Objective To explore the sociodemographic and psychological factors influencing the continuity of treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease under the regular epidemic prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods A total of 277 patients with chronic kidney disease who were admitted to Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University) from Apr. 2020 to Mar. 2021 were enrolled and divided into 3 groups: non-dialysis group (n=102), hemodialysis (HD) group (n=108), and peritoneal dialysis (PD) group (n=67). All patients were investigated by online and offline questionnaires, including self-designed basic situation questionnaire, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and self-rating depression scale (SDS). The general sociodemographic data, anxiety and depression of the 3 groups were compared, and the influence of sociodemographic and psychological factors on the interruption or delay of treatment was analyzed by binary logistic regression model. Results There were significant differences in age distribution, marital status, occupation, medical insurance type, caregiver type, whether there was an urgent need for hospitalization and whether treatment was delayed or interrupted among the 3 groups (all P<0.05). The average SAS score of 65 PD patients was 38.15+/-15.83, including 53 (81.5%) patients without anxiety, 7 (10.8%) patients with mild anxiety, and 5 (7.7%) patients with moderate to severe anxiety. The average SAS score of 104 patients in the HD group was 36.86+/-14.03, including 81 (77.9%) patients without anxiety, 18 (17.3%) patients with mild anxiety, and 5 (4.8%) patients with moderate to severe anxiety. There were no significant differences in the mean score of SAS or anxiety severity grading between the 2 groups (both P>0.05). The mean SDS scores of 65 PD patients were 53.42+/-13.30, including 22 (33.8%) patients without depression, 21 (32.3%) patients with mild depression, and 22 (33.8%) patients with moderate to severe depression. The mean SDS scores of 104 patients in the HD group were 50.79+/-10.76, including 36 (34.6%) patients without depression, 56 (53.8%) patients with mild depression, and 12 (11.6%) patients with moderate to severe depression. There were no significant differences in mean SDS scores or depression severity grading between the 2 groups (both P>0.05). The results of intra-group comparison showed that the incidence and severity of depression were higher than those of anxiety in both groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that high school education level (odds ratio [OR]=5.618, 95% confidence interval [CI]) 2.136-14.776, P<0.01), and unmarried (OR=6.916, 95% CI 1.441-33.185, P=0.016), divorced (OR= 5.588, 95% CI 1.442-21.664, P=0.013), urgent need for hospitalization (OR=8.655, 95% CI 3.847-19.476, P<0.01) could positively promote the continuity of treatment in maintenance dialysis patients under the regular epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19. In the non-dialysis group, no sociodemographic and psychological factors were found to be associated with the interruption or delay of treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion Education, marital status, and urgent need for hospitalization are correlated with the continuity of treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease on maintenance dialysis.Copyright © 2022, Second Military Medical University Press. All rights reserved.