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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2207474, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316532

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a cost-effective medical intervention. Inactivated whole virusor large protein fragments-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have high unnecessary antigenic load to induce allergenicity and/orreactogenicity, which can be avoided by peptide vaccines of short peptide fragments that may induce highly targeted immune response. However, epitope identification and peptide delivery remain the major obstacles in developing peptide vaccines. Here, a multi-source data integrated linear B-cell epitope screening strategy is presented and a linear B-cell epitope enriched hotspot region is identified in Spike protein, from which a monomeric peptide vaccine (Epitope25) is developed and applied to subcutaneously immunize wildtype BALB/c mice. Indirect ELISA assay reveals specific and dose-dependent binding between Epitope25 and serum IgG antibodies from immunized mice. The neutralizing activity of sera from vaccinated mice is validated by pseudo and live SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain neutralization assays. Then a dissolvable microneedle array (DMNA) is developed to pain-freely deliver Epitope25. Compared with intramuscular injection, DMNA and subcutaneous injection elicit neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain as demonstrated by live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay. No obvious damages are found in major organs of immunized mice. This study may lay the foundation for developing linear B-cell epitope-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 234: 123635, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246765

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infections, such as coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza, cause significant morbidity and mortality and have become a worldwide public health concern with tremendous economic and societal burdens. Vaccination is a major strategy for preventing infections. However, some new vaccines have an unmet need for impairing responses in certain individuals, especially COVID-19 vaccines, despite ongoing vaccine and adjuvant research. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), a bioactive polysaccharide extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus as an immune adjuvant to regulate the efficacy of influenza split vaccine (ISV) and recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-Cov-2 vaccine in mice. Our data indicated that APS as an adjuvant can facilitate the induction of high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer and specific antibody immunoglobulin G (IgG) and confer protection against the lethal challenge of influenza A viruses, including increased survival and amelioration of weight loss in mice immunized with the ISV. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that the NF-κB and Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis signaling pathways are essential for the immune response of mice immunized with the recombinant SARS-Cov-2 vaccine (RSV). Another important finding was that bidirectional immunomodulation of APS on cellular and humoral immunity was observed, and APS-adjuvant-induced antibodies persisted at a high level for at least 20 weeks. These findings suggest that APS is a potent adjuvant for influenza and COVID-19 vaccines, and has the advantages of bidirectional immunoregulation and persistent immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Animals , Mice , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Immunity, Humoral , Polysaccharides/pharmacology
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022737

ABSTRACT

Although tremendous effort has been exerted to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 cases, the detailed mechanism of moderate cases, which accounts for 90% of all patients, remains unclear yet, partly limited by lacking the biopsy tissues. Here, we established the COVID-19 infection model in cynomolgus macaques (CMs), monitored the clinical and pathological features, and analyzed underlying pathogenic mechanisms at early infection stage by performing proteomic and metabolomic profiling of lung tissues and sera samples from COVID-19 CMs models. Our data demonstrated that innate immune response, neutrophile and platelet activation were mainly dysregulated in COVID-19 CMs. The symptom of neutrophilia, lymphopenia and massive "cytokines storm", main features of severe COVID-19 patients, were greatly weakened in most of the challenged CMs, which are more semblable as moderate patients. Thus, COVID-19 model in CMs is rational to understand the pathogenesis of moderate COVID-19 and may be a candidate model to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Proteomics
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958481

ABSTRACT

Although tremendous effort has been exerted to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 cases, the detailed mechanism of moderate cases, which accounts for 90% of all patients, remains unclear yet, partly limited by lacking the biopsy tissues. Here, we established the COVID-19 infection model in cynomolgus macaques (CMs), monitored the clinical and pathological features, and analyzed underlying pathogenic mechanisms at early infection stage by performing proteomic and metabolomic profiling of lung tissues and sera samples from COVID-19 CMs models. Our data demonstrated that innate immune response, neutrophile and platelet activation were mainly dysregulated in COVID-19 CMs. The symptom of neutrophilia, lymphopenia and massive “cytokines storm”, main features of severe COVID-19 patients, were greatly weakened in most of the challenged CMs, which are more semblable as moderate patients. Thus, COVID-19 model in CMs is rational to understand the pathogenesis of moderate COVID-19 and may be a candidate model to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 283, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957563

ABSTRACT

In face of the everlasting battle toward COVID-19 and the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2, no specific and effective drugs for treating this disease have been reported until today. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, mediates the virus infection by binding to spike protein. Although ACE2 is expressed in the lung, kidney, and intestine, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. Considering the great infectivity of COVID-19, we speculate that SARS-CoV-2 may depend on other routes to facilitate its infection. Here, we first discover an interaction between host cell receptor CD147 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The loss of CD147 or blocking CD147 in Vero E6 and BEAS-2B cell lines by anti-CD147 antibody, Meplazumab, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Expression of human CD147 allows virus entry into non-susceptible BHK-21 cells, which can be neutralized by CD147 extracellular fragment. Viral loads are detectable in the lungs of human CD147 (hCD147) mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, but not in those of virus-infected wild type mice. Interestingly, virions are observed in lymphocytes of lung tissue from a COVID-19 patient. Human T cells with a property of ACE2 natural deficiency can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in a dose-dependent manner, which is specifically inhibited by Meplazumab. Furthermore, CD147 mediates virus entering host cells by endocytosis. Together, our study reveals a novel virus entry route, CD147-spike protein, which provides an important target for developing specific and effective drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Basigin/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Pandemics , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
7.
Science ; 369(6511): 1603-1607, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690532

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In particular, the N501Y mutation is located at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. The protective efficacy of a recombinant RBD vaccine candidate was validated by using this model. Thus, this mouse-adapted strain and associated challenge model should be of value in evaluating vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virulence/genetics
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