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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114237, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778012

ABSTRACT

Kinetics measurements of antigen-antibody binding interactions are critical to understanding the functional efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Previously reported chaotrope-based avidity assays that rely on artificial disruption of binding do not reflect the natural binding kinetics. This study developed a chaotrope- and label-free biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay for the real-time monitoring of receptor binding domain (RBD) binding kinetics with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in convalescent COVID-19 patients. An improved conjugation biosensor probe coated with streptavidin-polysaccharide (SA-PS) led to a six-fold increase of signal intensities and two-fold reduction of non-specific binding (NSB) compared to streptavidin only probe. Furthermore, by utilizing a separate reference probe and biotin-human serum albumin (B-HSA) blocking process to subtracted NSB signal in serum, this BLI biosensor can measure a wide range of the dissociation rate constant (koff), which can be measured without knowledge of the specific antibody concentrations. The clinical utility of this improved BLI kinetics assay was demonstrated by analyzing the koff values in sera of 24 pediatric (≤18 years old) and 63 adult (>18 years old) COVID-19 convalescent patients. Lower koff values for SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies binding to RBD were measured in samples from children. This rapid, easy to operate and chaotrope-free BLI assay is suitable for clinical use and can be readily adapted to characterize SARS-CoV-2 antibodies developed by COVID-19 patients and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunologic Techniques , Interferometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Streptavidin
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311326

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence has shown that Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity is driven by a dysregulated immunologic response. We aimed to assess the differences in inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to contemporaneously hospitalized controls and then analyze the relationship between these cytokines and the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and mortality. In this cohort study of hospitalized patients, done between March third, 2020 and April first, 2020 at a quaternary referral center in New York City we included adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and negative controls. Serum specimens were obtained on the first, second, and third hospital day and cytokines were measured by Luminex. Autopsies of nine cohort patients were examined. We identified 90 COVID-19 patients and 51 controls. Analysis of 48 inflammatory cytokines revealed upregulation of macrophage induced chemokines, T-cell related interleukines and stromal cell producing cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to the controls. Moreover, distinctive cytokine signatures predicted the development of ARDS, AKI and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Specifically, macrophage-associated cytokines predicted ARDS , T cell immunity related cytokines predicted AKI and mortality was was associated with cytokines of activated immune pathways, of which IL-13 was universally correlated with ARDS, AKI and mortality. Histopathological examination of the autopsies showed diffuse alveolar damage with significant mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. Additionally, the kidneys demonstrated glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial lymphocyte infiltration and cortical and medullary atrophy. These patterns of cytokine expression offer insight into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease, its severity, and subsequent lung and kidney injury suggesting more targeted treatment strategies.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327567

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by systemic inflammation and can result in protracted symptoms. Robust systemic inflammation may trigger persistent changes in hematopoietic cells and innate immune memory through epigenetic mechanisms. We reveal that rare circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), enriched from human blood, match the diversity of HSPC in bone marrow, enabling investigation of hematopoiesis and HSPC epigenomics. Following COVID-19, HSPC retain epigenomic alterations that are conveyed, through differentiation, to progeny innate immune cells. Epigenomic changes vary with disease severity, persist for months to a year, and are associated with increased myeloid cell differentiation and inflammatory or antiviral programs. Epigenetic reprogramming of HSPC may underly altered immune function following infection and be broadly relevant, especially for millions of COVID-19 survivors.

5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327197

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to serious complications from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, have been shown to have excellent clinical efficacy in immunocompetent adults, but diminished activity in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we measured anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody response, avidity, and surrogate neutralizing antibody activity in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody was present in 89% of AML and 88% of MDS patients, but median antibody levels for were lower than in healthy controls (p=0.001 and p=0.04, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 antibody avidity and neutralizing antibody activity from AML patients were significantly lower than controls (p=0.028 and p=0.002, respectively). There was a trend toward higher anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels after mRNA-1273 vaccination. Antibody avidity was greater in patients after mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2 (p=0.01) and there was a trend toward greater neutralizing antibody activity after mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2 vaccination.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 373-380, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and umbilical cord blood anti-spike immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels at delivery with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination before and during pregnancy and to assess the association of prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a vaccine booster dose with anti-spike maternal and umbilical cord IgG levels. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with self-reported COVID-19 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson/Janssen), including a booster dose, during or before pregnancy, who delivered at 34 weeks of gestation or more. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples at delivery were analyzed for semi-quantitative anti-spike IgG. We examined the association between timing of maternal vaccination and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike levels using a rank sum test. The relationships between a prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike IgG levels, and between a booster dose and maternal and umbilical cord anti-spike levels, were also evaluated using a rank sum test. RESULTS: We included data from 1,359 vaccinated pregnant women, including 20 women who received a booster dose, and 1,362 umbilical cord samples. Maternal anti-spike IgG levels were detectable at delivery regardless of timing of vaccination throughout pregnancy among fully vaccinated women; however, early third-trimester vaccination was associated with the highest anti-spike IgG levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Among women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal and cord blood antibody response achieved with vaccination in early pregnancy was comparable with third-trimester vaccination in pregnant women without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A booster dose in the third trimester was associated with maternal anti-spike IgG levels greater than third-trimester vaccination in women with or without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. DISCUSSION: Vaccination against COVID-19 before and throughout pregnancy was associated with detectable maternal anti-spike IgG levels at delivery. A complete vaccination course, prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a third-trimester booster dose were associated with the highest maternal and umbilical cord antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296284

ABSTRACT

Over one year after its inception, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains difficult to control despite the availability of several excellent vaccines. Progress in controlling the pandemic is slowed by the emergence of variants that appear to be more transmissible and more resistant to antibodies 1,2 . Here we report on a cohort of 63 COVID-19-convalescent individuals assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after infection, 41% of whom also received mRNA vaccines 3,4 . In the absence of vaccination antibody reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing activity and the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remain relatively stable from 6 to 12 months. Vaccination increases all components of the humoral response, and as expected, results in serum neutralizing activities against variants of concern that are comparable to or greater than neutralizing activity against the original Wuhan Hu-1 achieved by vaccination of naïve individuals 2,5-8 . The mechanism underlying these broad-based responses involves ongoing antibody somatic mutation, memory B cell clonal turnover, and development of monoclonal antibodies that are exceptionally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations, including those found in variants of concern 4,9 . In addition, B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand dramatically after vaccination. The data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting and that convalescent individuals who receive available mRNA vaccines will produce antibodies and memory B cells that should be protective against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.

10.
JCI Insight ; 6(20)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484165

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine antibody response under real-world conditions. This longitudinal study investigated the quantity and quality of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in 846 specimens from 350 patients, comparing BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals (19 previously diagnosed with COVID-19, termed RecoVax; and 49 never diagnosed, termed NaiveVax) with 122 hospitalized unvaccinated (HospNoVax) and 160 outpatient unvaccinated (OutPtNoVax) COVID-19 patients. NaiveVax experienced delay in generating SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies (TAb) and surrogate neutralizing antibodies (SNAb) after the first vaccine dose (D1) but rapid increase in antibody levels after the second dose (D2). However, these never reached RecoVax's robust levels. In fact, NaiveVax TAb and SNAb levels decreased 4 weeks after D2. For the most part, RecoVax TAb persisted, after reaching maximal levels 2 weeks after D2, but SNAb decreased significantly about 6 months after D1. Although NaiveVax avidity lagged behind that of RecoVax for most of the follow-up periods, NaiveVax did reach similar avidity by about 6 months after D1. These data suggest that 1 vaccine dose elicits maximal antibody response in RecoVax and may be sufficient. Also, despite decreasing levels in TAb and SNAb over time, long-term avidity may be a measure worth evaluating and possibly correlating to vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
JCI Insight ; 6(20)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403153

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine antibody response under real-world conditions. This longitudinal study investigated the quantity and quality of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in 846 specimens from 350 patients, comparing BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals (19 previously diagnosed with COVID-19, termed RecoVax; and 49 never diagnosed, termed NaiveVax) with 122 hospitalized unvaccinated (HospNoVax) and 160 outpatient unvaccinated (OutPtNoVax) COVID-19 patients. NaiveVax experienced delay in generating SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies (TAb) and surrogate neutralizing antibodies (SNAb) after the first vaccine dose (D1) but rapid increase in antibody levels after the second dose (D2). However, these never reached RecoVax's robust levels. In fact, NaiveVax TAb and SNAb levels decreased 4 weeks after D2. For the most part, RecoVax TAb persisted, after reaching maximal levels 2 weeks after D2, but SNAb decreased significantly about 6 months after D1. Although NaiveVax avidity lagged behind that of RecoVax for most of the follow-up periods, NaiveVax did reach similar avidity by about 6 months after D1. These data suggest that 1 vaccine dose elicits maximal antibody response in RecoVax and may be sufficient. Also, despite decreasing levels in TAb and SNAb over time, long-term avidity may be a measure worth evaluating and possibly correlating to vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Pathog Immun ; 6(1): 116-134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389907

ABSTRACT

The approved Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines are well known to induce serum antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S)-protein. However, their abilities to elicit mucosal immune responses have not been reported. Saliva antibodies represent mucosal responses that may be relevant to how mRNA vaccines prevent oral and nasal SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Here, we describe the outcome of a cross-sectional study on a healthcare worker cohort (WELCOME-NYPH), in which we assessed whether IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies to the S-protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) were present in serum and saliva samples. Anti-S-protein IgG was detected in 14/31 and 66/66 of saliva samples from uninfected participants after vaccine doses-1 and -2, respectively. IgA antibodies to the S-protein were present in 40/66 saliva samples after dose 2. Anti-S-protein IgG was present in every serum sample from recipients of 2 vaccine doses. Vaccine-induced antibodies against the RBD were also frequently present in saliva and sera. These findings may help our understanding of whether and how vaccines may impede SARS-CoV-2 transmission, including to oral cavity target cells.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12606, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270673

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence has shown that Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity is driven by a dysregulated immunologic response. We aimed to assess the differences in inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to contemporaneously hospitalized controls and then analyze the relationship between these cytokines and the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and mortality. In this cohort study of hospitalized patients, done between March third, 2020 and April first, 2020 at a quaternary referral center in New York City we included adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and negative controls. Serum specimens were obtained on the first, second, and third hospital day and cytokines were measured by Luminex. Autopsies of nine cohort patients were examined. We identified 90 COVID-19 patients and 51 controls. Analysis of 48 inflammatory cytokines revealed upregulation of macrophage induced chemokines, T-cell related interleukines and stromal cell producing cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to the controls. Moreover, distinctive cytokine signatures predicted the development of ARDS, AKI and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Specifically, macrophage-associated cytokines predicted ARDS, T cell immunity related cytokines predicted AKI and mortality was associated with cytokines of activated immune pathways, of which IL-13 was universally correlated with ARDS, AKI and mortality. Histopathological examination of the autopsies showed diffuse alveolar damage with significant mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. Additionally, the kidneys demonstrated glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial lymphocyte infiltration and cortical and medullary atrophy. These patterns of cytokine expression offer insight into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease, its severity, and subsequent lung and kidney injury suggesting more targeted treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Nature ; 595(7867): 426-431, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267998

ABSTRACT

More than one year after its inception, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains difficult to control despite the availability of several working vaccines. Progress in controlling the pandemic is slowed by the emergence of variants that appear to be more transmissible and more resistant to antibodies1,2. Here we report on a cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 41% of whom also received mRNA vaccines3,4. In the absence of vaccination, antibody reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing activity and the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remain relatively stable between 6 and 12 months after infection. Vaccination increases all components of the humoral response and, as expected, results in serum neutralizing activities against variants of concern similar to or greater than the neutralizing activity against the original Wuhan Hu-1 strain achieved by vaccination of naive individuals2,5-8. The mechanism underlying these broad-based responses involves ongoing antibody somatic mutation, memory B cell clonal turnover and development of monoclonal antibodies that are exceptionally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations, including those found in the variants of concern4,9. In addition, B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand markedly after vaccination. The data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting and that convalescent individuals who receive available mRNA vaccines will produce antibodies and memory B cells that should be protective against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
17.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 198, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223772

ABSTRACT

The mortality rate of critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is 30.9% to 46.1%. The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has become a global issue with raising dire concerns. Patients with severe Covid-19 may progress toward ARDS. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord, adipose tissue and so on. The easy accessibility and low immunogenicity enable MSCs for allogeneic administration, and thus they were widely used in animal and clinical studies. Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cell infusion can ameliorate ARDS. However, the underlying mechanisms of MSCs need to be discussed. Recent studies showed MSCs can modulate immune/inflammatory cells, attenuate endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inhibit pulmonary fibrosis. The paracrine cytokines and exosomes may account for these beneficial effects. In this review, we summarize the therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs in ARDS, analyzed the most recent animal experiments and Covid-19 clinical trial results, discussed the adverse effects and prospects in the recent studies, and highlight the potential roles of MSC therapy for Covid-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Chem ; 67(9): 1249-1258, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low initial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody titers dropping to undetectable levels within months after infection have raised concerns about long-term immunity. Both the antibody levels and the avidity of the antibody-antigen interaction should be examined to understand the quality of the antibody response. METHODS: A testing-on-a-probe "plus" panel (TOP-Plus) was developed to include a newly developed avidity assay built into the previously described SARS-CoV-2 TOP assays that measured total antibody (TAb), surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb), IgM, and IgG on a versatile biosensor platform. TAb and SNAb levels were compared with avidity in previously infected individuals at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in paired samples from 80 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sera from individuals vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were also evaluated for antibody avidity. RESULTS: The newly designed avidity assay in this TOP panel correlated well with a reference Bio-Layer Interferometry avidity assay (r = 0.88). The imprecision of the TOP avidity assay was <10%. Although TAb and neutralization activity (by SNAb) decreased between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection, the antibody avidity increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Antibody avidity in 10 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated individuals (median: 28 days after vaccination) was comparable to the measured antibody avidity in infected individuals (median: 26 days after infection). CONCLUSIONS: This highly precise and versatile TOP-Plus panel with the ability to measure SARS-CoV-2 TAb, SNAb, IgG, and IgM antibody levels and avidity of individual sera on one sensor can become a valuable asset in monitoring not only patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 but also the status of individuals' COVID-19 vaccination response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Affinity/physiology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Interferometry , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Young Adult
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2025-e2034, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Mod Pathol ; 34(8): 1456-1467, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164812

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe and disproportionately affected New York City between March and May 2020. Here, we report on the first 100 COVID-19-positive autopsies performed at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Autopsies revealed large pulmonary emboli in six cases. Diffuse alveolar damage was present in over 90% of cases. We also report microthrombi in multiple organ systems including the brain, as well as hemophagocytosis. We additionally provide electron microscopic evidence of the presence of the virus in our samples. Laboratory results of our COVID-19 cohort disclose elevated inflammatory markers, abnormal coagulation values, and elevated cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. Our autopsy series of COVID-19-positive patients reveals that this disease, often conceptualized as a primarily respiratory viral illness, has widespread effects in the body including hypercoagulability, a hyperinflammatory state, and endothelial dysfunction. Targeting of these multisystemic pathways could lead to new treatment avenues as well as combination therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Cytokines/blood , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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