lower lobes contributed most to lung involvement at any given time. Conclusion: Compared with the Original COVID-19, the Delta Variant has a longer lung change duration, more re-detectable positive RT-PCR test results, different locations of pneumonia, and more lesions in the early stage, and the peak of infection occurred later.

5.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2156-2156, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751384
9.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2097-2097, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751327
11.
Sustainability ; 14(4):2124, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715684

ABSTRACT

To alleviate the problems of traffic congestion, excessive energy consumption, and the environmental pollution caused by private cars, it is essential to use public transportation (PT). However, passengers making multiple trips in a short time period must repeatedly make travel mode choices, purchase tickets, and wait for buses for each trip, which may negatively affect their preference for PT. In order to improve the attractiveness of PT, especially for passengers requiring multiple trips in a short time period, this paper proposes the one e-ticket customized bus service mode for passengers with multiple trips (OECBSM-PMT) by customized buses (CBs). Besides, a CB-routing optimization model for the OECBSM-PMT is also developed in this paper, formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming based on a vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows (VRPPDTW). The model aims to maximize the profit and minimize the costs of operation with considering passengers with multi-trip requests, homogeneous CB fleets with pickup/delivery-time-window constraints, and mixed loads. A service effectiveness identification procedure based on genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to cope with the calculation considering the characteristics of passengers with multiple trips. Finally, the proposed model and algorithm are verified and analyzed using the case of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games. It can be found from the results that the method can provide an optimized CB route plan and timetable, and the algorithm GA-I obtains better solutions than other solving strategies in most instances. The proposed OECBSM-PMT and corresponding optimized method can better adapt to diverse travel demands, significantly improve the convenience for passengers, especially those making multiple trips in a short time period and will eventually promote a higher level of public transport service.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328713

ABSTRACT

The development of appropriate mathematical models and realistic assessments of public health intervention strategies are of great significance to effectively combat the COVID-19 epidemic. In this paper, a novel COVID-19 epidemic model is devised based on the epidemiological states of the individuals and intervention strategies. Some dynamic behaviors of the model, such as forward and backward bifurcation, are analyzed. Specifically, we calibrate the model parameter values using actual COVID-19 data in Brazil by Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm such that we can study the effects of interventions on a practical case. Sensitivity analysis shows that non-pharmaceutical interventions are more effective than pharmaceutical interventions in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, and the interventions, namely home isolation, face-mask wearing and media publicity, can effectively reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Based on the new epidemic model, we formulate an optimal control model for studying the control of COVID-19 and then present a cost-effectiveness analysis to unravel the cost and effectiveness of the combination of intervention strategies. The results show that, when taking both the economic cost and the control effectiveness into account, strategy 7 appears to be preferred in inhibiting the COVID-19 outbreak, followed by strategy 5 and strategy 4. By assessing the consequences of these interventions in the real case, we obtain the effective non-pharmaceutical interventions that provide some management implications of controlling COVID-19.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325263

ABSTRACT

Assessment of replicability is critical to ensure the quality and rigor of scientific research. In this paper, we discuss inference and modeling principles for replicability assessment. Targeting distinct application scenarios, we propose two types of Bayesian model criticism approaches to identify potentially irreproducible results in scientific experiments. They are motivated by established Bayesian prior and posterior predictive model-checking procedures and generalize many existing replicability assessment methods. Finally, we discuss the statistical properties of the proposed replicability assessment approaches and illustrate their usages by simulations and examples of real data analysis, including the data from the Reproducibility Project: Psychology and a systematic review of impacts of pre-existing cardiovascular disease on COVID-19 outcomes.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325261

ABSTRACT

Background: Reduction of solid organ transplant (SOT) became notable while limited data are available regarding its resumption during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.Methods: Based on the SOT and COVID-19 diagnosis data collected from open-access official organizations, we studied the trend changes of SOT in the U.S.A. since the COVID-19 outbreak, and made the validation using the U.K. dataset. Trend curves were divided into virus-free, restrictive, and/or recovery phases. Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed to assess the differences among those phases with significance set at adjusted P < 0.05 (two-sided).Findings: In a 30-week (January 5 to August 1, 2020) observing period for the U.S.A. dataset, there was an obvious association between the trends of SOT and COVID-19 diagnosis (both overall and death cases) in the 10-week restrictive phase;significant reduction of overall SOTs per day were found in the restrictive phase (median 78.0, IQR 64.6-91.4) compared with the virus-free phase (median 115.0, IQR 97.5-132.5;P < 0.001);The most affected organ transplants were kidney (35.5% reduction) and lung (35.4% reduction), and the most affected U.S. region was Northeast (62.2% reduction). Resumption occurred with no significant difference found between the comparison of recovery (median 118.5, IQR 99.3-137.8) versus virus-free phases (P = 1.000) in overall SOTs per day, as well as those stratified by donor type (deceased and living), organ, and region. The SOT reduction and resumption were validated by the U.K. dataset.Interpretation: Using the U.S.A. and U.K. datasets, our study thoroughly presented the reduction and resumption patterns of SOT during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential that transplant units, based on the gained experience, make adequate preparations for any further possible COVID-19 attack.Funding Statement: This study received no external funding.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Exemptions of ethics approval, institutional review board, and informed consent were granted as data used in this study were publicly available.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324211

ABSTRACT

Objective: The observational study was intended to explore the weight changes and risk factors of weight gain during the self-quarantine and find available methods to lose weight. Method: This was an online retrospective observational study investigating the weight changes before and after home confinement. A total of 530 participants completed the online questionnaire. diet, sleep, self-reported depression, disease history and exercise information possibly relating to weight changes were incorporated into the questionnaire. The differences among four groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity) in BMI change and weight change were compared, and the risk factors of weight gain was also analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Participants were mostly between 21-50 years old, getting an average weight change of 0.82±3.31kg, and an average BMI change of 0.35 [-0.37, 1.00]. 43.77% of them gained weight by 2.99±2.29kg averagely. People with normal weight were easier to gain weight than obese group (p=0.001). There were differences in food intake (p<0.001), eating habits(p<0.001), taste preference (p=0.047), daily exercise step change(p=0.007), exercise (p=0.02) between non-weight gain group and weight gain group. The multiple linear regression revealed that weight gains were associated with sex (p=0.002), food intake (p=0.004), current daily exercise step (p=0.009) and self-reported depression (p=0.002) and weight loss was related to food intake (p=0.004) and pre-BMI (p=0.001). Conclusion: Eating irregularly, increasing food intake, self-reported depression and decreased daily steps were risk factors of weight gain, yet weight loss was related to decreased food intake and pre-BMI.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323671

ABSTRACT

Background: Existing literatures demonstrated that meteorological factors could be of importance in affecting the spread patterns of the respiratory infectious diseases. However, how ambient temperature may influence the transmissibility of COVID-19 remains unclear. Objectives: We explore the association between ambient temperature and transmissibility of COVID-19 in different regions across China. Methods: : The surveillance data on COVID-19 and meteorological factors were collected from 28 provincial level regions in China, and estimated the instantaneous reproductive number ( R t ). The generalized additive model was used to assess the relationship between mean temperature and R t . Results: : There were 12745 COVID-19 cases collected in the study areas. We report the effect of temperature on R t is not of statistical significance, which holds for most of included regions except for those in North China. Conclusions: We found little statistical evidence for that the higher temperature may reduce the transmissibility of COVID-19.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323003

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, most countries implemented physical distancing measures. Many mental health experts warned that through increasing social isolation and anxiety, these measures could negatively affect psychosocial wellbeing. However, socially aligning with others by adhering to these measures may also be beneficial for wellbeing. Methods: We examined these two contrasting hypotheses using cross-national survey data (N= 6675) collected fortnightly from participants in 115 countries over 3 months at the beginning of the pandemic. In addition to providing demographic data, participants completed a standardised wellbeing scale, and reported how much they, and others in their social circle and country, were adhering to the distancing measures. Results: We found that being a woman, having lower educational attainment, living alone and being vulnerable to Covid-19 were risk factors for poorer wellbeing. Being young (18-25) was also associated with lower wellbeing, but longitudinal analyses showed that young participants’ wellbeing improved over 3 months. In contrast to widespread views that physical distancing measures negatively affect wellbeing, results showed that following these guidelines was positively associated with wellbeing, even for people in demographic risk groups or those highly vulnerable to Covid-19. Conclusions: These findings provide an important counterpart to the idea that pandemic containment measures such as physical distancing negatively impacted wellbeing unequivocally. Despite the overall burden of the pandemic on psychosocial wellbeing, social alignment with others can still contribute to positive wellbeing. The pandemic has manifested our propensity to adapt to challenges, particularly highlighting how social alignment can forge resilience.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323002

ABSTRACT

Why do we adopt new rules, such as social distancing? Although human sciences research stresses the key role of social influence in behaviour change, most COVID-19 campaigns emphasise the disease’s medical threat. In a global dataset (n= 6675), we investigated how social influences predict people’s adherence to distancing rules during the pandemic. Bayesian regression analyses controlling for stringency of local measures showed that people distanced most when they thought their close social circle did. Such social influence mattered more than people thinking distancing was the right thing to do. People’s adherence also aligned with their fellow citizens’, but only if they felt deeply bonded with their country. Self-vulnerability to the disease predicted distancing more for people with larger social circles. Collective efficacy and collectivism also significantly predicted distancing. To achieve behavioural change during crises, policymakers must emphasise shared values and harness the social influence of close friends and family.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322209

ABSTRACT

How essential is trust in science to prevent the spread of COVID-19? Previous work shows that people who trust in science are more likely to comply with official guidelines, which suggests that higher levels of compliance could be achieved by improving trust in science. However, analysis of a global dataset (n=4341) suggests otherwise. Trust in science had a small, indirect effect on adherence to the rules. It affected adherence only insofar as it predicted people's approval of prevention measures such as social distancing. Trust in science also mediated the relationship between political ideology and approval of the measures (more conservative people trusted science less and in turn approved of the measures less). These effects varied across countries, and were especially different in the USA. Overall, these results mean that any increase in trust in science is unlikely to yield strong immediate improvements in following COVID-19 rules. Nonetheless, given its relationships with both ideology and individuals' attitudes to the measures, trust in science may be leveraged to yield longer-term and more sustained social benefits.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317890

ABSTRACT

With restrictions on opportunities for face to face (FtF) interactions, Covid-19 lockdowns test the promises of digitally mediated communication (DMC) to foster social contact and wellbeing. In a multinational sample (n= 6436), we investigated how different modes of contact relate to wellbeing during a global pandemic. DMC was more popular than FtF and Covid-19 death rates played a bigger role in DMC use than state stringency measures. FtF contact was positively associated and messaging negatively associated with wellbeing. FtF was especially positive for people who did not perceive any loved ones in their household as vulnerable to the disease, yet did not vary with people’s perception of their own vulnerability. The results suggest that, in the face of the pandemic, men and women of all ages relied on DMC over FtF contact. Despite tangible costs to wellbeing, during the pandemic, people endeavoured to be physically distanced but not socially isolated.

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