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1.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(5): 100274, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996623

ABSTRACT

Strategy evaluation and optimization in response to troubling urban issues has become a challenging issue due to increasing social uncertainty, unreliable predictions, and poor decision-making. To address this problem, we propose a universal computational experiment framework with a fine-grained artificial society that is integrated with data-based models. The purpose of the framework is to evaluate the consequences of various combinations of strategies geared towards reaching a Pareto optimum with regards to efficacy versus costs. As an example, by modeling coronavirus 2019 mitigation, we show that Pareto frontier nations could achieve better economic growth and more effective epidemic control through the analysis of real-world data. Our work suggests that a nation's intervention strategy could be optimized based on the measures adopted by Pareto frontier nations through large-scale computational experiments. Our solution has been validated for epidemic control, and it can be generalized to other urban issues as well.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 799736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817972

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has caused millions of deaths and greatly influenced the timely diagnosis and treatment of other diseases. Throughout the pandemic, there was a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of several sexually transmitted infections. However, the impact of the ongoing pandemic on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates has not been investigated thus far. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively collected data regarding HPV and cervical cancer screening results of outpatients from gynecological clinics of a tertiary hospital from 1 December 2018 to 31 December 2020 in Wuhan. Based on the timeline of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Wuhan, we divided this period into four relatively independent stages to compare the HPV screening visit numbers and infection rates. Results: There was a 50% drop in HPV screening visits and a 10% drop in HPV infection rates throughout the pandemic when compared with the numbers collected before the pandemic. Strict lockdown measures greatly decreased the HPV infection rate (17.03 vs. 8.29, P = 0.003). During the pandemic, the most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16, 52, 58, and 53. After the pandemic, the HPV infection rate recovered quickly, but it was still slightly lower than the infection rate found before the outbreak (23.3 vs. 21.2%). Conclusion: During coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cervical cancer screening visits and HPV infection rates have decreased dramatically. The HPV transmission has also decreased after strict lockdown. Effective HPV and cervical cancer screening programs should be strengthened immediately to reduce the transmission of HPV during and after the pandemic.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325267

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the battle against COVID-19, most medical resources in China have been directed to infected patients in Wuhan. Thus, patients with hepatobiliary pancreatic tumors who are not suffering from COVID-19 are often not given timely and effective anti-cancer treatments. In this study, we aimed to describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology from our department, which retained normal working during the COVID-19 epidemic. We also sought to formulate a set of standardized hospitalization and treatment processes. Methods: : A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted involving patients hospitalized from February 1, 2020, to February 29, 2020 (Return to work after the Spring Festival), at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology. Results: : The study included 92 patients from 12 provinces in the north of China who underwent surgical resection at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology during the COVID-19 epidemic. Robotic surgery was performed on 82% (75/92) of patients, while the rest underwent laparoscopic (2/92) and open surgery (15/92). Eighty-six patients had malignant tumor, and six had emergency benign diseases. Only five patients had severe pancreatic fistula, and three had biliary fistula after operation. Conclusions: : The standardized hospitalization and treatment processes described in this study could prevent cross-infection of patients and still ensure timely treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers. These study findings will guide the management of surgical oncology departments and treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology during serious epidemics.

4.
Environ Res ; 207: 112161, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies (CAs) are the leading causes for children's disabilities and mortalities worldwide. The associations between air pollution and CAs are not fully characterized in fetuses born by in vitro fertilization (IVF) who are at high risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 16,971 IVF cycles from three hospitals in Hebei Province, China, 2014-2019. Air quality data was obtained from 149 air monitoring stations. Individual average daily concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 were estimated by spatiotemporal kriging method. Exposure windows were divided into 5: preantral follicle period, antral follicle period, germinal period, embryonic period and early fetal period. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the associations between air pollutants and overall or organ-system specific congenital anomalies. Negative control exposure method was used to detect and reduce bias of estimation. RESULTS: We found increasing levels of PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher risk of overall congenital anomalies during early fetal period, equating gestation 10-12 weeks (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.013 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5; OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.021 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10). Cleft lip and cleft palate were associated with PM10 in germinal period and early fetal period. The CAs of eye, ear, face and neck were related to CO in preantral follicle stage. We did not find an association between chromosome abnormalities and air pollution exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that ambient air pollution was a risk factor for congenital anomalies in the fetuses conceived through IVF, especially exposure in early fetal period.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Parturition , Pregnancy
5.
Biosci Trends ; 14(3): 227-230, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116215

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, is now generating a global epidemic, leading to a severe public health emergency. Until April 12, 2020 around 1,700,954 confirmed cases and 105,633 deaths have been reported all over the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Under this circumstance, surgical activities should be carefully evaluated to avoid excessive occupation of limited medical resources, and to reduce the possibility of hospital infection. China has achieved an inspiring achievement on epidemic control. Here, we reviewed available studies on surgical activities during the outbreak, in combination with our current experience, with the aim of providing feasible suggestions on surgical issues during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Betacoronavirus , Blood Safety , COVID-19 , Elective Surgical Procedures , Emergency Treatment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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