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Front Pediatr ; 9: 750012, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566657


Background: There is little direct or indirect evidence of the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy on early childhood development. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 1 to October 31, 2020, that enrolled 135 mother-infant dyads: 57 dyads in the infection cohort and 78 in the non-infection cohort. Among all infants, 14.0% were preterm birth in the infection cohort and 6.4% in the non-infection cohort. Participants were followed by telephone interviews to collect demographic characteristics, medical records of coronavirus disease 2019, breastfeeding data, and early childhood development was assessed by the Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ-3) and Age and Stage Questionnaire Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE-2) Chinese versions at 3 months after childbirth. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable linear regression models and a mediation model were used to test the direct and indirect associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ASQ-3 score. This study was approved by the Peking University Third Hospital Medical Science Research Ethics Committee (No. IRB00006761-M2020127). Results: In the infection cohort, 13.6% of the children showed social-emotional developmental delay, and 13.5% showed overall developmental delay. The corresponding rates in the non-infection cohort were 23.4 and 8.1%. Compared with the non-infection cohort, SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy did not increase the risk of social-emotional (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.51-1.49) or overall (RR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.60-1.73) developmental delay. The mediation model showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection indirectly affected the ASQ-3 score by increasing the length of mother-infant separation. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 during late pregnancy did not increase the risk of developmental delay of the offspring 3 months after delivery. However, SARS-CoV-2 may have indirect effects on early childhood development by increasing mother-infant separation.

Tourism Management ; : 104261, 2020.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-922146


COVID-19 has generated an unprecedented level of public fear, likely impeding tourism industry recovery after the pandemic is over. This study explores what trigger the public’s pandemic ‘travel fear’ and how people impose self-protection, coping and resilience related to travel. The study integrates theories including protection motivation theory, coping and resilience theories to address the research aim. Using a quota sampling, an online survey of 1208 respondents across mainland China was conducted. Results found that threat severity and susceptibility can cause ‘travel fear’, which leads to protection motivation and protective travel behaviors after the pandemic outbreak. Findings also revealed that ‘travel fear’ can evoke different coping strategies, which increases people’s psychological resilience and adoption of cautious travel behaviors. Several strategies are provided on how to mitigate people’s ‘travel fear’ and encourage travel in a post-COVID-19 world.

BMC Med ; 18(1): 347, 2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910201


BACKGROUND: Evidence concerning the long-term impact of Covid-19 in pregnancy on mother's psychological disorder and infant's developmental delay is unknown. METHODS: This study is a longitudinal single-arm cohort study conducted in China between May 1 and July 31, 2020. Seventy-two pregnant patients with Covid-19 participated in follow-up surveys until 3 months after giving birth (57 cases) or having abortion (15 cases). We collected data from medical records regarding Covid-19, delivery or abortion, testing results of maternal and neonatal specimens, and questionnaires of quarantine, mother-baby separation, feeding, and measuring of mothers' mental disorders and infants' neurobehavioral disorders. RESULTS: All cases infected in the first trimester and 1/3 of cases infected in the second trimester had an abortion to terminate the pregnancy. 22.2% of pregnant patients were suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder or depression at 3 months after delivery or induced abortion. Among 57 live births, only one neonate was positive of nucleic acid testing for throat swab, but negative in repeated tests subsequently. The median duration of mother-baby separation was 35 days (interquartile range 16 to 52 days). After the termination of maternal quarantine, 49.1% of mothers chose to prolong the mother-baby separation (median 8 days; IQR 5 to 23 days). The breastfeeding rate was 8.8% at 1 week after birth, 19.3% at the age of 1 month, and 36.8% at the age of 3 months, respectively. The proportion of "monitoring" and "risk" in the social-emotional developmental domain at the age of 3 months was 22.7% and 63.6%, respectively. After the adjustment of preterm, neonatal sex, admitted to NICU, and the mother's Covid-19 condition, the negative associations were significantly identified (p < 0.05) between mother-baby separation days and three developmental domains: communication, gross motor, and personal-social. CONCLUSIONS: There is no definite evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to control infection risk, researchers and healthcare providers should pay more attention to maternal mental health and infant's feeding, closeness with parents, and early development.

Betacoronavirus , Child Development , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Infant Behavior/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , Child Development/physiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior/physiology , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires